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Abdolreza Rokneddin Eftekhari, Samira Mahmoodi, Gholamreza Ghaffari, Mahdi Pourtaheri,
Volume 4, Issue 11 (5-2015)

Social capital is being considered as way to achieve sustainable rural development as far asthe development experts are concerned. It is argued that social capital make the achievement of sustainable development possible taking into consideration provided opportunities and major societies constants at different levels including micro and macro level. In other word, social capital not only affects development process but also it is affected by as well. It is argued that social capital as a very important theoretical tool is capable of investigating the role of social variables regarding sustainable rural development. Lack of sufficient attention to rural settlers as social capital is a major challenge as far as sustainable rural development is concerned. This in turn could facilitate planning trend regarding rural sustainability through participation of rural settlers. Based on the relevant studies attention to social capital could enhance the achievement of sustainable rural development. Moreover, the relationship between social capital and level of rural development could well be justified by space economy and spatial dimension. Explanation of the phenomena and the spatial organization are affected by interaction of space and activities. Spatial dimension could exemplify itself in social processes and relationships. In effect, function of space is affected by space, time and social and economic mechanisms. As such this study aims to find out the relationship between social capital and rural development. It further tries to come up with social capital pattern.
Research method:
This study deals with analytical-descriptive research method based on both qualitative andquantitative methods. Sampling technique was random stratified sample. Based on physical location, distance, and number of households, six villages were selected from each class. Altogether, 18 villages were selected in the study area. Statistical society is composed of two groups that are local rural settlers (host community) and local authorities. Based on KMO test, social capital viability turned out to be 0:71. Moreover, Cronbach’s alpha coefficients used for evaluation of social capital in corresponding villages turned out to be 0.89. Social capital measures were selected through application of critical analysis over previous studies. In second phase, primary yardsticks and measures were screened in order to identify the prime social capital yardsticks with regard to sustainable development. Topsis technique was used for determination of social capital regarding level of development in sample villages.
Discussion and concluding:
Nowadays social capital is being considered as the most important development capital. As such, social capital with its spatial dimension is being known as a comprehensive strategy for achievement of social sustainability within sustainable development approach. It is because that the major objective of sustainable rural development based on social capital approach is promoting quality of life of local people, empowerment, capability formation, increase participation level as well as self-reliance, expanding rural communication network both in and outside of the villages and institutional development. This study suggests that there exist a relationship between social capital and level of rural development in the study area. It means that 63.5 percent of variation regarding level of development of the villages is explained by social capital. The magnitude of I index for determination of the corresponding spatial pattern based on social capital turned out to be 0.41. This figure compared with E (I) which is 0.03165 indicates that spatial pattern correspond with social capital of the studied villages incline toward multi pattern (concentrated and clustered). The highlight of this paper is first the endogenous nature of social capital and second confirmation of the past studies in this regard. Spatial pattern associated with social capital indicates that villages located in the center and in the proximity of large cities including Mashhad, Nishabur possess lower level of social capital. Heading toward the boundary of the province, the rate of rural social capital will increase.

Samira Mahmoodi, Abdolreza Rokneddine Eftekhari, Gholamreza Ghaffari, Mahdi Pourtaheri,
Volume 4, Issue 14 (2-2016)

Common development capitals such as financial (economic) capitals, human capital, physical capital, environmental capital and social capital are considered as key elements in analyzing the potentials of development for people, organizations, societies and even governments. By presenting the concept of social capital, planning strategies are formed by cooperative, communicative and interactional planning along with an approach to people's participation and according to sustainable development framework which concentrate on some indicators such as assessment of social capital, sustainability, flexibility and participation; considering a relative advantage, every district and settlement had freedom of action in putting sustainable development policies into practice in this type of planning. From an international development perspective, social capital has a special position as a part of movement toward development using a "bottom-up" design. Regarding this, the amount of relations and impacts of different types of capitals are studied because of the great importance of different types of capitals especially social capital in rural development. The most important questions in this study are as follow:
"What is the relation between different types of capital (economic capital, human capital, environmental, and physical capital) with social capital?" and "How do different types of capitals impact on social capital?”
This study is conducted by a geographical approach, and a descriptive-analytic method which is based on qualitative and quantitative research method. For determining the sample population size out of 1162 villages with more than 20 households in Khorasan Razavi province, 67 villages were in accordance with all the criteria in table 2. Since these villages are homogenous in three levels, 18 villages (6 villages in each level) from 14 counties were categorized randomly in GIS environment and were chosen by Hawths Analysis Tools. Statistical population encompasses of two grouping including local people of the village and local officials (council members and municipal official). To evaluate the validity and stability of questionnaire, SPSS software has been used. According to this method, by using KMO Test, validity of determinative indicators of social capital, economic capital, human capital, physical capital and environmental capital are 0.071, 0.72, 0.58, 0.64 and 0.57 respectively and for the whole questionnaire, this number is 0.68. According to the results of construct validity test, Cronbach's Alfa coefficient which is obtained from the designed questionnaire for evaluating different types of development capitals in the studied villages is equal to 0.89, therefore, the validity of the questionnaire is confirmed.
Discussion and Conclusion
Today, one of the challenges that rural development face to, is neglecting social capital; recognition of social capital leads to facilitating the process of rural development planning for experts in this field and also it is followed by rural inhabitants' contribution for better implementation of the plans. Regarding to theories and studies in this field, it can be said that different types of development capitals are interrelated and interchangeable. In pursuing development issues especially sustainable rural development, social capital is extremely focused in recent decades. Since many researchers and experts believe that social capital is subordinate to other capitals, this study aims to evaluate the impacts of different types of capitals including economic capital, human capital, environmental capital and physical capital on social capital in rural districts and also it aims to determine their relationships. Results showed a meaningful relation between economic capital, human capital and social capital and a lack of meaningful statistical relation between environmental and physical capital and social capital in studied villages. Moreover, according to the results, coefficient of determination (R2) for economic capital is 0.0906 and coefficient of determination for human capital is 0.176 and these two indicators had the most impact on social capital respectively. In other words, economic capital determines 90.6 % of social capital rate and human capital determines 17.6% of social capital rate in studied villages.

Morteza Mokhtari, Moammadreza Ghaedi Far, Roholla Mirmahmoodi, Amir Mousaei, Somayeh Naghavi, Hamid Bideshki, Ahmad Ali Sadeghi,
Volume 12, Issue 43 (Spring 2023 2023)

Quantitative and qualitative improvement of the agricultural sector can increase production productivity, increase farmers' income and create a link between agricultural and non-agricultural poverty reduction programs. Solving or reducing problems and bottlenecks and managing challenges within this sector is necessary. The livestock industry is one of the main sectors of food production needed by humans. Among the various food items produced in the agricultural sector, protein items are essential. On the other hand, in addition to the production of protein foods, this industry plays a significant role in creating employment and providing new job opportunities through the completion of the food production and supply chain. It is impossible to fulfill this vital mission without identifying the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of animal husbandry units and livestock breeders and formulating appropriate strategies to provide management solutions considering the limited resources in each region. The agricultural extension system is one of the main tools for developing the agricultural sector and empowering farmers. Educational and promotional programs are the primary means of realizing agricultural development goals and empowering livestock farmers. This research was carried out to follow the pattern of livestock farmers in livestock promotion training in the southern cities of Kerman.

The research method is descriptive, analytical, and based on quantitative and qualitative methods. The statistical population in this research included livestock breeders in the southern rural areas of Kerman Province, with approximately 250 units that had active livestock units in 2019. Cluster sampling was used to collect to avoid wasting time and saving financial resources. It should be noted that 100 animal husbandry units were selected from the sample farmers participating in training and promotion courses. After completing and collecting the questionnaires, statistical analysis was performed using the software Stata 12 software was used. Also, the generalized ordinal logit model was used to investigate the factors affecting the benefit of the farmers from educational and extension courses. When using the ordinal logit model, the coefficients are interpreted rather than directly interpreting the results. If the coefficient is positive, it means that the probability of being placed in one category increases while the probability of being placed in another category decreases. For this purpose, the interpretation of marginal effects should be used.
The ordinal logit model is based on a continuous latent variable, which is shown as follows:
yi*=βXi+εi                     -∞<yi*<∞           (1)
Suppose the variable yi is considered discrete and observable, representing different levels of livestock farmers' benefit. The relationship between the unobservable variable yi* and the observable variable yi is obtained from the ordinal logit model.
yi=1                        if          -∞< yi*<μ1    i=1,2,…,n

yi=2                        if          μ1< yi*<μ2    i=1,2,…,n
yi=3                        if          μ2< yi*<μ3    i=1,2,…,n
…..                             ….             …….                     ……
yi=n                       if          μt-1< yi*<∞    i=1,2,…,n            

Discussion and conclusion
According to the findings, several factors such as age, education level, satisfaction with sales and marketing strategies, attitude towards extension experts, primary occupation, and cost of animal feed significantly impact the advantages livestock breeders gain from attending educational and extension programs. Providing educational and promotional courses in different areas is a practical and effective method to enhance the knowledge and skills of villagers. These courses can greatly improve productivity and quality of life if they are conducted under favorable conditions and cater to participants' actual needs. This can also optimize the functioning of all agents within the extension education system. Therefore, the necessary arrangements should be considered for livestock farmers to access the facilities and inputs needed to apply and use promotional recommendations. Based on the information obtained in the present research, it can be concluded that due to the relatively high average age of livestock farmers in the south of Kerman province and considering the usefulness of participating in educational-promotional courses, regular holding of these courses with more emphasis on familiarity with veterinary procedures and livestock diseases, familiarity with food ingredients and animal nutrition management mainly, as well as familiarity with the marketing and sale of livestock products, livestock breeding, and the design of animal husbandry buildings and facilities to a lesser extent. The agenda of the deputy of the Livestock Production Improvement Organization should be placed in the south of Kerman Province. The effectiveness of educational and promotional programs and user satisfaction relies on the proper functioning of various components within the system. These include timely and accurate use of educational aids, relevant content that meets users' needs, and program planning that aligns with existing resources and user living conditions. In this regard, necessary arrangements should be made for access to the facilities and inputs needed for the livestock farmers of the south Kerman region to benefit from training and promotion courses.

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