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Showing 4 results for Pourtaheri

Medi Pourtaheri, Reza Nemati,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (3-2013)

Thought the world, rural areas tend to represent similar characteristics. Populations are spatially distributed. Agriculture is being considered as
dominant economic sector. However, this sector as well as rural peoples is encountered with some challenges regarding development. In other word, there exists some limitation as far as the resource mobilization is concerned. Sometimes spatial rural population distribution is such in which it may
impose negative impacts with respect to provision of goads and the relevant services and their corresponding costs. Specific economic conditions of rural areas lead to limited opportunities as opposed to non rural areas. However, during recent years, the nature of rural development experiences great changes many of the rural settlers are directly engaged in non agricultural occupations. This in turn, requires keeping an appropriate balance between the provision of rural settlers needs from one hand and the implication of sustainable rural development on the other hand. This paper exemplifies some of these challenges in central part of Khoramabad. The research method is based on qualitative method. It is further supported by filling questionnaires. The sample sage was 300 pirating to 20 villages. This study further applied T student and SPSS software in order to evaluate economic, environmental, and social aspects of these challenges. This paper suggests that there exists significant difference and variation among social, economic and ecological aspects of rural settlements. However, economic challenges are being these considered prominent rural problems. In turn means that economic further have the most priority from the rural settlers view points.

Mehdi Pourtaheri, Nahideh Mohammadi, Abdoreza R.eftekhari,
Volume 3, Issue 9 (11-2014)

Poverty and deprivation are being considered as one of the master problem for the government more specifically for planners in many countries. Deprivation and combating these phenomena are in the center of regional planning. In fact regional balance attainment is being pursued as a mater regional planning target. Achieving this goal demands identification of back ward and deprived regions however the identification of these areas faces some ambiguity. Lack of clear and comprehensive definition of deprivation in general and rural deprivation in particular, leads to over lapping and interfering of poverty, deprivation and underdevelopment concepts. This is associated with lack of an appropriate measure for the assessment of rural deprivation and its process. However, more attention was devoted to objective depravation measure and indices as opposed to subjective ones. This in turn, demands scientific technique. Depravation is highly affected by temporal and spatial dimensions. That is, its corresponding components and elements are different both time and space wise. There exist many methods and a technique regarding the assessment of deprivation at national, regional, rural and urban levels each is associated with specific measures. Thus, designing appropriate measures for assessment of depravation level at different level is inevitable. This study aims to propose a proper definition as well as appropriate corresponding measures and indices for assessing rural depravation. Doing so requires application of five groups of both subjective and objective measures with economic social and environmental dimensions (sustainable approach) at regional level that is village level. This demands the proposition of two following questions associated with corresponding hypothesis: Which indices and measures would be the best fit for assessment of depravation level of Java rood bordered county? Is there any area of the study area as for as the depravation significant difference between rural levels is concerned? Application of both subjective and objective indices and measures is more capable of this kind of assessment. Furthermore, there exists a possibility of difference among rural areas.
This study is based on documentation as well as field works. This is followed by distribution of two types one decomposes indices associated with both subjective and objective measures. Which were determined after getting feedback from social science, economic, sociology, geography and planning experts. After this scientific confirmation, the second and final questionnaires were designed in order to identify different villages based on depravation level. This included both close and open-ended questions regarding housing status send to rural households. After gathering the needed data out of questionnaires and coding them through SPSS, the hypotheses were tested. Moreover, TOPSIS was applied for ranking villages based on their deprivation levels. Through application of the clustering analysis, villages were grouped in to 3 clusters. The finding this study further represented through GIS illustrations. The study area is central section of Javan Rood (Kermanshah) composed of 2 districts and 78 hamlets. Random classified sampling technique led to selection of 10 villages. The application of Cochran formula at 95% confident level at 0.5 probabilities led to 190 sample size. This study is associated with objective and subjective measures and 42 indices dimension which all tested with social, economic and environmental.
Under development and depravation with sustainability approach could be assessed using environmental, economic and social dimensions along with subjective and objective measures and indices. It is argued that subjective measures comparing with the objective ones possess more weight and magnitude regarding depravation level. In as much as having relative prosperity is prerequisite for development thus, assessing depravation level and orienting toward sustainable development as an ultimate goal of planning require application of both subjective and objective measures and indices. It is argued that all research and development plans need application of subjective measures capable of perceiving all real aspect of life. Thus all depravation studied need to consider both type of measures and indices. Since one society may not be deprived in terms of objective measures standpoint. Subjective measures and indices emphasize attitudes. However, objective measures stress realities. Depravation is highly affected by spatial and temporal varied both dimensions and its components and factors time wise and space-wise. Assessment of subjective measures demands application of questionnaire. However objective measures are based on statistic. This study confirms the importance of subjective measures. In addition there exists a significant difference among different villages in terms of depravation level. In rural development process, the promotion and improvement of all rural areas is recommended. However, more attention should be devoted to depravation villages. Achieving sustainable development demands the application of balanced pattern with emphasis upon weaknesses and injustice.

Abdolreza Rokneddin Eftekhari, Samira Mahmoodi, Gholamreza Ghaffari, Mahdi Pourtaheri,
Volume 4, Issue 11 (5-2015)

Social capital is being considered as way to achieve sustainable rural development as far asthe development experts are concerned. It is argued that social capital make the achievement of sustainable development possible taking into consideration provided opportunities and major societies constants at different levels including micro and macro level. In other word, social capital not only affects development process but also it is affected by as well. It is argued that social capital as a very important theoretical tool is capable of investigating the role of social variables regarding sustainable rural development. Lack of sufficient attention to rural settlers as social capital is a major challenge as far as sustainable rural development is concerned. This in turn could facilitate planning trend regarding rural sustainability through participation of rural settlers. Based on the relevant studies attention to social capital could enhance the achievement of sustainable rural development. Moreover, the relationship between social capital and level of rural development could well be justified by space economy and spatial dimension. Explanation of the phenomena and the spatial organization are affected by interaction of space and activities. Spatial dimension could exemplify itself in social processes and relationships. In effect, function of space is affected by space, time and social and economic mechanisms. As such this study aims to find out the relationship between social capital and rural development. It further tries to come up with social capital pattern.
Research method:
This study deals with analytical-descriptive research method based on both qualitative andquantitative methods. Sampling technique was random stratified sample. Based on physical location, distance, and number of households, six villages were selected from each class. Altogether, 18 villages were selected in the study area. Statistical society is composed of two groups that are local rural settlers (host community) and local authorities. Based on KMO test, social capital viability turned out to be 0:71. Moreover, Cronbach’s alpha coefficients used for evaluation of social capital in corresponding villages turned out to be 0.89. Social capital measures were selected through application of critical analysis over previous studies. In second phase, primary yardsticks and measures were screened in order to identify the prime social capital yardsticks with regard to sustainable development. Topsis technique was used for determination of social capital regarding level of development in sample villages.
Discussion and concluding:
Nowadays social capital is being considered as the most important development capital. As such, social capital with its spatial dimension is being known as a comprehensive strategy for achievement of social sustainability within sustainable development approach. It is because that the major objective of sustainable rural development based on social capital approach is promoting quality of life of local people, empowerment, capability formation, increase participation level as well as self-reliance, expanding rural communication network both in and outside of the villages and institutional development. This study suggests that there exist a relationship between social capital and level of rural development in the study area. It means that 63.5 percent of variation regarding level of development of the villages is explained by social capital. The magnitude of I index for determination of the corresponding spatial pattern based on social capital turned out to be 0.41. This figure compared with E (I) which is 0.03165 indicates that spatial pattern correspond with social capital of the studied villages incline toward multi pattern (concentrated and clustered). The highlight of this paper is first the endogenous nature of social capital and second confirmation of the past studies in this regard. Spatial pattern associated with social capital indicates that villages located in the center and in the proximity of large cities including Mashhad, Nishabur possess lower level of social capital. Heading toward the boundary of the province, the rate of rural social capital will increase.

Samira Mahmoodi, Abdolreza Rokneddine Eftekhari, Gholamreza Ghaffari, Mahdi Pourtaheri,
Volume 4, Issue 14 (2-2016)

Common development capitals such as financial (economic) capitals, human capital, physical capital, environmental capital and social capital are considered as key elements in analyzing the potentials of development for people, organizations, societies and even governments. By presenting the concept of social capital, planning strategies are formed by cooperative, communicative and interactional planning along with an approach to people's participation and according to sustainable development framework which concentrate on some indicators such as assessment of social capital, sustainability, flexibility and participation; considering a relative advantage, every district and settlement had freedom of action in putting sustainable development policies into practice in this type of planning. From an international development perspective, social capital has a special position as a part of movement toward development using a "bottom-up" design. Regarding this, the amount of relations and impacts of different types of capitals are studied because of the great importance of different types of capitals especially social capital in rural development. The most important questions in this study are as follow:
"What is the relation between different types of capital (economic capital, human capital, environmental, and physical capital) with social capital?" and "How do different types of capitals impact on social capital?”
This study is conducted by a geographical approach, and a descriptive-analytic method which is based on qualitative and quantitative research method. For determining the sample population size out of 1162 villages with more than 20 households in Khorasan Razavi province, 67 villages were in accordance with all the criteria in table 2. Since these villages are homogenous in three levels, 18 villages (6 villages in each level) from 14 counties were categorized randomly in GIS environment and were chosen by Hawths Analysis Tools. Statistical population encompasses of two grouping including local people of the village and local officials (council members and municipal official). To evaluate the validity and stability of questionnaire, SPSS software has been used. According to this method, by using KMO Test, validity of determinative indicators of social capital, economic capital, human capital, physical capital and environmental capital are 0.071, 0.72, 0.58, 0.64 and 0.57 respectively and for the whole questionnaire, this number is 0.68. According to the results of construct validity test, Cronbach's Alfa coefficient which is obtained from the designed questionnaire for evaluating different types of development capitals in the studied villages is equal to 0.89, therefore, the validity of the questionnaire is confirmed.
Discussion and Conclusion
Today, one of the challenges that rural development face to, is neglecting social capital; recognition of social capital leads to facilitating the process of rural development planning for experts in this field and also it is followed by rural inhabitants' contribution for better implementation of the plans. Regarding to theories and studies in this field, it can be said that different types of development capitals are interrelated and interchangeable. In pursuing development issues especially sustainable rural development, social capital is extremely focused in recent decades. Since many researchers and experts believe that social capital is subordinate to other capitals, this study aims to evaluate the impacts of different types of capitals including economic capital, human capital, environmental capital and physical capital on social capital in rural districts and also it aims to determine their relationships. Results showed a meaningful relation between economic capital, human capital and social capital and a lack of meaningful statistical relation between environmental and physical capital and social capital in studied villages. Moreover, according to the results, coefficient of determination (R2) for economic capital is 0.0906 and coefficient of determination for human capital is 0.176 and these two indicators had the most impact on social capital respectively. In other words, economic capital determines 90.6 % of social capital rate and human capital determines 17.6% of social capital rate in studied villages.

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