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Showing 7 results for Sadeghi

Ali-Akbar Najafi-Kani, Nooshin Sadeghi, Maryam Rahmani,
Volume 2, Issue 5 (12-2013)

With accelerated urban growth during past decades in the country,one could well observed the annexation phenomena. This unplanned and spontaneous annexation paved the way for the development of sputter settlements in the margin and edges of the cities. This study aims to investigate the challenges and barriers that these new borne communities are of Ouzineh and Anjirab encountered with. It plans to evaluate the satisfaction level of the settlers. Regarding the provision of services by Gorgan urban authorities and municipalities. The research method has descriptive - analytical and survey nature which supports documentation as well as field works. This study demands the application of K2, logistic regression,and independent Fiand T test, and SPSS software.It suggests that there exists significant relationship between level of development and social economic and environmental indices. It is further argued that migration and its issuing impacts is being considered as the most prominent barrier and challenges regarding spatial development of urban margined lands. It further supports this fact that in appropriate urban policies regarding development has enhanced the challenges and un-satisfaction level of squatter settlements

Hojatollah Sadeghi, Mahmoud Falsoleyman, Sedigheh Hashemi, Masumeh Fadaee,
Volume 3, Issue 8 (8-2014)

Iran’s border villages are encountering with service deficiencies regarding social, economic and cultural dimensions. However, these entities are facing with foreign propaganda for enlarging border ethnic groups delimits and ignorance of these area’s capabilities and potentials. This in turn, requires more attentions toward bordering village. The major objective of this study is to investigate the limitations as well as potentials and capabilities of bordering villages of Bandan District in Nehbandan. The research method is based on survey technique, field works and documentation. As such using Cochran formula 258 rural households were extracted out of 7577 pertaining to 17 villages of this district. The viability of this questionnaire was determined by Cronbach's alpha (0.71) computation. It is further followed by application of T test, freedman, regression, and one way ANOVA. This study suggests that the economic, social status of these border villages are fairly is critical. This in turn is associated with environmental, management and security issues as well as ignorance of the region’s capabilities. It is argued that security and management variables possess the least averages as opposed to infrastructural indices. Moreover, there exists interrelationship among different indicators. That is improving one would enhance the others.

Mousa Sadeghi, Hossein Rabiei,
Volume 4, Issue 11 (5-2015)

Achievement of rural development as a way to maintain national security and identity requires extra efforts regarding deprivation issue in backward regions and makes them receive their development rights. Economic development paves the way for creation of optimum and thriving life space. It is argued that physical isolation, potential economic and physical incapability, and remoteness from political, economic and decision making focal points enhance their degree of under development and make the corresponding gap even wider. The authors believe that the creation of border markets in rural areas is being considered as one of the strategy regarding spatial economic development in border areas. This could lead to stabilization of population, creation of job opportunities, , reduction of goods smuggling activities, utilization of common resources between neighboring countries, sustainable economic development. It further decreases geopolitics tensions between two countries through increase in goods movement and better utilization of space economy. Golestan province and Gonbad Kuvoos city are located in dry climatic region. This is associated with potential physical and economic incapability namely with respect to agricultural sector. Lack of space economy invites planning. One of the most important plans regarding economic development taking into account its potential situation as well as its border location is development of border markets in which could facilitate the trade between two countries. This in turn would grantee security, employment and higher level of development. This study aims to emphasize spatial development and rural organization with respect to border villages. Taking into account its specific climatic conditions as well as geopolitics challenges resulted from having common border with Torkamanestan, development of border markets could be an appropriate option. They could enhance national security, stabilization of population as well as immigration.
Research Method:
This study has applied nature. Data gathered through documentary approach. After reviewing the relevant literatures and based on finding associated with previous studies conducted by Fajr development consulting engineers and existing information, indices and indicators were selected. This is followed by application of multi criteria decision making technique, TOPSIS, regarding data analysis.
Discussion and Conclusion:
Based on the application of TOPSIS technique and corresponding computation and more specifically measurement of similarity index, Dashli Brun would be an optimum location for creation of border market and considered to be target village. The corresponding indices regarding determination of Dashi Brun as target village are distance to Inche Brun border market, to Eshghabad, to provincial town, to border, concentration index, amenities indices and population growth rate. It is argued that distance to Inche Brun border market could lead to better distribution of economic activities in border region. Moreover, distance from capital of Torkamanestan, Eshghabad, could enhance trade along the border and subsequent economic prosperity in the bordering region. Distance to Golestan center and other populous cities increase both imports and exports activities in border market. Centrality index and population growth rate will lead to provision of needed labor force for border market as well as better population distribution in the region and the province. This in turn will improve rural space economy in pioneer area. In effect, development of Dashli Brun border market will have great impact upon rural economic development income level and other corresponding development indices .Space economy associated with rural area more specifically border regions demand more attention ,interactions and components resulted from government divergence and convergences, border line controls and preventing goods smuggling activities. It is argued that space economy play better role regarding border market. The development of border market could well be justified by the existence of physical and climatic barriers, unpleasant social, economic and entertaining conditions, lack of desire and motivation to leave in the area, political, economic and security challenges in the area This invites planning in order to fully utilize the regional potentials. 

Hojat Allah Sadeghi, Skandar Seidaiy, Shadi Ghobadi, Maryam Salehi Kakhki,
Volume 5, Issue 16 (summer 2016 2016)

One of the necessary principles of rural development is its management. A special approach of development is needed to be planned for every particular area. On the other hand, it is not useful to apply an integrated approach of development by new managing systems. At this point we can clearly understand the important role of institutions and organizations related to the structuralfunctional development of villages. These institutions and organizations have critical roles in different economic, social, cultural, and eco-environmental aspects of a society. Those tasks defined for some of these institutions and organizations are a combination of different aspects or a single task oriented which can affect rural planning and its development. Management aspects of institutions and organizations related to rural development are among the most important factors here. Although, compared to previous years, considerable changes have occurred in rural management systems but they couldn’t cause rural sustainability. In this regard, structuralfunctioning performance of organizations and institutions related to the current status of villages was highly decisive. So, regarding rural position with the great impact of its development on local national progress, it seems necessary to investigate the performance of the institutions and organizations in different economic, social, cultural, eco-environmental, and structural aspects of villages. This research aims at evaluating the performance of institutions and organizations related to rural sustainability to find ways to the regional development of Dehdez district in the County of Izeh.
This is an applied research conducted by descriptive-analytical approach. Required data was collected through document-library and field studies. Data required for field studies were collected through questionnaires. Among all the residential villages of the area which are over 101, a number of 30 villages (25% of all villages) have been randomly selected as questioning samples. Based on Cochran formula 315 households were selected as statistical samples. Sample population has been distributed among 30 villages using the ratio method proportional to population. Finally, data have been collected and analyzed in SPSS and AMOS software. One- sample t test and correlation analysis methods were used in inferential statistics.
Discussion and conclusion
Regional and integrated developments are the consequences of good programming of acceptable performances of rural institutions and organizations. People believe that, compared to the past 30 years, these institutions and organizations have been acted successfully in terms of economic, social, structural, and eco-environmental aspects. Additionally, they have caused positive changes in programming and fighting against poverty. The most remarkable thing in terms of changes happened is the matter of time requirements and factors affecting this field of study. In other words, in every period of time the existing factors and facilities have influenced on the performance of related organizations and institutions. Another important point is that in spite of spatial inequalities in the provision of services and facilities to the rural areas, relative satisfaction with the performance of such institution and organizations is still visible.
Although the performance of these organizations has been acceptable in four different aspects, their weaknesses cannot be ignored. In fact, if these organizations could make changes in rural development, they couldn’t cause rural sustainability and unsustainability is still continuing there. It can be said that even after the establishment and extra interfering of institutions in rural management, not only have not these human settlements become sustainable, but also several economic, social, and eco-environmental changes have been imposed on them.
Therefore, in spite of the fact that this research is intending to show the effectiveness of rural institutions on the improvement of rural position, it should be mentioned that it is a moderate impact appropriate to the time requirements which is mostly concentrated on services with no effective impact on rural sustainability. So, integrated objectives and systemic perspectives should be taken by managers and programmers and decision making should be done within the same framework. According to the results from the study, in line with the improvement of organizational and institutional performances in the studied area and other generalized regions, a few suggestions are presented:
1. Organizational and institutional emphasis on an integrated systematic rural development and sustainability by paying more attention to all the variables mentioned in the study.
2. More emphasis of related authorities and institutions on economic development of rural areas considering results from the study that shows some deficiencies in terms of income, employment, variety of activities, and ….
3. According to the better functions of rural institutions and organizations in social dimension of villages and the inseparable connection of economic and social dimensions, the existing capacity of social variables should be used for the improvement and promotion of economic sector.
4. Based on the results from the study it can be implied that the lack of suitable institutional interaction in different dimensions of rural development is one of the deficiencies and weaknesses in terms of rural sustainability. On the other hand, each institution and organization is trying for its own goals and it cannot lead to the comprehensive and sustainable rural development. So, it is suggested to increase this type of interactions and try to establish a new organization responsible for rural development.

Ebrahim Sadeghi, Mohammad Hassanzadeh Nafooti, Aliakbar Jamali, Asghar Salehi,
Volume 11, Issue 39 (Spring 2022 2022)

Many experts and practitioners stated that sustainable development is more probable through social capital or participation and social trust. By involving local people in the watershed management process, users' technical and analytical skills are improved. In evaluating watershed management projects, so far, mainly technical goals to reduce nature reactions have been considered by designers and planners; however, the human factor in the design, evaluation and achievement of socio-economic goals of the project has received less attention. Therefore, it will be necessary to pay more attention in this regard. In Qaleh Shahrerokh Basin, various watershed management projects have been implemented that have different effects on environmental factors, and consequently, socio-economic conditions in the region. According to the researchers, the study of the factors affecting the participation and also the internal effect of each factor on each other is one of the tasks that should be done before, during and after the implementation of such projects. The present study aims to identify barriers affecting the participation of the villagers using multiple correlation and path analysis to help local managers to be more successful in planning and implementing future watershed management projects with maximum participation.

The present study is a non-experimental and descriptive-analytical study. The statistical population of this study consists of all heads of households in Qaleh Shahrokh village of Chadegan city. According to the statistical population, the sample size was obtained using the Cochran's formula with a 5% error rate, which was considered 250 for greater accuracy. The data collection tool in this study was a questionnaire whose validity was confirmed by professors and experts of Isfahan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center. To determine the reliability of the questionnaire, a pre-test was performed, in which the calculated Cronbach's alpha value was obtained for the main scales of the questionnaire. SPSS and AMOS software were used to analyze the collected data by multiple correlation and path analysis.

Discussion and conclusion
The research findings showed that the level of participation of respondents in watershed management projects is low. The continuation of this situation can make difficulties for the implementation and maintenance of future watershed management projects in the region, and cost a lot of money imposed on the government to maintain and develop plans. Regarding the level of familiarity of villagers with watershed management plans, the results showed that in general the level of familiarity and knowledge of respondents about different dimensions of watershed management plans was low and this factor is one of the important reasons for the low level of rural participation in watershed management projects. This problem indicates the lack of extension and educational activities of watershed management project implementers before the implementation of the projects. These results show that unless the villagers have a good level of awareness about plans and projects and have a negative mindset about job creation and the positive impact of watershed management projects, they will be indifferent such plans. The results of multiple correlation and path analysis showed that cultural factors play a key role in the non-participation of villagers in watershed management projects and other factors do not directly affect participation. This result indicates that the knowledge and awareness of the residents of the region about the goals and results of watershed management projects should be increased in order to lead to gaining trust and maximum participation in the implementation, maintenance and maintenance of such projects.


Samira Motaghi, Samane Talei Ardakani, Ehsan Farhadi, Farzane Sadeghi,
Volume 11, Issue 41 (Fall 2022 2022)

Health is one of the main pillars of sustainable development and providing optimal health care expenses is one of the main health responsibilities of every country. The nature of health care services is epidemic for every one, not jost for a certaine group of people, and in fact, all people in all settlements need these services, and the  lack of health care services, especially in villages, small towns and deprived areas will bring many negative consequences. Because since, rural people have limited incom and some diseases are more common among them. This factor causes the migration for the rural people to the city to benefit from medical facilities and services that takes a lot of money and time, so health facilities and services should be fairly in all regions of the country, especially in rural areas.
However, despite the growth of health and treatment infrastructure in rural areas, the growth of health care is not uniform. And this factor has forced the villagers to travel to the cities to take advantage of health facilities.
Therefore, by emphasizing the indicatirs of fairness of expenditures among different strats, specially in deprived areas and village , the aim of the present study  is the investigate the factors affecting the health care and treatment situation in rural  households in the provinces of Iran.

The method of current research is descriptive-analytical approach. This research use from modern econometric methods to investigate the factor affecting on health and treatment care expenses of rural households in all rural areas of the country's 31 provinces in different provinces of Iran country  and the effectiveness of this situation from economic, social and demographics indicators.
The studied society is all the 31 regions of the country's provinces and sampelies is the same of society. 
The extract data from the research is from the official websites of Iran Statistics Center, Central Bank and Ministry of Health, Treatment and Medical Education. The priod in this research  is 1380 to 1399 and use from modern econometric methods and Eviews 12 software. 
In this research have been used from the time series data related to the general census of population and housing. The information of the rural areas has been obtained in the form of Geodatabase and then they have been combined within the scope of the studied years and it has been done on the data the process of indexing and analysis .

Discussion and conclusion
 The results of the research show that the variables of per capita income, insurance cost and education and training of rural households are considered to be the most effective factors of health care and treatment in all the villages of the provinces of Iran, but the type of influence of the relevant factors on the health status and the treatment of the villages of the country's provinces is not at the same level and the effectiveness is different in provinces; in spite of the acceptable growth of all villages in the country in terms of health care status, in the last decade compared to the previous decades, the villages of Mazandaran, Yazd and Isfahan provinces are in a more acceptable situation than the villages of other provinces. and the villages of some provinces, such as Sistan and Baluchistan, are in a poor state of healthcare and treatment.
This factor requires to pay attention to the villages of the more deprived provinces in the health care sector and to distribute the facilities of this sector more equitably. in addition to the notice to the health care in village couled be the growth of the health status of the villages and the province in the micro level and economic growth of the country in the macro level and this factor couled be achieved through improving the economic situation of the target village, improving health insurance systems and increasing the educational status of rural households.

Morteza Mokhtari, Moammadreza Ghaedi Far, Roholla Mirmahmoodi, Amir Mousaei, Somayeh Naghavi, Hamid Bideshki, Ahmad Ali Sadeghi,
Volume 12, Issue 43 (Spring 2023 2023)

Quantitative and qualitative improvement of the agricultural sector can increase production productivity, increase farmers' income and create a link between agricultural and non-agricultural poverty reduction programs. Solving or reducing problems and bottlenecks and managing challenges within this sector is necessary. The livestock industry is one of the main sectors of food production needed by humans. Among the various food items produced in the agricultural sector, protein items are essential. On the other hand, in addition to the production of protein foods, this industry plays a significant role in creating employment and providing new job opportunities through the completion of the food production and supply chain. It is impossible to fulfill this vital mission without identifying the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of animal husbandry units and livestock breeders and formulating appropriate strategies to provide management solutions considering the limited resources in each region. The agricultural extension system is one of the main tools for developing the agricultural sector and empowering farmers. Educational and promotional programs are the primary means of realizing agricultural development goals and empowering livestock farmers. This research was carried out to follow the pattern of livestock farmers in livestock promotion training in the southern cities of Kerman.

The research method is descriptive, analytical, and based on quantitative and qualitative methods. The statistical population in this research included livestock breeders in the southern rural areas of Kerman Province, with approximately 250 units that had active livestock units in 2019. Cluster sampling was used to collect to avoid wasting time and saving financial resources. It should be noted that 100 animal husbandry units were selected from the sample farmers participating in training and promotion courses. After completing and collecting the questionnaires, statistical analysis was performed using the software Stata 12 software was used. Also, the generalized ordinal logit model was used to investigate the factors affecting the benefit of the farmers from educational and extension courses. When using the ordinal logit model, the coefficients are interpreted rather than directly interpreting the results. If the coefficient is positive, it means that the probability of being placed in one category increases while the probability of being placed in another category decreases. For this purpose, the interpretation of marginal effects should be used.
The ordinal logit model is based on a continuous latent variable, which is shown as follows:
yi*=βXi+εi                     -∞<yi*<∞           (1)
Suppose the variable yi is considered discrete and observable, representing different levels of livestock farmers' benefit. The relationship between the unobservable variable yi* and the observable variable yi is obtained from the ordinal logit model.
yi=1                        if          -∞< yi*<μ1    i=1,2,…,n

yi=2                        if          μ1< yi*<μ2    i=1,2,…,n
yi=3                        if          μ2< yi*<μ3    i=1,2,…,n
…..                             ….             …….                     ……
yi=n                       if          μt-1< yi*<∞    i=1,2,…,n            

Discussion and conclusion
According to the findings, several factors such as age, education level, satisfaction with sales and marketing strategies, attitude towards extension experts, primary occupation, and cost of animal feed significantly impact the advantages livestock breeders gain from attending educational and extension programs. Providing educational and promotional courses in different areas is a practical and effective method to enhance the knowledge and skills of villagers. These courses can greatly improve productivity and quality of life if they are conducted under favorable conditions and cater to participants' actual needs. This can also optimize the functioning of all agents within the extension education system. Therefore, the necessary arrangements should be considered for livestock farmers to access the facilities and inputs needed to apply and use promotional recommendations. Based on the information obtained in the present research, it can be concluded that due to the relatively high average age of livestock farmers in the south of Kerman province and considering the usefulness of participating in educational-promotional courses, regular holding of these courses with more emphasis on familiarity with veterinary procedures and livestock diseases, familiarity with food ingredients and animal nutrition management mainly, as well as familiarity with the marketing and sale of livestock products, livestock breeding, and the design of animal husbandry buildings and facilities to a lesser extent. The agenda of the deputy of the Livestock Production Improvement Organization should be placed in the south of Kerman Province. The effectiveness of educational and promotional programs and user satisfaction relies on the proper functioning of various components within the system. These include timely and accurate use of educational aids, relevant content that meets users' needs, and program planning that aligns with existing resources and user living conditions. In this regard, necessary arrangements should be made for access to the facilities and inputs needed for the livestock farmers of the south Kerman region to benefit from training and promotion courses.

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