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Showing 3 results for Entrepreneurship Development

Ali Akbar Najafi Kani, Mehdi Hesam, Hadiseh Ashor,
Volume 4, Issue 11 (5-2015)

Nowadays, management and economy as science as well as entrepreneurship receive special attention. Strengthening entrepreneurship and creation of an appropriate setting for its development are being considered as a good tool for economic improvement namely in developing countries. Based on entrepreneurship world statement, there exist a high relationship between national economic growth and organizational and national entrepreneurship level. Generally speaking, entrepreneurs potentially exist in any country. However, one should put extra effort to increase their capabilities. Moreover, the existing structures should pave the way for proving themselves. As a matter of fact, entrepreneurs play a vital role regarding social and economic development and transformation. They act as a prime element for revitalization as well as continuation of development. That is why many governments in both developed and developing countries try to guide and encourage entrepreneurs and provide them relevant education .Iran experienced high rural-urban migration as a result of rural backwardness. This is associated with ghettoes, down grading of quality of life, low job opportunities, increase in crime and delinquency. The major objective of rural plan is the achievement of rural development. This in turn will lead to reduction of unemployment increase in job opportunities. These two phenomena are the resultant of Imbalanced labor force, demand and supply as well as decrease in agricultural growth sector in rural areas and decline in job opportunities (23.4%). It is argued that agricultural development by itself cannot guarantee rural economic development and irradiate poverty. Thus attention to other sectors is strongly suggested. Despite, the importance of entrepreneurial ship and its impact upon global economy, Iran has not paid an appropriate attention in this regard. High degree of youth population, lack of job opportunities, high unemployment rate demand more attention to this phenomenon. As such this paper predominantly aims to access entrepreneurship status in southern Astarabad in Gorgan.
Research method:
This study possesses descriptive- analytical nature. It is farther based on survey technique and questionnaire. As such 10 experts in the area were asked to give their opinions in order to weigh the relevant chosen criteria. Study area is composed of 16 villages which house 4805 households. Cochran formula was applied in order to determine the appropriate sample size with the significant level of 95%. Sample size turned out to be 356 which extracted via random sampling technique taking into consideration the number of households in every individual village. This study further followed by application of hierarchical weighing fuller triangle technique regarding the viewpoints of the experts. At the end, it demands ORESTE model in order to rank the villages.
Discussion and concluding:
This study suggests that entrepreneurship not only cause better utilization of the existing resources, but also paves the way for rural settlements sustainability. This is because entrepreneurship through providing job opportunities and resultant sufficient incomes make the settlers to remain in their village. It further could attract investment and draw outside labor force to the area. This in turn will strengthen the foundations of national regional development. However, all of the villages do not possess the same potential in terms of entrepreneurship. As such this study try to prioritize villages located in southern Astarabad in Gorgan from entrepreneurship aspect. According to experts view points, accessibility to education and training, consulting, experiences, knowledge and skill are being considered as main yardsticks in this regard. However, access to capital without needed education and training could not lead to entrepreneurship. According to ORESTE technique computation Naziabad, Sarnabad, and Maryamabad, based on the above mentioned criteria possess the highest ranks as opposed to lower shahkoh, Siyashlou and Qazagh-mahale. This study suggests education and training regarding entrepreneurship specifically in the area of tourism. It believes that lack of capital is being considered as a major obstacle in the study area. Providing low interest loans to rural settlers which could give them initial capital and motivation with respect to entrepreneurship is highly recommended.

Bahman Khosravi Pour, Maryam Tahmasebi, Maryam Ameri,
Volume 9, Issue 34 (2-2021)

The experience of pursuing development goals in many countries show that achieving the objectives depend on considering the position and role of women as part of the active labor force of society especially in rural areas, which will ultimately lead to economic and political development. In addition, due to the large number of unemployed population especially women in rural areas, small home businesses have been created by using their individual creativity and the capacities of rural communities, exploiting new opportunities, dissemination and strengthening of sustainable innovations. This is one of the important priorities of development strategies that can play a significant role in empowering local people, reducing poverty and improving the livelihood of rural households.
In the meantime, supporting local financial investments and guiding women in order to set up micro-credit funds, seems to be a fundamental and appropriate solution for business development and economic prosperity of local communities. This will create economic, social and institutional equality, and provide training and business opportunities.
Given the importance of women's participation in economic activities to accelerate and facilitate the process of rural development, this study aims to identify the factors affecting entrepreneurship development from the of members’ perspective of rural micro-credit funds, i.e. rural entrepreneurs in Abadan County. Businesses such as alfalfa and various vegetables cultivation, production and supply of indigenous chicken, etc., which are agricultural-oriented and form the basis of women's economic activities.

The present study seeks to identify the underlying factors affecting the development of rural women entrepreneurship, hence it is considered an applied research. The research design and data collection method is based on the non-experimental survey approach.  The statistical population of the study included 100 rural women members of micro-funds in Abadan who has started, managed and developed their businesses. A sample of 80 people was randomly selected for the query using Morgan table.   The research measurement tool was a researcher-made questionnaire. The content validity of the measurement tool was verified by practitioners and leading women entrepreneurs in the region. The reliability of the measurement tool was also evaluated and confirmed by calculating the Cronbach's alpha coefficient regarding the current and optimal status of the effective factors.
Discussion and conclusion
According to the findings of the study, the average age of sample was 34.3 years. More than half of them had primary and secondary education, and one tenth had university education. 2.5% were heads of households and their average economic activity was reported to be 4.5 years. The results showed that preparing households and citizens to encourage women to produce and work by government agencies has the highest score in the current situation. Also, the provision of inputs needed by women to produce goods and services, the land devotion for business development and the provision of insurance services to women entrepreneurs were at the lowest level. Also in the desired situation, the first three priorities were the establishment of entrepreneurship incubators in rural areas, providing financial assistance in the form of subsidies and easy access of entrepreneurs to the required information, knowledge and technology. These can be combined to the three priorities mentioned above. It is concluded that if specialized centers for entrepreneurship consulting and business development are established in rural areas in order to educate and empower women and identify their and train them in the mentioned centers. As a result, entrepreneurship development can use practical advice and credit and facility support, improve the business of rural women with a more appropriate approach.  Also, the factors affecting the business development of rural women were classified into 5 categories: technical, institutional-infrastructural, educational, cultural and social factors. Based on them it is suggested that in order to promote sustainable production activities in rural communities, a working group consisting of provincial and local managers , executive administration, CEOs of credit funds, financial institutions such as Omid Entrepreneurship Fund along with other business environment development actors (representative of the Ministry of Health, Ministry of Labor, Welfare and Social Security, representative of the development of deprived areas from presidential office, etc.).  Furthermore, it is needed to establish a city and provincial business office, and facilitate women’s progress while carefully analyzing their obstacles and problems. In addition, designing, and implementing a comprehensive business and entrepreneurship development projects that plans an activity to its development and stability is suggested. Establishment of entrepreneurship incubators in rural areas and arranging various educational-promotional programs by attracting the active participation and dynamism of rural women will increase the knowledge and experience of women entrepreneurship. Also, in order to increase the success rate of credit funds and present successful business plans among rural women, it is necessary to seriously pursue and implement entrepreneurial training and design programs with emphasis on regional potentials and based on creativity and innovation. So, courses on how to start a business and improve your business seems to be effective.

Atieh Soleymani, , Saied Karimi,
Volume 10, Issue 36 (8-2021)

In recent years, a group of researchers have believed that entrepreneurial activities lead to environmental degradation. However, some researchers have argued that despite the negative effects of some entrepreneurial activities on society and the environment, entrepreneurs still play an important role in guiding business activities towards sustainability, especially social and environmental sustainability. In particular, relying on the capacities and capabilities of rural communities, recognizing new opportunities and growth of innovations adapted to local community condition can reduce these negative effects and also create opportunities for sustainable employment, income generation and sustainable development in rural areas. Researchers refer to sustainable entrepreneurship as a catalyst and a major impetus for sustainable development. In recent decades, sustainable entrepreneurship has been a growing research stream and it is time to pay more attention to sustainable entrepreneurship in the literature. Among the areas that need more detailed and in-depth study in sustainable entrepreneurship is among the research fields that needs more rogue and in-depth investigations. This is about a set necessary factors in order to integrate sustainability in entrepreneurial businesses. Furthermore, it is relevantly more important in rural areas due to the direct relationship of most of rural businesses with natural resources. Accordingly, the present study discusses the requirements and conditions for sustainable development in entrepreneurial activities in rural areas and seeks to provide a suitable integrated model for entrepreneurship development in rural areas based on sustainable rural development and sustainable entrepreneurship.
The present study aims to design a comprehensive model of sustainable entrepreneurship development in rural businesses and identify the strategies essential for achieving entrepreneurial sustainability using a qualitative research approach and grounded theory. The statistical population of this study consisted of outstanding entrepreneurs with characteristics such as knowledge and experience in the field, willingness and sufficient time to participate in the research and effective communication skills in Hamedan Province. In this study, 10 people were selected and in-depth interview was used as the main data collection technique. Data was analyzed in a sequence of open coding, axial coding and selective coding. In order to increase the validity of this research, we selected research participants from outstanding entrepreneurs who both work in the field of rural and agricultural businesses, and also have sufficient scientific knowledge on sustainable development issues and the process of entrepreneurship development and rural business creation. In-depth interviews were used to collect and record the required information. In order to verify and avoid research bias, the model and the result obtained by the research team were continuously compared with the aim and checked if there is any part in the report and model that indicates a potential bias by the researchers? Based on these checkups, some reflections were considered in the process.
Discussion and conclusion
According to the results of the present study, the model of sustainable entrepreneurship development in rural businesses in a narrative manner and based on a ground theory is as follows: Regarding to our understanding of sustainability and its aspects as well as the requirements for entrepreneurial businesses to adhere to responsible environmental, socio-cultural and ethical actions in order to achieve sustainability and fulfill their obligations to society and the environment.  The findings show the development of rural business activities towards principles and values of sustainability requires strengthening individual factors of business owners and employees, organizational and environmental factors of enterprises.  In other words, provided that such conditions and factors are given, the growth and development of behavioral patterns based on sustainability in various economic, social and environmental dimensions in rural businesses will be possible. Internalization of such behavioral patterns also requires appropriate measures and strategies implementation such as empowering relevant institutions, enhancing media performance, continuing policies to promote sustainable entrepreneurship, strengthening cultural contexts, applying supportive policies, facilitating the access to credit and capitals, and developing educational programs, and human resource management strategies to establish responsible values in the organizational culture. Institutionalizing sustainability patterns in rural entrepreneurial businesses will lead to more sustainable rural economic growth, job creation, environmental adaptation, ensuring future access to key natural resources, satisfying social groups, achieving competitive advantage, cost savings, and improving product quality.

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