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Showing 3 results for Rural Management

Aaij Azmi, Hadi Almasi,
Volume 3, Issue 8 (8-2014)

New rural management and Islamic Councils are being considered as people-oriented institutions during last years with regard to rural economic development. This in turn, demands extra efforts for improvement of this institution status. The major objective of this study is to analyze the influential factors upon strengthening the economic role of these councils in rural area of Harsin (Kermanshah). The research method of this study is descriptive – analytical using questionnaire survey. The sample size is determined to be 50. The sampling techniques were based on simple random sample out of which 32 villages were selected. This is followed by application of Cronbach's for determination of research viability of the research data. K.M.O coefficient (o.7 and 0.71) as well as Bartlett’s test were used. Data analyses were done via utilization of descriptive methods including median, frequency, principle component analysis and Wilcoxon. This study suggests that there exist significant variation regarding economic service provision prior and after the foundation of these rural councils. Moreover, 6 preventive components with respect to economic rural development were identified. They include the legal deficiencies of the councils, their in capabilities related to passing economic rules, peoples cooperation with the councils, the community’s lack of familiarity with the council’s rules, the people’s lack of confidence regarding the council’s performance and their low financial and administrative authorization level. This is followed by identification of four other corresponding factor including community participation, better council membership selection procedure, high acquaintance of council’s members regarding rural economic problems, drawing governmental, public and private financial supports regarding rural projects and high intimacy of council members performance.

Mohammad Nasiri Lakeh, Nasrollah Molaei Hashjin, Eisa Pourramzan,
Volume 10, Issue 35 (4-2021)

The rural management system in Iran has undergone complex transformations in terms of socio-economic structures over the years, and efficient management void in rural areas in the long run, especially in recent decades, has posed many obstacles for villagers.
In this regard, it is necessary to explain the importance of local management in all dimensions and explain the role of local managers in performing tasks in rural areas in order to increase productivity, efficiency. After the formation of Islamic councils, and subsequently the establishment of rural municipality paved the way for giving the people the authority to manage. This leads to social capital in these areas, which can follow ensue further development.
In the present study, we first identify the weaknesses, strengths, opportunities and threats of the current rural management system, and then by reforming the rural management system, it provided conditions for the socio-cultural and economic development of villages in the central region of Guilan Province.  Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the rural management system and rural economic and socio-cultural development in the central region of Guilan Province.

According to the purpose, nature and method, this study is considered as an applied and descriptive-analytical research, respectively. In order to achieve the purpose of the research, the technique of direct observation was utilized in five dimensions to obtain data on the status and level of development of the studied counties. The statistical population of the study is the central area of Guilan province, villages depending on their height above the sea level are in two classes: coastal-plain and foothill-mountain. In order to select the samples in the villages of each county in the central region two criteria of population and geographical situation were considered. 120 villages were randomly selected from the villages from six counties of the region. Descriptive and inferential statistical methods as well as SPSS software were used to explain the central tendency and variability. Tables based on the T test and Arc GIS was used to produce the maps.

Discussion and conclusion
In this study, rural development in the central region of Guilan has been studied as a dependent variable in both economic and socio-cultural dimensions. In order to study rural management in two socio-cultural and economic dimensions, 33 items are considered "socio-cultural" and 31 items are considered "economic".
The item of raising the level of scientific knowledge of the villagers has obtained the lowest average score (3.17) in a total of 33 items studied in the socio-cultural dimension. In general, the average score of all social items is 3.71, which is higher than the mean, or 3, so it can be concluded that the improvement of rural management system is effective for socio-cultural development of villages. Also, the improvement of rural management system provides the socio-cultural development of the villages. It was also found that the items of cooperation with the Civil Registration Organization, recognizing social and cultural deficiencies and suggesting plans, introducing orphaned kids to support institutions, providing cultural and educational facilities and preparing support plans were among the most important items.  
In general, the average score of all economic items is 3.55, which is higher than the mean, or 3, so it can be concluded that improving the rural management system is effective on rural economic development. The items “estimation and regulation of annual rural budget", “business licensing", "impact of improving new management on rural economic development", "types of rural insurance" and "preparation of reform plans and proposals" in the economic sector with the highest scores, thereby are more important and effective than other items.
According to the findings of the present study, rural management in the central region of Guilan has economic and socio-cultural disadvantages. Therefore, suggestions in each of the dimensions of economic and socio-cultural development are presented as follows:
  • Predicting credits and facilities to support rural entrepreneurship according to the capacities of each village.
  • Preparing priority employment-generating plans in order to enjoy government support from the executive management of the villages based on the capabilities of each of the villages in the district.
  • Holding educational programs for Islamic village councils and rural governors relating to their various duties, rights and laws and regulations.
  • Holding rural employment and entrepreneurship training courses for villagers in the central area of Guilan.

Ghadir Firouznia, Ismail Ziarati Nasrabadi, Mustafa Taleshi, Alireza Darban Astaneh,
Volume 11, Issue 40 (9-2022)

The role of villages in the economic, social and political development at the local, regional and international scale has been the main focus of rural development and rural management. Rural management in Iran went through a lot of changes after the approval of the Law on Councils and the formation of Islamic Councils in settlements with more than 20 households, and eventually, the approval of the Establishment of Self-Sufficient Rural Municipalities Act on July 5, 1998. Based on this Act, several duties are recognized for rural municipalities, including rural planning, construction service, rural health, social services, cultural services, planning for disasters, improvement of rural environmental conditions and supervision of physical development plans. These duties are similar in all villages with councils. Despite the fact that rural management services are necessary for all kinds of villages, it is not possible to provide these services; even if it is possible, the cost is not viable. In other words, we currently have expensive and costly management of rural settlements. Therefore, after two decades of new rural management, a study needs to analyze the geographical, social, cultural and economic conditions. The purpose of this study is for the new rural management to cover services as much as possible with economic efficiency, promotion of public participation and private sector, the spatial connection of settlements, applying distributed network services and reduction of functional differences, reformation in different dimensions; environmental-physical, structural-institutional, social-cultural, economic and human aspects of rural management. Thus, we can provide a suitable model for providing integrated rural management that all the rural population will be provided services according to their right.
The current research is an applied study, and the results can be used in planning and decision-making. The research method is a survey, so with social sampling techniques can be generalized to other rural areas. The data collection tool is a questionnaire, which was used for four units of analysis, including the members of the Islamic village council, the village mayors, villagers and experts. The survey is of a descriptive and explanatory type because it aims to objectively and precisely explain the process of the activities of rural municipalities and examine the relationships between variables and structures to explain and interpret the influencing factors in improving performance. This will be used for rearranging the current model of rural management with the aim of providing maximum coverage of services. The statistical population of the research includes all the cities of Qazvin province (six cities). The target counties, districts and rural districts have been selected as clusters. A total of 427 questionnaires have been completed by residents of 40 selected villages in Qazvin province. The criteria are population, distance, number and population of villages. First, nine districts were selected and accordingly, 22 rural districts and finally, 40 villages were selected.
Discussion and conclusion
In this paper, the factors affecting the reorganization of the rural service management model in five dimensions of environmental-physical, structural-institutional, social-cultural, economic and human aspects. The findings indicated the effectiveness of the described dimensions. Based on the findings, the followings are the most important components: in the environmental-physical dimension, components such as adopting an area instead of a point-based approach, spatial link and geographical features of the region and maximum coverage of services, in the structural-institutional dimension, the components of amending laws and regulations, creating joint construction and service organizations, increasing villager activity hours and providing services to neighboring villages, in the socio-cultural dimension, the components of fair distribution of services, accountability, performance transparency, increasing interactions and attention to vulnerable groups, in the economic dimension, the components of compliance with economic efficiency, reducing service costs, increasing productivity, sustainable sources of income, shared services, and finally, in the human dimension, components of people's participation, private and cooperative sector, reforming the selection process of village mayors and citizenship education. These components can be used for rearranging the rural management for rural service. 


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