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Showing 15 results for Type of Study: Applicable

Dr Negar Armaghan,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (6-2016)

Back ground and Aim: Experience Management and Tacit Knowledge of organization's employees are considered one of the most important capitals of today's leading companies. This study is done in a company which produces manufacturing bending machine for tube and wire. The quality of after-sales service and the performance of the technicians' regarding to the customers are important in this company. The aim of this study is to identify, retrieve,  manage and structure the information, tacit knowledge and experience of technicians in maintenance and after-sales service department for this company in order to propose the best solution to problems.

Methods: The action research and field study methods are used in this work, and, many interviews have been conducted with technicians and engineers of this industry. First, the symptoms and problems are identified and classified. Then data collection, data analysis and classification of problems, symptoms and solutions are made by proposing and standard problem solving ways.

Results: The results of this study include the classifications of major problems and sub-problems, classification of failures and dysfunctions of parts, create the relation among the parts of machines and problems, identification of symptoms, propose the solutions for the occurred problems in selected machines and designing failure forms.

Conclusions: Suitable information processing and knowledge sharing by emphasising on human-computer interaction led the company to better satisfy customers by providing them    the best solution. In addition, due to the possibility of standardizing the solutions, it will be also useful for newcomers to reuse them in future diagnostic and problem solving process

Maryam Asadi, Hamid Mahdigholi,
Volume 3, Issue 2 (9-2016)

Background and Aim: This paper seeks to explore the concepts of the information commons (IC). The paper provides a look at the models and characteristics of the IC. A number of projects of the IC are presented. We will discuss the situation of an existing traditional library. It makes recommendations for converting an existing library space into an IC. A number of Challenges of implementation of the IC are explored

Methods: This is a conceptual paper, so a library study approach was chosen.

Results: Academic libraries have undergone considerable massive changes over the past decade. These changes have faced the directors of libraries with difficulties and challenges in planning of the library activities. It seems that the emergence of the IC is adaptation to the changing role of the academic libraries. The IC is a relatively new concept in the Information and Knowledge Science. The IC is described as a portal through which students and faculty will access the vast amount of information resources in the world and less a place where information is kept, as focus shifts from ownership of information to access to and management of information and smart services. There are centralized access to services and technologies, contact with the users and collaborative learning play an important role.

Conclusion. No one knows what will the academic library of the future look like? Needless to say, it will be a constantly evolving information resource with knowledgeable and skilled staff that provides fast, flexible access to digital and print information resources, fosters scholarly research in a comfortable and supportive environment, and promotes cooperative learning. The IC is a first step in that direction.

Reza Basirianjahromi, Zahed Bigdeli, Gholamreza Haidari, Alireza Hajiyakhchali,
Volume 3, Issue 2 (9-2016)

Background and Aim: Gamification refers to the use of game elements in non-game contexts to motivate engagement. This definition is the most comprehensive one presented so far. The term was proposed first in 2002 but it has been prolonged 8 years to attract individuals’’ attention. Gamification has been applied in various contexts according to its capabilities. The current study aims to investigate the concept of gamification and its dimensions in library environment.

Methods:  This study used review method as well as comprehensive and systematic study to assess the concept of gamification in accordance with library environment.

Results: The results showed that gamification dimensions could improve the library functions and users’ loyalty. This could help libraries to solve the “engagement crisis”.

Conclusion: Playful engagement is an important approach to help librarians to attract maximum audience in the new information landscape. To achieve this, gamification and its elements can play an important role.

Ahmad Karimkhani, Professor Narges Neshat,
Volume 3, Issue 3 (12-2016)

Background and Aim: To determine the relationship between big five personality factors on the behavior of saving information graduate students in Tehran.

Methods: The Correlation method work that was using the 30 a questionnaire and inform behavior questionnaire, a NEO-saving 60 Costa and Mac Carey was required for data collection. The research community, the number of doctoral and master's students 343 formed using a multi-stage cluster sampling method and from Tehran University, tarbiat modares University, Amir Kabir University and universities science research. Karyotype analysis for the results of the statistical test, Pearson and multiple step by step regressions was used.

Results: causes of low neuroticism trait in students getting the time spent for research students; and conversely, to be fitted out attribute increases the information needed to attempt to reach the students cause. Students interested in openness to experience, attribute to the new threads in it increases, and the two new adjectives to be conscientious and agreement as well as in increasing the effective relevance judgment later.

Conclusion. Psychological factors play a role as a character in the information-seeking behavior so that in accordance with the findings of the present study, 31 percent of students based on saving behavior of the notice five factors personality fitted shape. Therefore, academic libraries and information centers in the design of databases and user interfaces it is better to have a special focus on these factors.

Ogholbebe Sheikh, Nosrat Riahinia, Yazdan Mansourian,
Volume 3, Issue 4 (3-2017)

Background and Aim: The present study has been done in order to survey contextualized information retrieval behavior by the students of Kharazmi University.
Methods: This is descriptive applied research. Statistical population includes all the students currently studying at the Kharazmi University in the time of research. Sample of research includes 196 students selected by convenience sampling method. In order to collect information a researcher-designed questionnaire was used. The questionnaire’s reliability was 6.82 and its validity was confirmed some university professors. For analyzing data, One- sample T- test and independent samples T test were used.
Results: Results showed that the main efficient factor in information retrieval behavior of students was computer sites of the university. Students obtained their required scientific information through Internet resources via search engines. Their main aim in seeking scientific information was doing their assignments. Students primary aim of seeking scientific information was to collect educational information followed by research information.
Conclusion: The main impediment and problem on the way of information seeking at the university was low internet speed. Also, there was no significant differences between demographic factors (gender, marital status and resident’s status) and information retrieval behavior of students. Only in some research variables we found significant differences.
Keywords: Information retrieval behavior, Context, Students, Kharazmi University.

Fatemeh Sa'adati, Yazdan Mansourian, Mohammad Zerehsaz,
Volume 4, Issue 1 (6-2017)

Background and Aim: The purpose of this research is investigating the structure of research articles in the Iranian knowledge and information science journals (peer reviewed journals). In the next step, the writing guidelines in the scientific journals websites that designed to introduce desired structure of a scientific paper are studied.
Methods: The research was survey with analytical approach. The population of the research were articles published in the Persian scientific journals of knowledge and information science field in 2013-2015 and their writing guidelines. Stratified random sampling was used and, accordingly, 245 scientific articles were examined using a research checklist.
Results: Research findings showed that the structure of the research articles reviewed are in a good condition and only in three sub-structural components i.e "theoretical foundations", "research application" and "research limitations", consistent with the desired structure is weak. About the writing guidelines, the findings showed that they are in the unfavorable condition. Some structural components i.e "brief review of the scientific literature," "rationale to the study," "aim and motivation of the research", "advantages and importance of the research", "the research time", "space of the research", "credibility (reliability) of the research tools", "reliability of the study" did not appear in any writing guidelines. The first hypothesis showed a significant difference between research journals about their matching with the desired structure of the research article. However, the overall average ratings of the articles structure in this journals are in the good condition. Also in the second hypothesis was found a significant difference between the compliance rate of writing guides and articles published in the scientific journals with the desired research article structure.
Conclusion: Due to structural weakness in the writing guidelines of Persian peer-reviewed journals studied, can be such a conclude that authors of these articles shape the article structure based on what they have been trained and not attend to the writing guidelines of the journals. From the other side, one of the reasons of the structural weakness in the structure of the articles is disregarding editors and the other practitioners of journals to offering needed help contents. 
Nilofar Barahmand, Maryam Nakhoda, Fatima Fahiminia, Mahin Nazari,
Volume 4, Issue 1 (6-2017)

Background and Aim: Due to recent attention to health promotion and self-care as one of the prerequisites of health services and intervention programs, health information seeking behavior research has gain increasing importance. Factors such as attention to user centered studies, context and self-care require using of methods and tools that help study people in their natural environment. However, review studies have shown the dominance of quantitative and positivist approaches in health information seeking behavior studies. This study aims at introducing episodic interview as a tool for gathering unique data from peoples’ natural lives and its application in health information seeking studies.
Method: This review article has been conducted by library method. It addresses health information seeking behavior concept and its affecting factors. It also introduces episodic interview and its underlying concepts including narration and narrative interviewing. Further, it investigates implications of applying episodic interview in health information behavior studies and eventually it discusses steps of conducting episodic interview with examples of narrations.
Findings: The strength point of episodic interview is its focus on narration of people about their lived experiences as research data which help researchers study and analyze people in a different way from conventional approaches. Implications of applying episodic interview are: 1.concentration of health information behavior studies on pattern of behavior, 2. health information seeking behavior being interwoven in everyday life, and 3. health information seeking behavior being intentional and purposeful.
Results: Episodic interview help researchers listen to the voices of different groups of people, especially whom their voice is not heard due to sickness and social and cultural conditions, a point which should be considered in designing any information and intervention services. 
Amir Vafaeian, Keivan Borna, Hamed Sajedi, Dariush Alimohammadi, Pouya Sarai,
Volume 5, Issue 2 (9-2018)

Background and Aim: Automatic identification and classification of the Iranian traditional music scales (Dastgāh) and melody models (Gusheh) has attracted the attention of the researchers for more than a decade. The current research aims to review conducted researches on this area and consider its different approached and obstacles.
Method: The research approach is content analysis and data collection method is based on the documentary-library study.
Results: Findings indicated that the main obstacles and reasons for the inefficiency of this area researches are due to performing the researches in parallel and individually, lack of a coherent dataset for Iranian traditional music and also, lack of researcher’s knowledge of the theoretical foundations of Iranian traditional music.
Conclusion: It could be considered two main approaches for researches in automatic identification of the Iranian traditional music. The major researches has been published until now, is conducted based on Macro approach, which merely considers the scales of five Dastgāhs in distinguishing them from each other. Since Dastgāhs division does not have enough authenticity and there is no consensus on the number of Dastgāhs and their boundaries among the Iranian music theorists, Micro approach has been suggested for future researches, which tries to identify short melody models (Gushehs) based of melody sequences of representative phrase of the Gusheh. 
Dr Ali Mansouri, Mrs Fatemeh Zarmehr, Dr Hossein Karshenas,
Volume 7, Issue 1 (6-2020)

Background and aim: Four text mining methods are examined and focused on understanding and identifying their properties and limitations in subject discovery.
Methodology: The study is an analytical review of the literature of text mining and topic modeling. 
Findings: LSA could be used to classify specific and unique topics in documents that address only a single topic. The other three text mining methods focus on topics and general partiality of the text. PLSA is applicable to documents dealing with a topic, unlike the LSA, it is used to discover general themes and contexts. However, LDA is more applicable to documents that address several issues. The CTM, method can be used to identify relationship between different subject categories.
Conclusion: Text mining tactics are suitable for employing analysis in discovering and extracting the text subjects.
Mohamadjavad Afsharsafavi, Golnar Shojaeibaghini, Mohammadreza Rostami,
Volume 8, Issue 1 (5-2021)

Background and Aim: Media and social networks have commanded many challenges for print media. Apparently, audiences' behaviors are changing by searching through the internet to find free news and information. Accordingly, the study was aimed at identifying factors affecting the competition between print media and social networks for survival, the case study of Khorasan Newspaper. 
Method: A qualitative study conducted on grounded theory with interviews. Text mining and coding techniques were employed for data analysis. After studying the existing scientific documents and analytical interviews with scholars and experts in Khorasan Newspaper, marketing dimensions and indicators were determined to recommend a framework for competition between print media and social networks for survival.
Findings: Results indicated the main categories including: Causal conditions (dynamism, services - innovative, pace, multimedia nature and advertisements); the main category of competitiveness in survival (strategic, modern strategy, organizational knowledge, planning for survival, priority of survival, dynamic change-oriented, and specialized technologic innovation), strategy (customer orientation, networking and communicational skills in organization), context (change management, complexity of customers' conditions, and environment), external confounding conditions (infrastructural and organizational capabilities, knowledge management, and organizational learning), and implications (tangible, such as survival, organizational maturity and excellence, acquisition of competitive advantage, reduction of customer fall rate, increase in new customer attraction rate, keeping customers, and rise of income, as well as intangible implications such as enhancement of customer satisfaction, economic and cultural growth of society, organizational agility, increase on innovation potential, promotion of position in media market, improvement of organizational performance and productivity).
Discussion and Conclusion: Print media must apply to:  Strategic, modern, organizational knowledge, strategic survival planning, priority of survival, dynamic change-oriented, and technologic innovation competitiveness.
Dr. Mohammad Moradi, Dr. Mojtaba Mazoochi,
Volume 8, Issue 4 (2-2022)

Purpose: The purpose is to present an open government data evaluation method by considering comprehensive and complete dimensions and criteria - calculating the weight and importance of each criterion, examining the country in this area, clustering organizations and presenting a classification model to predict the situation.
Methodology: Library studies was used to extract the dimensions and criteria of evaluation. Population includes articles related to open government data evaluation criteria. Ten articles were reviewed by simple random sampling method. Multiple attribute decision making techniques was used to calculate the weight and importance of each criterion. Data mining techniques was incorporated to cluster and create a classification model.
Findings: By reviewing the articles 15 criteria of open government data evaluation including:  Data originality, license openness, up-to-datedness, data access rate, metadata completeness, number of data sets, format openness, non-discriminatory, comprehensible, number of data fields, free, no missing data, data request ability, visual and feedback, were extracted. Using AHP technique, the weights of the criteria were calculated, which after normalization, the total weight of the 15 extracted criteria was equal to one. "Data originality" with a weight of 0.165, " license openness " with a weight of 0.124 and " up-to-datedness" with a weight of 0.109 were ranked first to third among 15 evaluation criteria, respectively. Weight of evaluation criteria obtained and data extraction of 358 organizations in harmony with 15 evaluation criteria, the weight of organizations was calculated. The sum of the weights was equal to one. "East Azerbaijan Agricultural Jihad Organization" with a weight of 0.088, "Statistics Center of Iran" with a weight of 0.062 and "Geological Survey" with a weight of 0.058 were the first to third ranks among 358 organizations and government institutions, respectively, based on the combination of criteria and the weight of criteria.
Conclusion: Evaluation criteria obtained, calculating the weight and importance of each criterion, examining the current situation of government organizations and institutions in the country and the classification model created can help managers to understand the current situation and improve it and thus increase citizens' interaction with open government data as a kind of human information interaction.

Professor Saleh Rahimi, Ms Fatemeh Rahimi, Samira Daniali,
Volume 9, Issue 3 (10-2022)

Purpose: Due to increasing the amount of information and the importance of applying images in various fields, the significance of visual literacy is obvious and research showed that visual literacy has a positive effect on learning. So, the purpose of this study was to determine the importance of visual literacy and to identify the necessity of its use in education and learning, as well as to dictate the components of visual literacy to improve learning.
Methodology: Using the library method and utilizing descriptive research method, the literature in the field of visual literacy has been reviewed
Findings: Visual literacy is typically considered as an ability to evaluate, analyze and interpret the meanings of images and their use, also as a main concept is contemplated.
Conclusion: Visual literacy standards help us study, analyze, understand, and recognize visual elements based on a reasonable and pre-defined framework. It makes people benefit more appropriately from information resources in the form of symbols and images. The concept of visual literacy is evolving and requires more advanced tools. Therefore, students must be acquainted with the tools of this technique.

Abdol Mutalib Abdullah, Somayeh Mokhtari, Farhad Navaee,
Volume 9, Issue 4 (1-2023)

Introduction: plagiarism is one of the new phenomena in the academic environment in Iran, which includes different dimensions and types. So, its recognition and rooting are the problems of this research. Therefore, the main goal of the current research is to investigate the context and institutional and individual factors affecting the formation of plagiarism in Iran and provide policy solutions by decision-makers.
Methods: The current research method is descriptive qualitative. The statistical population of the research includes 15 university experts who were selected by judgment and snowball method. The data collection tool is a researcher-made questionnaire, which was completed during three stages (in a round-trip way) of indexing using the Delphi technique, and the validation of the conceptual model of the research was done using experts' opinions.
Results: The findings of the research showed that the factors affecting the occurrence of plagiarism in universities in Iran include two categories of individual and systemic components and 21 indicators related to these components. Individual factors related to the inherent personality characteristics of students such as lack of ideas, inability to manage time, lack of guilt, lack of some skills, and also some deficiencies in professors such as insufficient knowledge, lack of motivation among students, etc. Systemic or institutional factors are mostly due to incomplete and insufficient laws of universities, inappropriate training of these centers, and lack of attention to plagiarism and plagiarism.
Conclusion: In the end, based on both individual and systemic effective components, practical solutions have been presented to deal with plagiarism in universities.

Ahmadreza Varnaseri, Maryam Andalib Kendri, Maryam Ghanbari, Sajjad Mohamadian,
Volume 10, Issue 2 (9-2023)

Introduction: In daily life, human beings are constantly in the position of making simple or important decisions, so in order to make the best decision, it is inevitable to interact with information. In the present era, when the era of change from industrial society to post-industrial society or information society has been dubbed, information is considered as the most basic assets for human beings and human societies, and the foundation of information society is based on information. In other words, in today's world, a society that has superiority over other societies in terms of information is considered advanced. The growth and development of different science fields can be evaluated according to the research activities carried out in that field. The strength of these activities is the publication of scientific-research publications. The scientific value and validity of publications is undeniable at the time of publication and also after the passage of time. Therefore, knowing the position of the country's scientific research publications with their different and important functions requires great attention. The amount of scientific productions in the form of articles along with the quality of magazines and the amount of use of these resources by people in the society is one of the indicators of the scientific growth of the society. In the meantime, the scientific quarterly of human-information interaction is published by the Department of Information Science and Knowledge of Kharazmi University in cooperation with the Scientific Association for the Promotion of Public Libraries of Iran in the form of an electronic quarterly. Human and Information Interaction Journal publishes original research articles and critical review works in the field of human and information interaction, human information behavior, and related topics.
Purpose: Almost a decade has passed since the publication of research articles in the Scientific Journal of Human and Information Interaction requires that its research record be studied in order to gather and analyze the researches that have been carried out, the existing gaps in the research topics, trends. and recognized the research priorities and found the subject bias of the research done over time. to review the content of the articles in the Human and Information Interaction Quarterly.
Method: The current research is applied in terms of purpose and content analysis type. And because this research tries to describe and evaluate the content of the articles of the Human and Information Interaction Quarterly, it is of the type of content analysis. Content analysis The researcher tries to provide the necessary answer to a specific question in a coordinated action while identifying all the conducted researches and evaluating them accurately. Therefore, in this study, by analyzing the content and using a descriptive approach, the frequency of the subject under investigation is determined and a conclusion is made based on it. The statistical population of the present study includes all the scientific and research articles published in the scientific-research quarterly "Human and Information Interaction" from the spring of 2014 to the winter of 2022, which were published in 9 periods. The number of articles was 242, all of which were subjected to content analysis. The tool used was made by the Checklist  researcher.
The obtained data were analyzed using Excel software. Descriptive statistics methods, such as data classification according to distribution and frequency percentage, as well as graphs and tables, have been used in data analysis. By referring to each issue of the magazine and its articles, the content analysis information includes the number of articles published in the quarterly, the number of authors by gender, the scientific rank of the authors, the field/trend, and the topics and axes of the authors' attention, Participating universities/organizations, statistical community, approach, type, level of analysis, strategy and time period of the researches were investigated. Sampling was not used and all elements of the society were investigated by census.
Findings: 242 articles have been published in the Quarterly Journal of Human and Information Interaction during 9 periods of articles, Of these, the largest number of articles were published in 2014. Thematic areas: Examining the titles of the articles and the keywords used in the collection of articles published in the studied journal showed that, in general, the articles can be categorized into 11 main topics and 165 sub-topics. The main areas are: Information management) Data management Human and information interaction, ignoring, avoiding, avoiding information, rejecting information, information search process model, information technology model, information sharing behavior, information architecture, information technology application, information and communication technology, information search process model, information literacy, poverty/ Information poverty, scientific information environment, general information environment, information realism, employment information behavior, information literacy measurement, information access, information credibility assessment, information behavior modeling, web information credibility, information culture, electronic information, information management, personal information management , information sources, information location, information system, Data management Human and information interaction, ignoring, avoiding, avoiding information, rejecting information, information search process model, information technology model, information sharing behavior, information architecture, information technology application, information and communication technology, information search process model, information literacy, poverty/ Information poverty, scientific information environment, general information environment, information realism, employment information behavior, information literacy measurement, information access, information credibility assessment, information behavior modeling, web information credibility, information culture, electronic information, information management, personal information management , information sources, information location, information system، 38%), information seeking behavior(Information seeking behavior Knowledge sharing behavior, consumer behavior, information behavior, unplanned behavior, collaborative information seeking behavior, employment information behavior, relational information seeking behavior, information seeking behavior, information seeking interaction behavior, inquiry behavior, health information seeking behavior, information seeking behavior, human information behavior , reading behavior, 23%), social network (Research Gate, Instagram, Social Media, Social Media Fatigue, Social Network, Scientific Graph Network, Network, Internet Social Network, Facebook, Social Network Analysis, Continuous Social Networks, Scientific Social Network, Online Social Network, Virtual Social Network, Big Data In social network, specialized social network, artificial neural network, selfie, social media, mobile phone based social network, 18%), research method (Research Methodology Grand theory, Koolthau model, qualitative approach, thematic analysis, semantic analysis, Meta composition, metanalysis, qualitative study, self-efficacy in qualitative research, fuzzy Delphi, database method, Delphi method, quantitative method, methodology, exploratory method, clustering, interactive content, methodology Research, methodological diversity, scientometrics, synonyms, fact-based interview, mixed approach, trend analysis, altmetrics, research problems, Ellis model, citation analysis, cybernetic revelation model, hierarchical analysis process, fuzzy method, data-based theory18%), library (16%), user (8%), retrieval (8%), information need (6%) %), information base (2%), information science and Knowledge (2%) and organization (1%) are assigned, with the largest share related to information management with 38% and the lowest share related to organization with 1%. Gender of the authors: 53% of them were men and 47% of them were women. According to the findings of the research, the most participants in writing articles are assistant professors (158), Associate Professor 119, doctorate student (114), master's student (100), doctorate (47), professor (42), unreported (20), student Bachelor's degree (12), postdoctoral degree (1).
Researchers in the field of information science and Knowledge have contributed the most in writing articles with 75%. Researchers in the field of business management (12%), educational sciences (2%), and information technology (01%) contributed more than other fields in writing articles in the journal. The most participation was by the authors of Kharazmi University; Also, Isfahan University with 27 article titles, Azad University with 25 article titles, Tehran University with 21 article titles, Beheshti University with 18 article titles, and Chamran University with 15 article titles Unreported 14 article titles, Al-Zahra University 10 article titles, Allameh Tabatabai University 10 article titles, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad 10 article titles, Tabriz University 9 article titles, Tarbiat Modares 8 article titles, Shiraz University 7 article titles, Shahid University 5 article titles, Mohaghegh Ardabili University 5 article titles  respectively have contributed the most in writing articles. The population of quantitative researches was students, professors, and academics. In terms of the research approach, among the 242 published articles, 123 articles were conducted with a quantitative approach, which includes 51% of the research, and qualitative research accounted for 28%, and mixed research for 21%.
Strategy of research results: applied researches with 185 numbers have the highest percentage of 77% of the human and information interaction quarterly, and developmental and fundamental researches are in the next ranks with 32% and 25%, respectively. Also, the most applied researches, 10 titles, belong to the fourth issue of the five-year period of 2018, and the most basic researches, 5 titles, were published in the fourth issue of 2021. Research method strategy: According to the findings of the research, descriptive research with 167 titles is the highest percentage (69 percent),  and correlation research 35% in the second rank and experimental research with 30 titles with 13% frequency in the rank are next. In the following, comparative and historical causal researches with 5 article titles are at the End. The level of research analysis: The findings of the research show that the level of
analysis of 78% of the articles published in the quarterly is the group level, and the individual, intersection, and organizational levels account for a total of 21% of the researches. The review of the articles shows that 64% of the researches conducted in the Scientific Quarterly of Human and Information Interaction have used primary data to conduct the research. Data collection method: Most researches have used questionnaires (74%) to collect data. The interview method is ranked next with (24%).
Conclusion: The analysis of the distribution of the gender frequency of the authors of the articles showed the difference in the role-creation of men compared to women in writing articles. In such a way that men have had a greater contribution and role in writing articles. The frequency distribution of the organizational affiliation of the authors of the articles showed that the most participation was by the authors of Kharazmi University. This indicates the fact that the researchers of Kharazmi University are more inclined to send their researches and achievements to their university journal, and naturally, this tendency increases the acceptance rate and the high percentage of participation of the researchers of this university in publishing articles. Considering that the field of organization has received less attention from researchers, besides the need to investigate the reasons for the low interest of researchers in this field in an independent research it is suggested that the editorial board and judges determine research priorities in the subject areas.
Due to the limitation of the research method used in 69% of the articles, it seems that the variety of research methods in the acceptance and publication of the journal articles should be given more attention by the reviewers, editor-in-chief, and other officials. In some informational articles, such as Society and statistical sample, the exact title of the university, organization, orientation, author's field, etc. are not mentioned, so it is suggested that the editorial board and the internal manager pay more attention. The data collection tool is a set of questionnaires and other tools are used less. Therefore, it is suggested that the editorial board and judges pay more attention to the acceptance of articles that use other tools to collect data. It is obvious that using various tools helps to increase the scientific richness of researches. Due to the unequal participation of researchers from different scientific fields in publishing articles in the quarterly journal, publishing articles in different fields with an almost equal ratio in each issue of the journal can solve this imbalance and equality. Also, the determination of research needs by the journal can lead researchers to other fields. About 77 percent of the reviewed researches were of applied type and exploratory researches had a smaller contribution; Therefore, it is suggested that the acceptance of exploratory researches should also be prioritized; Because this type of research helps to expand existing knowledge in line with research goals.

Fatemeh Salmani, Mohammad Reza Kiani, Mohammad Mohammad Akbari Booreng, Leila Talebzade Shoshtari,
Volume 10, Issue 2 (9-2023)

Background and Purpose: Social media and psychological issues related to it, have attracted increasing attention nowadays and have been the subject of many studies in this field. Meanwhile, Instagram was studied in this research due to its many features and the special attention of young people to this platform. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of body image in using Instagram.
Materials and methods: This correlation study was conducted in a sample of 375 students. Data were collected using “body image” and “use of Instagram” questionnaires.
Findings: According to the results, students used Instagram more than average. They were relatively satisfied with their body image. Also, the results showed that the higher the apparent dissatisfaction and functional interference of the respondents (as components of body image), the higher their use of Instagram.
Conclusion:  Due to the increasing popularity of social media, researchers have begun to investigate the possible consequences of this new media format on body image. There are some unique features of social media that distinguish them from traditional media and may help in understanding any effect they may have on body image: 1. Social media such as Instagram have their own users and are very popular among the younger generation. have; 2. People often present an idealized version of themselves on social media, uploading their most attractive images to their profile that can be edited and improved, and deleting any images they find unattractive; 3. Although social media contain images of a range of different types of people (eg, friends, family, strangers, celebrities), they are generally used to interact with peers.
Young people are influenced by three main sources: parents, peers, and media. As a major factor in socialization, parents have a strong influence on their children's body image, and this can be directly or indirectly related to body weight or appearance in general, for example through their comments. As children grow older and enter adolescence, peers play an increasingly important role in body image concerns, especially when intimacy is a necessary component of receiving approval from others. Adolescents learn from their peers what type of body image is associated with popularity and attractiveness. Finally, the media plays a determining role, as young people in the media are often portrayed as attractive and perfectly fit, which may lead to body image concerns among those exposed to them. Past research has shown that certain social media environments, such as Instagram, may be effective in creating feelings of inadequacy and comparing oneself to others in terms of body image.
Instagram contains a plethora of seemingly authentic images, many of which represent body ideals. Physical appearance actually plays an important role on Instagram, and studies have shown that teens and young adults experience distress, body dissatisfaction, and pressure to look perfect on social media. Since Instagram gives its users the opportunity to edit content before posting it on their profile, users tend to resort to behaviors such as image filtering.
Previous studies have emphasized the importance and extent of using social media, especially the Instagram social network, in the world and in Iran, and clearly confirmed the mutual effect of its use with psychological issues, including people's attitudes about their body image among the users of this network. It is important to note that most researches have focused on the role of using Instagram on psychological variables, but this research focused on the role of body image variable on the use of Instagram. Although two-way relationship is tested in correlation studies, the goal of the researchers in terms of predictor variables and criteria determines the direction of the analysis. Based on this, this research sought to determine the relationship between the body image of the studied community and the use of Instagram after examining the status of the variables of Instagram use and body image among the subjects under study (  University of Birjand students)?
Instagram is a visual program that has given its users the ability to send photos, videos, selfies, live broadcasts, and in addition has created the necessary interaction so that users can react to the stories and posts of their followers. The many features of this platform and its attractiveness for young people made the community under study of this research to show high statistics of using this media (based on the results of the first question). This issue can provide many opportunities for society's decision makers to use these capabilities in the service of raising the standards of today's social life. Therefore, domestic similar platforms should be strengthened so that they can replace it due to the filtering of this social media. However, due to the international nature of Instagram, it is unlikely that a suitable alternative will be found for it; Therefore, it is suggested to facilitate favorable conditions for students to use this media along with their awareness about its benefits and harms. Because filtering media that is very popular among young people will cause dissatisfaction and hidden and open social aggressions.
Data were collected using body image questionnaires (Littleton et al., 2005) and using Instagram (Lezbna, 2015). The body image questionnaire (Littleton et al., 2005) contains 19 items and uses a Likert scale (scored from 1 meaning never to 5 meaning always). The validity of this questionnaire using the correlation method with the self-report scale of body dysmorphic disorder was reported as 0.83 in the research of Littleton et al. (2005). Also, in a study conducted by Basak Nejad and Ghaffari (2006), the validity of this questionnaire was tested and confirmed using the correlation coefficient between this scale and the fear of negative evaluation of physical appearance (r=0.55). The reliability of the questionnaire in the research of Littleton et al. (2005) was evaluated by the internal consistency method and the Cronbach's alpha coefficient obtained was equal to 0.93. Cronbach's alpha coefficient of the first and second factors was 0.92 and 0.76, respectively, and the correlation coefficient between the two factors (1. apparent dissatisfaction and 2. functional interference) was 0.69. In the research of Rostagarinia and Ali Khademi (2022), the reliability of this questionnaire using Cronbach's alpha method was 0.86 for the entire questionnaire, 0.84 for the first subscale (apparent dissatisfaction) and 0.71 for the second subscale (functional interference). It is reported that it indicates acceptable reliability of the questionnaire. In the present study, Cronbach's alpha of the whole body image questionnaire was 0.88, the first component (appearance dissatisfaction) was 0.84, and the second component (functional interference) was 0.77.
The second questionnaire was the use of Instagram (Lezbna, 2015). This questionnaire contains 13 items and has been used in many personality and clinical research projects due to its high validity (Pouyanfar, 2019). In this research, the validity of this questionnaire was checked and confirmed using the content validity method (subject experts and professors). Lezbana (2015) reported the reliability of this questionnaire using Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.81 and Pouyanfar (2019) 0.83. In the current study, the Cronbach's alpha of the Instagram usage questionnaire was 0.81.
The statistical data analysis of this research was done using descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation, tables and graphs) and inferential statistics (including regression tests, Pearson correlation coefficient and one-sample t-________________________________________________________________________
The Journal of Human Information Interaction is supported by Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran.
This work is published under CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 license
The statistical data analysis of this research was done using descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation, tables and graphs) and inferential statistics (including regression tests, Pearson correlation coefficient and one-sample t-test). The software used for statistical analysis was SPSS version 25. In addition, the normality of the data distribution was confirmed using the Kolomogrov-Smirnov test.
The results of the first question, which asked the students' use of the social network Instagram, were obtained in such a way that the sample T-Tech test showed that the students' use of Instagram, despite being filtered, with an average of 43.53 at the level of 0.01, is significantly higher than The average was 39. The findings showed that most of the respondents (138 people) have been using Instagram for more than 4 years, the respondents spend between 1 and 2 hours on Instagram, the number of posts they share on this platform is less than 10 posts, and according to the results, although They post pictures on Instagram once a month. The respondents checked Instagram sometimes and agreed that they devoted a part of their daily schedule to Instagram and that Instagram was a part of the respondents' daily activities; So that they used Instagram in their free time, at work or class, etc. In the end, the respondents believed that they should be present on Instagram all day and if they are not present, their communication is cut off.
McCormick (2018) believes that Instagram is a social network platform, and the adoption of this program by many users and the use of new technologies in different fields increase the value of this program day by day, and the reason that makes it more attractive to advertisers is the young audience of this program. . According to the latest statistics of the Statista website, users aged 25 to 34 are the largest age group of Instagram users worldwide, followed by people aged 18 to 24, and in the meantime, India is at the top of the list of Instagram users with 201 million Instagram users. . Bolton et al. (2013) concluded that young consumers are a technologically savvy and visually advanced generation, and their adaptability to using technology eases many issues because they are born with the introduction of technology. Starcevich and Konjikoshi (2018) also believe that the young generation has the most participation in social media when compared to previous generations. Other researches inside and outside the country such as Poyanfar (2019); Borbor and Tajik Ismaili (1401); Brati and Atrian (1400); Kapenter et al. (2020); Huang and Chu (2018) have obtained results consistent with the results of this research.
The results of the second question, how do the students perceive their body image? It showed that the students' opinion about the negative image of their own body was significantly lower than the average, in other words, they did not have a very unfavorable image of their appearance. Also, the respondents were rarely dissatisfied with some parts of their appearance, sometimes they spend considerable time in the mirror, they never feel that the people around them have a negative opinion about them, if they are dissatisfied with their appearance, they still participate in social activities, use cosmetics to improve their appearance. They rarely seek approval from others about their appearance, they are not afraid of others finding fault with their appearance, and they do not avoid looking in the mirror. The results of the T-Tech exam of the sample of students regarding their body image with two research components (appearance dissatisfaction and functional interference) are reported with an average level. The results show that the status of students regarding their body image with an average of 41.78 at the level of 0.01 is significantly lower than the average of 57. Also, the state of apparent dissatisfaction of students with an average of 20.93 and functional interference with an average of 20.85 is significant at the level of 0.01 and below the average; Therefore, the students had a relatively positive image of their body. Mohad et al. (2013) in their research, consistent with the current research, concluded that 85% of the respondents are more than average satisfied with their body. In the case of those who had an unfavorable body image, this dissatisfaction with appearance increased the desire to wear makeup. Also, interference in a person's social performance increases both the desire and the practice of makeup. Khodaparast et al. (2019) obtained the average of body image components and compared it with the average, and concluded that the sample people have a positive and favorable view of their body image. Contrary to the present study, Wood-Barkalow et al. (2010) concluded that 12 of the respondents were not satisfied with their body image. It seems that the type of subjects of this study did not have an effect on obtaining these results. Students in an active and rich environment usually receive positive feedback from their friends, and at a young age, due to physical health and vitality, a person's attitude towards his body is more positive than at an older age.
In the research hypothesis, students' body image predicts their use of Instagram. The results were such that in this hypothesis, the components of body image including appearance dissatisfaction and functional interference were considered as predictor variables and Instagram use as criterion variable. The results of the variable correlation test (as a regression assumption) showed that there is a significant relationship between body image and both of its components, i.e., appearance dissatisfaction and functional interference (as a predictor variable) and using Instagram (as a criterion variable) at the level of 0.05. Appearance dissatisfaction and functional interference were the variables entered in the regression equation at the same time, and both variables remained in the model. Chua and Chang's (2016) research showed that people's feedback from peers and society has a significant effect on the dissemination of photos published on Instagram, and functional interference is a predictor of Instagram use. Verastro et al. (2020) conducted a study, and the results showed that people who felt more anxious and uncomfortable about their body image and had more pressure to comply with social media standards were people who edited their pictures and then posted them online. upload, internalize the beauty stereotype suggested by Instagram and use Instagram more. Pedalino and Camrini (2022) obtained results consistent with this research, which was associated with lower levels of body satisfaction in the target population due to the social comparison process of ideal body images shared on the Instagram platform.
Fardouli et al. (2022) used the multiple regression method in their research and the result of their research was also consistent with the present research. Also, Cowles et al. (2023) concluded that participants who spent more time on Instagram had higher levels of body dissatisfaction and more comparisons of physical appearance. In their research, Sohrabzadeh et al. (2018) concluded that there is a significant and direct relationship between body image and the use of Instagram with a correlation coefficient (0.236) and a significance level (0.0001). In addition, Sadeghzadeh et al. (2018) reported in their study that dissatisfaction with body image has a significant and positive relationship with the amount of use of Instagram (r = 0.64, p<0.01).

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