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Elaheh Hosseini, Mohammad Amin Erfanmanesh,
Volume 1, Issue 3 (12-2014)

Background and Aim: the current study aims to determine factors which may cause negative feeling such as fear, uncertainty and anxiety during information seeking process. Method: In this review paper, different library resources and databases were searched in the areas of library anxiety, Internet anxiety, computer anxiety, information seeking, information searching and information retrieval to elicit factors which may cause information seeking anxiety. Results: Potential causes of information seeking anxiety were grouped and reviewed in 4 different categories, namely factors associated with information resources, factors associated with computers, the Internet and databases, factors associated with libraries and factors associated with information seeking process. Conclusion: Negative feelings during information seeking process may negatively affect the results of this process. By being aware of the causes of information seeking anxiety, librarians and information systems’ administrators will be in a better position to provide instructions and services which is effective to reduce levels of anxiety during information seeking process.  
Mohammad Amin Erfnmanesh, Elahe Hosseini,
Volume 4, Issue 3 (12-2017)

Objective: Although citation-based metrics have extensively been used for research evaluation and scientific impact, in recent years social media metrics have also introduced as alternative indicators. This research aims to investigate the presence and attentions received by scientific output of Iran in social media tools.
Research Methods: The current study is an applied research using altmetric and scientometric indicators. A total of 43076 documents which specified Iran as their affiliated country and indexed by Scopus in 2015, were selected as the population of the study. Findings: Results of the study showed relatively low altmetric coverage for scientific output of Iran, with only 5840 documents (13.55%) were mentioned at least once in social media.platforms. These documents have received 28517 mentions in 14 sources of attention, of which Mendeley makes up the highest share (87%), followed by Twitter (77.91%) and Facebook (17.87%).  Studying the temporal trend of mentions showed that the highest share of attentions received mainly soon after publishing and then tended to demonstrate a decreasing trend. Almost half of the publications (49.24%) with altmetric score were published in medical sciences area. Moreover, scientific output published through international research collaboration showed higher altmetric scores compared with the mean altmetric score of the country.
Conclusion: Iranian researchers need to know more about the potential and advantages of social media tools in dissemination of scholarly output and evaluation of research impact. 
Elmira Karimi, Mahmoud Babaee, Moloukosadat Hosseini Beheshti,
Volume 5, Issue 3 (12-2018)

Background and Aim: Information systems cannot be well designed or developed without a clear understanding of needs of users, manner of their information seeking and evaluating. This research has been designed to analyze the Ganj (Iranian research institute of science and technology database) users’ query refinement behaviors via log analysis.   
Methods: The method of this research is log analysis. In this research, the Ganj users’ query refinement behaviors were analyzed. User’s logs during 3 months between May and June 2016 were analyzed for semantic features. The study tool was a researcher-made checklist of semantic features. The total searches were 10 milion records which were limited to information science domain. About 106641 records were selected for analysis. 
Results: The semantic relationships (based on thesaurus relationships) were revealed between pair’s terms in user’s searches. The results showed that users refined their searches based on some semantic relationships.    
Conclusion: The results of this research can be used to improve the Ganj results and for term suggestion for users, so that they be able to choose proper terms while there are several related terms.
Seyed Mahdi Hosseini, Faramarz Soheili, Mohammad Zareei,
Volume 5, Issue 4 (3-2019)

Background and Aim: Science is the result of collective thinking and sharing of findings and the use and critique in collective spaces. Also, Researchers share scientific findings by using communication platforms. Therefore, platforms play an important role in development of science. With the creation of communication and information technologies, scholarly journals have placed considerable position in facilitating the formal scholarly communication between researchers. Despite the widespread use of researchers from electronic journals, their role in the scholarly communication process has not yet been studied.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of electronic journals in improving the process of scientific communication between faculty members.   
Methods: the present study was carried out with a quantitative approach and survey method using survey questionnaire. Of the total of 350 faculty members of the University of Kurdistan, 181 were selected as samples, and individuals were selected for the proportion of the college population and departments and completed the questionnaire. After that, the research questions were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. 
Results: Previous models of scientific communication process were investigated and two steps were added to the four-step process of Harmsze and Thorin. According to The studied sample belief, the environment of electronic journals have a role in improve of all six stages of the scientific communication process. Demographic variables had no effect on decision making. The environment of electronic journals plays an important role in improving the scientific communication process. Therefore, it's better, in design such systems, in addition to the function of creating a substrate presentation of the article, the role of modifying and changing the behavior of researchers should also be predicted.    
Conclusion: The findings of this research will help improvement and completion of the process of scientific communication stages and also helps designers of electronic journal systems to design their system functions aimed at modifying the behavior of researchers. So far, a research that should investigate the faculty members' opinion about the role of electronic journals in improving their scientific communication, has not been implemented. Also, in this research, the four stages of the scientific communication process has expanded into six stages.
Zahra Khajeali Jahantighi, Zahra Abazari, Zohreh Mirhosseini, Fahimeh Babalhavaeji,
Volume 8, Issue 3 (11-2021)

Background and Aim: The aim is to provide an appropriate patients informative model of self-care for the medical information system of the country.
Methodology: This is an applied survey research. Through Cochran's formula sample of 356 individuals were selected from the population of 5,000 individuals. Khajeh Ali (et al., 2020) Qualitative Standard Research Questionnaire (with 2 dimensions, 14 components and 92 questions) was used.
Findings: It was revealed that all parameters of the self-care informing factor analysis model of patients in the medical informing system are significant at 95% confidence level and the model has a good fit. Also, care of medical services has a weight of 0.422, the correction component is 0.924 and behavioral care is 0.417. Meanwhile, 0.92 for the component of participation in care, 0.897 for prevention, for the component of personal cares, 0.482, and 0.448 for the component of satisfaction, 0.502 for the component of environmental cares and 0.852 for health have been acquired. Regarding the information dimension, 0.907 for science and knowledge component, 0.852 for processing, 0.887 for news distribution, and 0.798 for knowledge have been acquired. In addition, for the dimensions of information and self-care, weights of 0.69 and 0.77 were obtained, respectively.
Conclusion: Chronic care is the duty of the primary care team with physicians giving extensive part of their time. Since patient care occurs in service delivery units - part of health system and of a larger community – ensuing participatory care. Information behavior research is to help science professionals to be knowledgeable about the information needs of their target community to make the required planning to offer information resources for patient self-care of the country. Obtained model could bring promising result in the medical information system.

Soheila Shakouri Yadegari, Mirza Hassan Hosseini, Seyed Musa Khademi, Lotfollah Forouzandeh,
Volume 10, Issue 1 (6-2023)

purpose: consumer behavior in the field of e-commerce and web-based services has different dimensions, including psychological, cultural, economic, personality, etc. components. Since the e-commerce market is constantly growing, it creates a good development opportunity for businesses, so business opportunities should be more adapted to the characteristics and behavioral characteristics of consumers to better meet customer needs. fulfill and facilitate business success. The current research was conducted with the aim of presenting the pattern of consumer behavior in electronic commerce with an exploratory approach.
Methodology: In terms of its fundamental purpose, this research is a survey descriptive research that was conducted in a mixed exploratory manner.
Findings: The results showed that the model of consumer behavior in e-commerce includes: causal conditions, categories, platforms, intervening factors, strategies and consequences. Also, in the quantitative part, the results of the research indicated the approval of most of the components of the qualitative part of the research by the experts.
Conclusion: Examining patterns and models of consumer behavior in e-commerce is necessary for institutions, and in this regard, the results of this research model and other models presented in the field of study should be used in order to create fields for predicting consumer behavior.

Zahra Poorpir, Mohammadreza Kiyani, Mohammad Ali Rostaminegad, Seyyed Ebrahim Hosseini Zargaz,
Volume 10, Issue 2 (9-2023)

Introduction and Objective: Covid-19 is an infectious respiratory disease that, like other infectious diseases, has affected people's health. As an important source for obtaining health information, social media have made a major contribution in meeting the need for information about Covid-19. The role of people's health information-seeking behavior is important in disease management and control, and it has an impact on the health of the society in the future.
Methodology: This research was practical and survey type. Statistical population, all students were studying at Birjand University at the time of the study. Sampling was done based on proportional classification random sampling (370 people). The research tool was a researcher-made questionnaire. The validity of the questionnaire was measured by using the opinions of experts and experts in information science, epistemology and medical sciences, and its reliability was measured using Cronbach's alpha (0.897).
Findings: The findings of the research showed that students used more search engines, foreign social networks and news media to get information about Covid-19 than reliable sources such as official specialized medical websites. Telegram and Instagram were the most used. They paid more attention to news related to covid-19 and preventive behaviors than getting information about treatment methods. The amount of negative and positive consequences of obtaining information about this disease on students was less than expected and among the components of information-seeking behavior, they paid the least attention to information sharing. In the field of aspects related to Covid-19, they paid the most attention to the educational aspect and the least attention to the political aspect.
Conclusion:  Information and realizing its value and importance in human life today, leads to the concern of how to access the required information from among the multitude of available information. Information-seeking behavior follows the need for information, which includes activities such as information search, search tools, the type of information sought, search problems, and factors affecting it. Since the need for health information due to the spread of the Covid-19 disease creates concerns. Therefore, it leads to health information-seeking behavior, which includes actions related to searching and finding health-related problems, information about diseases, risk factors, and health promotion (Jalilian et al., 2021). In the course of searching for information, a person may use a manual information system or a computer-based system (Wilson, 2000).
Social media, as a platform that provides a lot of information, including health-related information, has been distinguished from other information systems due to components such as quick and easy access, interactive and comprehensible, and convenience. In the process of health information seeking behavior, the role of social media as a tool for searching for information and its effect on people's behavior is important (Liu, 2020). The types of information about which the search helps to meet the need for information and curiosities in the midst of this pandemic, information such as news related to Covid-19 (the number of patients and deaths), preventive behaviors (washing hands regularly, wearing masks) , vaccination, etc.) and various medical methods and related drugs.
Covid-19 is a respiratory disease caused by the corona virus and spread in late 2019. The Corona pandemic was declared by the World Health Organization as a public health emergency (Jalilian et al., 2021). This epidemic prompted scientists in different disciplines to investigate various issues arising from this phenomenon (Shehata, 2020). Access to health information is essential for any country and this is more important in developing countries where health challenges are more (Ankama et al., 2021). Progress in the prevention of Covid-19 is partially dependent on understanding the process of health information seeking behavior and its tools. To promote effective health knowledge, behavior change must be done at the individual level, and health messages must be accurate, transparent, and comprehensible. Also, be available and appropriate to the cultural environment of the society (Jalilian et al., 2021). Due to the epidemic nature of this disease and its unexpected consequences, the role of people and their information behaviors in fighting and controlling this disease is very important (Ostadi, 2019).
The main variables of the research included: the amount of use of each type of social media, the amount of use of each type of social network, the types of information obtained, the amount of negative and positive consequences of obtaining information about Covid-19, the amount of each From health information seeking behaviors and aspects related to covid 19.
To carry out the research, the researcher-made questionnaire was used as a data collection tool. This questionnaire was compiled in two parts based on the objectives and questions of the research. The first part includes questions related to the objectives of the research, and in the second part, three questions are asked about the personal characteristics of the respondents.
This questionnaire had 42 items and was measured in 7 variables, which are: social media (items 1-9), social networks (items 10-16), types of information obtained (item 17-21), negative consequences of information acquisition (items 22-26), positive consequences of information acquisition (items 27-33), types of health information-seeking behavior (items 34-37) and related dimensions with covid 19 (items 42-38). The mentioned questionnaire was distributed among the statistical population after checking and testing the validity and reliability. In this research, in order to measure the content validity of the questionnaire, the questions of the questionnaire were prepared by studying and reviewing related study sources, and then using the opinions of experts and experts in information science, philology, and medical sciences, they were reviewed and modified.
Out of a total of 224 respondents, that is, 58% of the people were women and 162 of them, equal to 42%, were men. Students in the study field of humanities with 167 people (43%) have the highest frequency among the respondents. After that, engineering science group with 112 people (29 percent), basic science group with 63 people (16 percent) and agricultural science group with 44 people (12 percent) respectively.
The number of respondents in the undergraduate level was the highest with 319 people (83 percent), as well as 47 people (12 percent) in the master's degree and 20 people (5 percent) in the doctoral level.
In the social media variable, the results showed that the average amount of social media use was generally lower than average. In the components of official medical websites, doctors' websites, unofficial websites, internal social networks, Wikipedia and encyclopedias, discussion groups and forums are also less than It was average. According to Zhang and Zhao (2017) and Haider et al. (2009), concern about the quality of information reduces the amount of social media use and consumer participation.
In the variable of social networks, the findings show that the average amount of use of the variable of social networks was generally lower than the average. Due to the filtering of YouTube, Twitter, and Clubhouse platforms, their use was quite logically lower than average. In the components of the Telegram and Instagram platforms, the average amount of use was more than average. The researchers' field observations of the users' use of these networks are consistent with the obtained results, as a result, the use of social networks due to their accessibility and the widely used role of mobile phone technology today is a source of information dissemination and information acquisition. Since the specialized information on websites and official sources is valuable, it is necessary to pay attention to the reason why they are not given much attention, and it should be carefully rooted and investigated.
The search rate of Birjand University students regarding each type of health information about Covid-19, the research indicates that, in general, the search rate in the variable of types of information about Covid-19 was equal to the average. But in the components of news related to Covid-19, preventive behaviors were more than average. Since the purpose of searching users during the Covid-19 pandemic was to deal with the said disease; Therefore, the results refer to the consumption of health information related to the news of Covid-19 and various preventive behaviors, because obtaining health information about each of the information related to Covid-19 is important in the process of managing and controlling this disease.
The rate of negative consequences of acquiring information about Covid-19 was below average. Also, in all components of worry, anxiety, lack of trust in information, confusion and confusion, and cognitive avoidance were also below the average level. What causes worry and anxiety in people is often lack of awareness and lack of ability to manage a crisis. In Nakheizadeh's new research (2019), the level of anxiety caused by covid-19 was high, as Nakheizadeh's study shows, his research is related to the early period of the corona epidemic. What is remarkable at the beginning of the matter, with the indiscriminate spread and the lack of sufficient and correct information about this disease, as well as the lack of a related vaccine, the influx of this amount of anxiety and worry among people can be considered normal. Moreover, the data of the current research was collected after about two years of the corona virus, when the students were in the approximate routine of life before the corona virus, right at the same time as face-to-face education in the university, and this change in the results can be completely logically explained. Justified. Also, the study of Bigdali et al. (2013) also expressed the positive view of users towards health information on the web. Montsi (2020) also stated that even receiving fake information does not affect people's physical or mental health, and its results are completely intangible, which can be roughly generalized to the results of this research and considered consistent.
In the variable of positive outcomes of acquiring information about Covid-19, it was below average. Also, in the components of the ability to recognize the need for information, search skills, the spirit of cooperation and information sharing, and the promotion of critical thinking, it was also below average. Also, in the components of knowledge of information sources and ability to evaluate information sources, it was equal to the average level. As a result, considering that in some components of the skill of recognizing the need for information and the ability to evaluate information sources, their average score was equal to the average level, which indicates that their health literacy is average; Because the results are consistent with the acquisition of their health information sources (social networks), so it is in line with the results of Apok and Ellis.
The average rate of performing various types of information-seeking behavior about Covid-19 was higher than average. Also, in the components of information search, identifying the need for information and changing health and treatment behavior, seeking more information was more than average. In the information sharing component, the average score of this component was equal to the average; Considering that the sources of obtaining health information about this disease are basically the media and social networks. What emerges from the evidence is that following a crisis or problem related to health and feeling the need for related information, people start searching for related sources and if it is noticeable, their health information seeking behavior is an increasing trend. has it. Therefore, the present study is consistent with all previous studies.
The results of the present study show that the average of information acquisition in the variable of information dimensions related to Covid-19 was higher than the average and also in all components, including dimensions related to health, economic, political, social and educational, the average score was higher. It was average. In other words, the findings show the students' concerns about each of the dimensions related to economy, health, politics, social justice, and especially about education and concerns about holding classes, not having the necessary infrastructure in an optimal way. In some people, lack of concentration and anxiety is caused by the situation.
The findings showed that the most sources of obtaining health information for students of Birjand University are search engines, foreign social networks and news media, and they paid less attention to reliable media such as official specialized medical websites. Also, the results point to the important and prominent role of Telegram and Instagram platforms. In addition, what the studied community sought to obtain information about covid-19 was mostly preventive behaviors and news related to covid-19 rather than its treatment methods. Also, the results showed that the health information-seeking behavior of Birjand University students has generally increased during this pandemic; But they have done the behavior of sharing information related to Covid less. Meanwhile, the role of dimensions related to Covid-19, including dimensions related to health, economic, political, social and educational, and obtaining information about each of these dimensions was of great importance for students, and the most important aspect for them was the educational dimension. .
The results showed that women used reliable sources such as official specialized medical websites and news media compared to men, and men used social networks (Telegram, Instagram, Twitter and YouTube) and search engines to get information about Covid. 19 have used. The influence of the role of gender showed that women are more interested in obtaining all kinds of information about this disease, and also paid more attention to the negative consequences of women; After creating negative consequences in women, they sought to obtain information about preventive behaviors. Because a significant relationship has been established between negative consequences and preventive behaviors in past studies. In addition, the role of gender had no effect on the positive outcomes and dimensions related to Covid-19, except for the economic dimension component. The field of study and level of study did not make a significant difference in the research variables. Based on this, it is suggested to hold training courses to improve the quality and awareness of health information literacy in social networks and news media for students of different levels. Also, policy makers and decision makers should pay more attention to providing authentic information on social media for the audience. Social networks and internal messengers should be adapted in the field of providing health information. Future researches can examine the subject of study in other societies and use different research methods to collect data or analyze findings.

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