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Zeinab Sedighi, Alireza Isfandyari-Moghaddam, Atefeh Zarei,
Volume 3, Issue 2 (9-2016)

Purpose: Digital library user interfaces has a determining role in desirable performance of this kind of libraries. Digital Library service providers to the blind and deaf users will have their best performance when the users (deaf and blind users) could have a proper interaction with them. This study aims to evaluate and analyze the criteria related to user interface in digital libraries service provider to the blind and deaf users in the world.

 Methodology: This is an applied and evaluative study. This study has been used library research method for extracting criteria and descriptive survey method for everything from evaluating library. A checklist consist of 13 criteria (Screen capabilities, Ability of organizing the screen, Search facilities, Links, Visual symbols and images, Options for customizing the texts, Help services and Tips, Error message alert, Interaction and feedback facilities, user interface Language, User controls, Library resources in various format, Study facilities of retrieved resources from the library) and 109 component is prepared. Then have been finalized by using the Delphi method and completed for each Library. 12 digital library service providers to blind and deaf user in the world perform the population.

Finding: Results of the study showed that the criteria of '' user interface language '' (with 97.92 %) and the criteria of '' user control'' (with 9.67 %) reached the highest and lowest scores respectively. Among the 12 digital libraries investigated worldwide, "Digital library for the blind" with respect 63.53 reached the maximum and "U.S. National Library Service for Blind" with respect 37.62 grasped the minimum levels.

Hadi Harati, Fatemeh Nooshinfard, Alireza Isfandyari-Moghaddam, Fahimeh Babalhavaeji, Nadjla Hariri,
Volume 5, Issue 2 (9-2018)

Background and Aim: The present study aimed at investigating the factors affecting the unplanned behavior of users to use academic library resources and services.
Methods: The present study is considered as being an applied one in terms of purpose ,and it has has been conducted using descriptive-survey method. Research population consist of the students of central libraries at Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Shahid Chamran universty of Ahwaz, universities of Tabriz and Shiraz, as well as the Tehran Univrsity. Having determined the validity and reliability of the questionnaire, 700 questionnaires were distributed among the participants and 654 questionnaires have been analyzed applying stratified random sampling method based on the population size. Path analysis and LISREL software have been used in order for data analysis to be carried out.
Results: The results shows that the environmental factors and also the ones associated with technology affect the students’ unplanned behavior as far as using resources and services of university libraries through the situational factor of time are concerned. In addition, the data resources and services have no direct or indirect influence on the incidence of these behaviors.
Conclusion: Libraries should pay a special attention to the factors affecting the clients’ unplanned behavior, especially the ones whose impact has been proven including "environmental factors", "factors associated with technology", and the "accessible time ". This way, it will be possible for the libraries to have an optimized and efficient use of their resources and services. The result of paying attention to these factors will be the greater use of library resources and services, attracted audiences, and an increased level of awareness and information of users.
Mrs Farahnaz Naderbeigi, Dr Alireza Isfandyari-Moghaddam, Dr Atefeh Zarei, Dr Behrooz Bayat,
Volume 6, Issue 4 (3-2020)

Purpose and background: One usually think of information as means to an end.  Despite the excessive worth of information - contrary to man's inherent need for awareness - some avoid information, favoring ignorance over knowledge. The purpose of this study is to elucidate the concept of information evasion, consequences and factors influencing it.
Methodology: The study was a systematic review of literature associated with information avoidance. Initially, terms such as "Information rejection," "Information escape,"  "Information avoidance,"   "Nonuse of information" were searched in the WoS and Scopus citation databases, as well as the Persian databases of Noormags, Sid, Elmnet, and the comprehensive humanities portal. MAXQDA software was used to study and analyze the literature.
Findings: Information avoidance is a set of selective behaviors and actions intended to stop, limit, and/or delay the search for, the encounter with, the processing of, and/or the use of unpleasant information. Information avoidance is multidimensional information. Various factors affect information avoidance some of which are personal, and some are environmental. Information avoidance has many types, including active and passive, comprehensive and selective, deliberate and defensive.
Conclusion: Some people avoid information by predicting the impact of information on their present or future lives. Information avoidance is still not well understood because a good deal of research has focused on information avoidance from a specific perspective. Although research streams cross at various points in terms of information avoidance. Given the harmful consequences of information avoidance, research policy should pay special attention to this issue so that, with the help of researchers in other fields, a solution can be found.

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