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Shahrzad Nasrollahzadeh,
Volume 1, Issue 4 (3-2015)

Background and Aim: In studies of special groups’ information seeking behavior, there is not a complete understanding of pregnant women's information seeking process. The purpose is to gain a deeper understanding of health information seeking behavior of the pregnant women.
Method: This is an applied qualitative method using Grounded Theory approach. Data were collected through semi- structured interviews with 15 pregnant women who were selected from 5 women's hospitals in Tehran. Data was analyzed using three stages of: Open axial and selective coding- used in Grounded theory approach- and a model of pregnant women’s health information seeking behavior was extracted.
Results: five conceptual categories: information seeking motives, barriers, information seeking, information evaluation, and information sharing were the results of three stages of coding, expanded around the main idea of “pregnant women’s health information seeking behavior” to establish a model for this process. Based on the findings, pregnant women's most essential information needs were psychological needs, nutrition, health of mother and fetus, and the ways of childbirth. The most important information seeking barriers were lack of time for searching information, lack of ability in information evaluation, and the high level of difficulty of the books. Physicians were the first and the most important reference in information acquisition and important criteria for information evaluation.
Conclusion: Findings reveal the importance of information acquisition in pregnant women, effective intervention of information professionals in meeting information needs, removal of information seeking barriers, facilitating information seeking process and more attention to information centers seems necessary. Also, results could be applicable to various organizations for women’s health.
Shahrzad Nasrollahzadeh, Safiyeh Tahmasebi Limooni, Mitra Ghiasi,
Volume 10, Issue 3 (11-2023)

Background and Purpose: Studies show that limited models have been designed to measure women's information sharing behavior, but so far no valid and reliable tool has been provided to measure women's information sharing behavior in information environments. Since knowing and determining the type of information environment and the extent of their use in information sharing behavior is very effective in strengthening information channels, and informal communication is extremely important in scientific relations, and women, as one of the social groups in a prestigious positions in Society; Most of their information needs are met through informal channels of information, so it is necessary to examine women's information environments; Because the identification of these environments is a solid foundation for planning and making changes in the type and manner of presenting macro-policies with the aim of women achieving dignified competencies, and it can also be a way to optimize information environments. Therefore, the purpose of the current research is to construct and validate a questionnaire to analyze the information sharing behavior of women in information environments.
Materials and methods:This research is mixed in terms of applied objective, in terms of exploratory approach, and in terms of data collection method. The statistical population in the qualitative section includes 15 experts and in the quantitative section includes all women (20 years old and above) active members of urban institutional public libraries in the city centers of Mazandaran province, numbering 4936 people. The sample size was 357 people who were selected by proportional stratified random sampling in 1401. The proportional stratified random sampling method has other names such as "matched sampling", "proportionate to volume" and "proportional" method. This method is used when the target population of the research has a heterogeneous and inconsistent structure. Therefore, due to heterogeneous and heterogeneity, in such cases, the research community is divided into different "classes", in fact, by using stratified sampling, the society is divided into homogeneous groups, so that the people in each class are similar and homogeneous. Then, a random sample is selected from each class in proportion to the number of people in the community. In this method, the researcher wants to select the research sample in such a way as to make sure that the subgroups are present in the sample with the same proportion as they exist in the society as representatives of the society. In other words, in this sampling method, the studied community units are grouped into classes that are homogeneous and congruent in terms of variable attributes so that their changes and diversity within the groups are reduced. As a result, groups and classes that have similar characteristics are formed. Then, with this action (dividing the society into homogeneous groups), the number of samples for each group is determined, then by using the simple random sampling method, the required number of people from each group will be selected in proportion. In this research, through stratified sampling, three geographical regions (east, west and center of Mazandaran province) were considered as strata, in such a way that the researcher entered the selected geographical strata after obtaining the necessary permits and filled out the questionnaire as It was randomly distributed among the designated groups. The sample size in this research was selected and precisely determined based on Cochran's formula. . The pattern of information sharing behavior of women in information environments, 34 questions in 10 dimensions of personal and personal motives; spatial factors; time factors; social motives, cultural motives; moral motives; motivation of informational awareness, political motivation; The information sharing environment and information sharing method was designed. Then, in order to analyze the data using statistical techniques and Smart PLS statistical software, content validity ratio and confirmatory factor analysis, instrument validity, check, and finally with Cronbach's alpha method and reliability coefficient. Combined, the reliability of the instrument was determined.
Findings: In the findings of the present research, the results showed that people with different motivations and to meet different needs turn to different information environments. Identifying the most important motivations for using these environments for sharing information can help scientific, educational, cultural and social institutions and especially organizations in charge of scientific and cultural policies in providing the best possible services. Reviewing what was previously discussed, people go to informal information sources such as their family members, relatives, and friends to obtain information. They were very dependent. Lack of access, illiteracy, lack of awareness, unfavorable economic conditions, cultural restrictions, and language or communication barriers have been declared as the main obstacles in obtaining daily information for women. Also, the findings regarding the background factors of women's information environments in information sharing showed that people do not depend on environmental factors and time factors, which were considered as the governing factors in women's information sharing in information environments, to establish social interaction. People are willing to engage in social interaction anywhere, at any time, and at different and unexpected places. When people gather in an information field, they actually participate in social interaction, and conversation about life, generalities, and specific circumstances that lead to unexpected and sometimes purposeful finding of information and formal and informal sharing of information on various topics. In the provided tool, it was found that including "moral", "social", "cultural" and "political" motivations among women can be important factors of information sharing in information environments and it is necessary to observe ethical minimums in information environments. To be Political issues, dimensions and sensitivity to them is another important issue that can be seen in this tool and must be observed by women in information environments and during information sharing. The type and cultural level of people and the sense of security guarantee for women are effective while sharing information in information environments. Therefore, the role of these factors in information sharing in information environments should not be ignored. Because these factors lead to the emergence of planned behaviors by women in information sharing and increase the confidence factor of the abilities of these environments, which ultimately, in this way, they feel satisfied with social interactions and information sharing. Also, based on the results of the research in the presented scale, the direct and indirect planning of discussions and the use of social networks have been approved as strategic factors of information sharing in women's information environments. In fact, the strategic factors of information sharing in women's information environments are a set of reasons that their implementati on and application cause the emergence of information sharing consequences in women's information environments. Environments such as parks or family gatherings are suitable environments for sharing information and experiences. A large part of the information we receive is obtained in a social context and in the form of interaction with familiar people, family members, and friends. In addition, the behavior of sharing information in women's information environments is done through "direct discussions". In social interactions, information is created and shared. Therefore, the most important issue in the information sharing process is effective interactions, and this usually happens through direct (face-to-face) or indirect communication. Formal and informal social interactions between people provide channels for creates information sharing between them. Through social interactions, people find more opportunities to share their information and experiences, and as a result, the flow of information increases. A review of researches shows that obtaining information in any period and for any user under any conditions is one of the main concerns. Because most of the responsibility of the family rests with women, especially regarding health, education and acquiring the necessary skills in household affairs. So they need more information. The sharing of information among women can be effective in raising children and strengthening the foundations of life, which in itself causes the society to flourish and grow more and more. How much the people present in the information environment show enthusiasm towards receiving or providing information is effective in the process of information sharing. Finally, the findings of the research showed that the structure of the pattern of women's information sharing behavior in information environments was confirmed according to the content validity ratio (0.76) and confirmatory factor analysis with the goodness of fit index (GOF) equal to 0.3285. Also, the tool had good reliability with total Cronbach's alpha values (0.988). On the other hand, the results of Figure (1) and Table 4 also show that the 34 items in question can be reduced to 10 factors. The contribution of each factor in explaining the variance of 34 items related to the designed questionnaire is different and decreasing. That is, the first factor has the largest contribution (24.70% with a specific value of 8.40) and the tenth factor with (2.97% and a specific value of 1.01) has the lowest contribution in explaining the variance of these 34 items. In total, all 10 factors have been able to explain 70.40% of the variance of the 34 items related to the designed questionnaire with specific values higher than 1. The results of the independent sample One Sample T-Test also showed that the significance level of the test regarding all the components of women's information sharing in information environments is less than the error level of 0.05% and the average of these variables is 3 (the middle of the Likert scale) 5 options is more and also the upper limit and lower limit of all the variables are both positive values, with confidence above 95%, it can be stated that the information sharing of women in information environments and its components are in a relatively favorable situation.
Conclusion: The scale designed to investigate the information sharing behavior of women in information environments in the work environment has been evaluated as suitable according to the revealed factors, and its use is recommended to measure the information sharing behavior of women in information environments. All criteria of Cronbach's alpha, significance of factor loadings between questions and underlying variables, Composite Reliability (CR), Average Variance Extracted (AVE), and Discriminant validity by Fornell and Larcker method, as well as the appropriateness of the measurement model, indicate that the questionnaire used in this research measures what the researchers are looking for. Therefore, the built tool provides the criteria of the behavior pattern of women's information sharing in information environments to the researchers. The results of the current research showed that people with different motivations and needs turn to different information environments. Identifying the most important motivations for using information environments in sharing information can help scientific, educational, cultural, and social institutions, especially organizations in charge of scientific and cultural policies, provide the best possible services. Discovered factors include:
Individual and personality motivations with sub-factors (personal desire, altruism, individual and personality fit, individual interests, and recognition of personality dimensions to share information between individuals or other; Spatial factors with sub-factors (no place and no need for a specific place for information sharing behavior in information environments); Time factors with sub-factors (timelessness, unplanned and completely accidental occurrence of information sharing behavior in information environments); Social motivations with sub-factors (social interaction, promotion of social status, and the desire to communicate in order to engage in information sharing behavior in information environments); Cultural motivations with sub-factors (people's cultural level, the existence of an information-seeking culture in people and the existence of an information-seeking culture in sharing); Ethical motives with sub-factors (religious and religious considerations in information sharing, interpersonal trust in information sharing, and privacy in information sharing); Information awareness motivation with sub-factors (gaining awareness of the results and consequences of information sharing behavior, information and knowledge sharing, exchange of knowledge and information, exchange of experience and scientific considerations affected by the results and consequences of information sharing in information environments); Political motivation with sub-factors (political issues and sensitivities in society, the existence of a sense of political security in society, the distribution and transfer of political information from one person, group, or organization to another, and the sharing of ideas and thoughts, suggestions, and experiences); Information sharing environment with sub-agents (formal gatherings, friendly meetings and informal gatherings and social networks to share information in information environments) and finally how to share information with sub-agents (direct plan of topics, indirect plan of topics and how to share information in Women's information environments were with information taken from social networks, family periodicals, etc.) , which by measuring in the experimental environment of public libraries of Mazandaran province, while confirming their efficiency in cultural environments, it was determined that the built tools are qualitatively and quantitatively capable has the measurement of the desired variable. Therefore, it is suggested:
  • Necessary conditions to strengthen information sharing in information environments should be provided.
  • New solutions for the optimal management of information sharing in information environments should be considered.
  • Ways to create a positive attitude to promote and grow information sharing in information environments should be developed.
  • An integrated approach of interaction and optimal communication for information sharing in information environments should be adopted.
  • Training and providing all kinds of skills and specialized information for information sharing in information environments are essential.
  • Motivating, encouraging, and promoting the use of information environments for information sharing should be prioritized.
  • Identifying and determining the levels of access to information in information environments is crucial.

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