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Showing 10 results for Health Information

Zahra Shamloo, Nosrat Riahinia,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (7-2014)

Background and Aim: People refer to virtual information resources for answering their medical questions. One of these resources includes question and answering (Q&A) sites in medicine. This study aims to analyze health  questions posted on the Yahoo Answers to identify health information needs, the motivations for asking questions, evaluation of information user satisfaction resulted from received answer, the reason of using answers, the using aspects of given information and the types of selection criteria people employ when they select best answers in Yahoo! Answers. Method: A survey was conducted using an online questionnaire. Email invitations were sent to 1015 users of Yahoo! Answers and 100 users filled the questionnaire. Moreover, 500 questions, 50 from each health subject category, were subject to content analysis using MAXQDA.  Having no cost, having fun and social connection in Yahoo! Answers constitute the most important motivations for using the health group of Yahoo! Answers. The findings show that “concise answers” is considered as users’ satisfaction factor. Results: The findings showed that the concern about themselves, family, people who they care about, the lack of information and the knowledge gap, validating information from other people, the lack of social support, particularly insurance and income are among  the main reasons for users to ask questions. Prevention and health promotion, turning the guesses to certainty, consultation before treatment, surgery, or taking certain medications constitute most of the cases users use from the received answers of the questions. The Socio- emotional value was particularly a prominent criteria from User-Perspective in this study for selecting the best answer. Conclusion: According to this research, it was found that natural cure and remedies, orthodontics, losing weight methods, loosing fats, skin diseases and how to treat them, foot pain and the related problems, male genitalia, the use of eye lenses, menstruation and the problems related to the sleeping constitutes the most categories of subjects in the health part of Yahoo! Answers. The results show that most of the questions are related to a particular disorder or disease like general information, the symptoms, causes, diagnoses, treatments, prognoses of the disease.
Shahrzad Nasrollahzadeh,
Volume 1, Issue 4 (3-2015)

Background and Aim: In studies of special groups’ information seeking behavior, there is not a complete understanding of pregnant women's information seeking process. The purpose is to gain a deeper understanding of health information seeking behavior of the pregnant women.
Method: This is an applied qualitative method using Grounded Theory approach. Data were collected through semi- structured interviews with 15 pregnant women who were selected from 5 women's hospitals in Tehran. Data was analyzed using three stages of: Open axial and selective coding- used in Grounded theory approach- and a model of pregnant women’s health information seeking behavior was extracted.
Results: five conceptual categories: information seeking motives, barriers, information seeking, information evaluation, and information sharing were the results of three stages of coding, expanded around the main idea of “pregnant women’s health information seeking behavior” to establish a model for this process. Based on the findings, pregnant women's most essential information needs were psychological needs, nutrition, health of mother and fetus, and the ways of childbirth. The most important information seeking barriers were lack of time for searching information, lack of ability in information evaluation, and the high level of difficulty of the books. Physicians were the first and the most important reference in information acquisition and important criteria for information evaluation.
Conclusion: Findings reveal the importance of information acquisition in pregnant women, effective intervention of information professionals in meeting information needs, removal of information seeking barriers, facilitating information seeking process and more attention to information centers seems necessary. Also, results could be applicable to various organizations for women’s health.
Zahed Bigdeli, Zouhayr Hayati, Gholam-Reza Heidari, Tahere Jowkar,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (6-2016)

Background and Aim: Nowadays, Internet is known as an attractive source of health information to manage individual's health.  Given the importance of it, this study examined the role of Internet in health information seeking behavior among young people in Shiraz.
     Method: This research was a survey which target population were youth Internet users in the city of Shiraz.  A sample of 400 were randomly selected using, multi-stage cluster sampling. Data were collected by a questionnaire.
     Results: Most of respondents used the Internet to search health information. Young women were more likely to seek online health information than young men. As well as level of education, the experience and self-efficacy to search the Internet, showed a significant correlation with searching OHI, too. The main goal of respondents to search OHI was to understand their health condition or disease, better understanding of health information provided by physicians and self-medication. The results also showed that respondents have positive attitude towards health information retrieved via the Internet.

     Conclusion: There is a high demand of OHI among young people to manage personal health. Undoubtedly, foresight and planning to improve the quality of OHI, efforts to create a reliable health information database and public education to care about assessing the quality of OHI can herald the development of individual health and consequently the health of our community.

Shohreh S. Hoseyni, Asefe Asemi, Ahmad Shabani, Mozafar Cheshmesohrabi,
Volume 4, Issue 1 (6-2017)

Background and Aim: The current study aimed to investigate the state of health information supply and demand on prostate cancer among Iranian medical researchers and Iranian web users during 2011 to 2015. The purpose of this study, based on infodemiology indicators, was to investigate the alignment of health information supply and demand on prostate cancer among Iranian medical researchers and Iranian web users.
Methods: A mixed method research was conducted. In qualitative part, a focus group interview was applied to the users to identify their selected keywords searched for prostate cancer in Google. The collected data were analyzed using Open Code software. In quantitative part, data were synthesized using R software in two parts. First, users’ internet information-seeking behavior was analyzed using Google Trends outputs during 2011 to 2015. Second, the scientific publication of Iranian prostate cancer specialists was surveyed using PubMed during the period of the study.
Results: The results showed that the search volume index of preferred keywords on prostate cancer have decreased from 2191 in 2011 to 1798 in 2015. Also, the findings revealed that Iranian scholars had 161 scientific papers on prostate cancer in PubMed during 2011 to 2015. Among these 161 papers, 20 records related to 2011 and 44 records related to 2015. There was no significant relationship between users’ information seeking behavior in Google Trends and the scientific publication behavior of Iranian prostate cancer specialists (p>0.05).
Conclusion: According to the results, when the search volume index of Iranian web users decreased or increased during the period of the study, the number of scientific publications had not been affected by users’ search volume. Thus, it can be mentioned that Iranian scholars had not pay enough attention to the concerns of people toward prostate cancer. 
Nilofar Barahmand, Maryam Nakhoda, Fatima Fahiminia, Mahin Nazari,
Volume 4, Issue 1 (6-2017)

Background and Aim: Due to recent attention to health promotion and self-care as one of the prerequisites of health services and intervention programs, health information seeking behavior research has gain increasing importance. Factors such as attention to user centered studies, context and self-care require using of methods and tools that help study people in their natural environment. However, review studies have shown the dominance of quantitative and positivist approaches in health information seeking behavior studies. This study aims at introducing episodic interview as a tool for gathering unique data from peoples’ natural lives and its application in health information seeking studies.
Method: This review article has been conducted by library method. It addresses health information seeking behavior concept and its affecting factors. It also introduces episodic interview and its underlying concepts including narration and narrative interviewing. Further, it investigates implications of applying episodic interview in health information behavior studies and eventually it discusses steps of conducting episodic interview with examples of narrations.
Findings: The strength point of episodic interview is its focus on narration of people about their lived experiences as research data which help researchers study and analyze people in a different way from conventional approaches. Implications of applying episodic interview are: 1.concentration of health information behavior studies on pattern of behavior, 2. health information seeking behavior being interwoven in everyday life, and 3. health information seeking behavior being intentional and purposeful.
Results: Episodic interview help researchers listen to the voices of different groups of people, especially whom their voice is not heard due to sickness and social and cultural conditions, a point which should be considered in designing any information and intervention services. 
Vahide Zeinali, Nosrat Riahinia, Vadood Javadi Parvaneh, Saeid Asadi,
Volume 4, Issue 1 (6-2017)

Background and Aim: Health Information Prescription (HIP) means delivering right information to the right person at the right time. The present study was performed to determine the effect of HIP on caregivers' self-care ability.
Materials and methods: In order to evaluate the effect of HIP on caregivers' self-care ability the quasi-experimental study was carried out on 37 caregivers. Data collection was conducted using a checklist for evaluation of self-care ability. According to the checklist, the caregivers' information including four main domains (total knowledge about JHMS, attention to the effects of JHMS, the effective treatment activities and the quest of medical services) was scored based on a 5-point Likert scale. HIP services were then delivered. The caregivers' information was evaluated once again through the checklist and the pre and post intervention results were compared.
Finding: This study showed that the mean score of self-care ability in each of four domains including total knowledge about JHMS (p=0.001), attention to the effects of JHMS (p=0.001), the effective treatment activities (p=0.001) and the quest of medical services (p=0.001) increased significantly after HIPS.
Conclusion: Results of this study indicated that HIP can increasingly improve the caregivers' self-care ability.
Saleh Rahimi, Marayam Feizi, Seyed Mahdi Hoseini,
Volume 5, Issue 2 (9-2018)

Purpose: The aim of this research is to determine the role of public and academic libraries in disseminating of health information and comparing of the two types of libraries with each other.
Method: The research method is applied with descriptive-survey. The sample size was determined by using the Morgan table, 379 people. The questionnaires were distributed using Quotas sampling method. Data analysis was performed using SPSS software and it was analyzied with the descriptive and inferential tests.
Results: Findings showed that according to the mean score of the components of the test, receiving health information in libraries has had acceptable and good results for users. Also, in terms of comparison between general and academic library and components of health information among the 5 components (role of library, results of receiving, usefulness, use of resources and access barriers), in terms of barriers to access to information There is a significant difference in the health of the library between public and academic libraries. However, there are no other significant differences between the four other components. Also, there was no significant relationship between sex, age, education, occupation and income level using health information in the library.
Conclusion: The library has a significant role in the dissemination of health information, but for some reason, such as not knowing users about the health information resources in the library and some barriers to accessing these resources, many users do not use library health information resources. Finally, suggestions are made according to the results of the research to improve the role of the library and more users
Maryam Bomery, Dr. Reza Karimi, Dr. Rouhallah Khademi,
Volume 9, Issue 1 (5-2022)

Objective: Health information on diseases could help prevent the spread and the treatment and is the most vital needs of people in daily life. One health issue that has plagued the world in recent years is the corona virus. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to investigate the health information behavior of graduate students at Qom University.
Methodology: Applied descriptive survey method was used. Population was all 3000  graduate students at Qom University. Using Morgan table, sample of 300 students were seleted, out of which 200 studnts answered the questionnaires. Data was collected through the standard Lango questionnaire. Research hypotheses were scrutinized using independent t and one-way ANOVA. Age, gender, place of residence, income and information seeking behavior of graduate students  were investigated.
Findings: The most information sources were Internet, Social networks, TV and the family. while the least go to brochures and pamphlets. Althugh, graduate students could obtain corona information from social networks and Internet, nonetheless their active use of corona information is slightly more from traditional sources of television and radio. There was no significant relation of behavior variables in information retrieval, perception in information retrieval, interpersonal interaction in information retrieval, impact of information on disease, active retrieval of information and passive retrieval of information with regard to age, gender and place of residence of graduate students.
Conclusion: Results revealed that the students have health information literacy and could identify and use related health information. In spite of increasing use of new sources such as social networks and Internet, information obtained from traditional sources has been more trusted and used. Non of the variables of gender, age, income and place of residence had any effect on health information seeking behavior of students. All subjects had the same information seeking behavior.

Dr Zivar Sabaghinejad, Mr Reza Poorsavari, Dr Amin Koraei,
Volume 9, Issue 4 (1-2023)

Introduction: The present study was conducted by explaining the internal norm of Davis's technology acceptance model in online health information search among Iranian students to provide a local model.
Methods: The current research is descriptive and was carried out using a survey method. The research community is the students of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences at all levels of study. A sample of 358 people voluntarily participated in the research by stratified random sampling. The research tool was a researcher-made questionnaire with 20 questions, which after validation, Cronbach's alpha was 0/933 Obtained. The findings were analyzed with SPSS and AMOS software and using descriptive statistical tests, exploratory factor analysis, and other related tests.
Results: The findings of the exploratory factor analysis led to a four-factor model regarding students' online search for health information. The first factor: is the user's intention to search for health information online, the second factor: is the usefulness of using the Internet to receive health information, the third factor: is the ease of using the Internet to receive health information, and the fourth factor is the user's attitude towards the online search for health information. These four factors explain 66.983% of the changes related to the online search of health information among students.
Conclusion: The findings of the research indicate the approval of the Davis technology acceptance model for use in research in the field of health information among Iranian students. Therefore, it can be used in other research in this field among students with the assurance of confirming the internal norm.


Zahra Poorpir, Mohammadreza Kiyani, Mohammad Ali Rostaminegad, Seyyed Ebrahim Hosseini Zargaz,
Volume 10, Issue 2 (9-2023)

Introduction and Objective: Covid-19 is an infectious respiratory disease that, like other infectious diseases, has affected people's health. As an important source for obtaining health information, social media have made a major contribution in meeting the need for information about Covid-19. The role of people's health information-seeking behavior is important in disease management and control, and it has an impact on the health of the society in the future.
Methodology: This research was practical and survey type. Statistical population, all students were studying at Birjand University at the time of the study. Sampling was done based on proportional classification random sampling (370 people). The research tool was a researcher-made questionnaire. The validity of the questionnaire was measured by using the opinions of experts and experts in information science, epistemology and medical sciences, and its reliability was measured using Cronbach's alpha (0.897).
Findings: The findings of the research showed that students used more search engines, foreign social networks and news media to get information about Covid-19 than reliable sources such as official specialized medical websites. Telegram and Instagram were the most used. They paid more attention to news related to covid-19 and preventive behaviors than getting information about treatment methods. The amount of negative and positive consequences of obtaining information about this disease on students was less than expected and among the components of information-seeking behavior, they paid the least attention to information sharing. In the field of aspects related to Covid-19, they paid the most attention to the educational aspect and the least attention to the political aspect.
Conclusion:  Information and realizing its value and importance in human life today, leads to the concern of how to access the required information from among the multitude of available information. Information-seeking behavior follows the need for information, which includes activities such as information search, search tools, the type of information sought, search problems, and factors affecting it. Since the need for health information due to the spread of the Covid-19 disease creates concerns. Therefore, it leads to health information-seeking behavior, which includes actions related to searching and finding health-related problems, information about diseases, risk factors, and health promotion (Jalilian et al., 2021). In the course of searching for information, a person may use a manual information system or a computer-based system (Wilson, 2000).
Social media, as a platform that provides a lot of information, including health-related information, has been distinguished from other information systems due to components such as quick and easy access, interactive and comprehensible, and convenience. In the process of health information seeking behavior, the role of social media as a tool for searching for information and its effect on people's behavior is important (Liu, 2020). The types of information about which the search helps to meet the need for information and curiosities in the midst of this pandemic, information such as news related to Covid-19 (the number of patients and deaths), preventive behaviors (washing hands regularly, wearing masks) , vaccination, etc.) and various medical methods and related drugs.
Covid-19 is a respiratory disease caused by the corona virus and spread in late 2019. The Corona pandemic was declared by the World Health Organization as a public health emergency (Jalilian et al., 2021). This epidemic prompted scientists in different disciplines to investigate various issues arising from this phenomenon (Shehata, 2020). Access to health information is essential for any country and this is more important in developing countries where health challenges are more (Ankama et al., 2021). Progress in the prevention of Covid-19 is partially dependent on understanding the process of health information seeking behavior and its tools. To promote effective health knowledge, behavior change must be done at the individual level, and health messages must be accurate, transparent, and comprehensible. Also, be available and appropriate to the cultural environment of the society (Jalilian et al., 2021). Due to the epidemic nature of this disease and its unexpected consequences, the role of people and their information behaviors in fighting and controlling this disease is very important (Ostadi, 2019).
The main variables of the research included: the amount of use of each type of social media, the amount of use of each type of social network, the types of information obtained, the amount of negative and positive consequences of obtaining information about Covid-19, the amount of each From health information seeking behaviors and aspects related to covid 19.
To carry out the research, the researcher-made questionnaire was used as a data collection tool. This questionnaire was compiled in two parts based on the objectives and questions of the research. The first part includes questions related to the objectives of the research, and in the second part, three questions are asked about the personal characteristics of the respondents.
This questionnaire had 42 items and was measured in 7 variables, which are: social media (items 1-9), social networks (items 10-16), types of information obtained (item 17-21), negative consequences of information acquisition (items 22-26), positive consequences of information acquisition (items 27-33), types of health information-seeking behavior (items 34-37) and related dimensions with covid 19 (items 42-38). The mentioned questionnaire was distributed among the statistical population after checking and testing the validity and reliability. In this research, in order to measure the content validity of the questionnaire, the questions of the questionnaire were prepared by studying and reviewing related study sources, and then using the opinions of experts and experts in information science, philology, and medical sciences, they were reviewed and modified.
Out of a total of 224 respondents, that is, 58% of the people were women and 162 of them, equal to 42%, were men. Students in the study field of humanities with 167 people (43%) have the highest frequency among the respondents. After that, engineering science group with 112 people (29 percent), basic science group with 63 people (16 percent) and agricultural science group with 44 people (12 percent) respectively.
The number of respondents in the undergraduate level was the highest with 319 people (83 percent), as well as 47 people (12 percent) in the master's degree and 20 people (5 percent) in the doctoral level.
In the social media variable, the results showed that the average amount of social media use was generally lower than average. In the components of official medical websites, doctors' websites, unofficial websites, internal social networks, Wikipedia and encyclopedias, discussion groups and forums are also less than It was average. According to Zhang and Zhao (2017) and Haider et al. (2009), concern about the quality of information reduces the amount of social media use and consumer participation.
In the variable of social networks, the findings show that the average amount of use of the variable of social networks was generally lower than the average. Due to the filtering of YouTube, Twitter, and Clubhouse platforms, their use was quite logically lower than average. In the components of the Telegram and Instagram platforms, the average amount of use was more than average. The researchers' field observations of the users' use of these networks are consistent with the obtained results, as a result, the use of social networks due to their accessibility and the widely used role of mobile phone technology today is a source of information dissemination and information acquisition. Since the specialized information on websites and official sources is valuable, it is necessary to pay attention to the reason why they are not given much attention, and it should be carefully rooted and investigated.
The search rate of Birjand University students regarding each type of health information about Covid-19, the research indicates that, in general, the search rate in the variable of types of information about Covid-19 was equal to the average. But in the components of news related to Covid-19, preventive behaviors were more than average. Since the purpose of searching users during the Covid-19 pandemic was to deal with the said disease; Therefore, the results refer to the consumption of health information related to the news of Covid-19 and various preventive behaviors, because obtaining health information about each of the information related to Covid-19 is important in the process of managing and controlling this disease.
The rate of negative consequences of acquiring information about Covid-19 was below average. Also, in all components of worry, anxiety, lack of trust in information, confusion and confusion, and cognitive avoidance were also below the average level. What causes worry and anxiety in people is often lack of awareness and lack of ability to manage a crisis. In Nakheizadeh's new research (2019), the level of anxiety caused by covid-19 was high, as Nakheizadeh's study shows, his research is related to the early period of the corona epidemic. What is remarkable at the beginning of the matter, with the indiscriminate spread and the lack of sufficient and correct information about this disease, as well as the lack of a related vaccine, the influx of this amount of anxiety and worry among people can be considered normal. Moreover, the data of the current research was collected after about two years of the corona virus, when the students were in the approximate routine of life before the corona virus, right at the same time as face-to-face education in the university, and this change in the results can be completely logically explained. Justified. Also, the study of Bigdali et al. (2013) also expressed the positive view of users towards health information on the web. Montsi (2020) also stated that even receiving fake information does not affect people's physical or mental health, and its results are completely intangible, which can be roughly generalized to the results of this research and considered consistent.
In the variable of positive outcomes of acquiring information about Covid-19, it was below average. Also, in the components of the ability to recognize the need for information, search skills, the spirit of cooperation and information sharing, and the promotion of critical thinking, it was also below average. Also, in the components of knowledge of information sources and ability to evaluate information sources, it was equal to the average level. As a result, considering that in some components of the skill of recognizing the need for information and the ability to evaluate information sources, their average score was equal to the average level, which indicates that their health literacy is average; Because the results are consistent with the acquisition of their health information sources (social networks), so it is in line with the results of Apok and Ellis.
The average rate of performing various types of information-seeking behavior about Covid-19 was higher than average. Also, in the components of information search, identifying the need for information and changing health and treatment behavior, seeking more information was more than average. In the information sharing component, the average score of this component was equal to the average; Considering that the sources of obtaining health information about this disease are basically the media and social networks. What emerges from the evidence is that following a crisis or problem related to health and feeling the need for related information, people start searching for related sources and if it is noticeable, their health information seeking behavior is an increasing trend. has it. Therefore, the present study is consistent with all previous studies.
The results of the present study show that the average of information acquisition in the variable of information dimensions related to Covid-19 was higher than the average and also in all components, including dimensions related to health, economic, political, social and educational, the average score was higher. It was average. In other words, the findings show the students' concerns about each of the dimensions related to economy, health, politics, social justice, and especially about education and concerns about holding classes, not having the necessary infrastructure in an optimal way. In some people, lack of concentration and anxiety is caused by the situation.
The findings showed that the most sources of obtaining health information for students of Birjand University are search engines, foreign social networks and news media, and they paid less attention to reliable media such as official specialized medical websites. Also, the results point to the important and prominent role of Telegram and Instagram platforms. In addition, what the studied community sought to obtain information about covid-19 was mostly preventive behaviors and news related to covid-19 rather than its treatment methods. Also, the results showed that the health information-seeking behavior of Birjand University students has generally increased during this pandemic; But they have done the behavior of sharing information related to Covid less. Meanwhile, the role of dimensions related to Covid-19, including dimensions related to health, economic, political, social and educational, and obtaining information about each of these dimensions was of great importance for students, and the most important aspect for them was the educational dimension. .
The results showed that women used reliable sources such as official specialized medical websites and news media compared to men, and men used social networks (Telegram, Instagram, Twitter and YouTube) and search engines to get information about Covid. 19 have used. The influence of the role of gender showed that women are more interested in obtaining all kinds of information about this disease, and also paid more attention to the negative consequences of women; After creating negative consequences in women, they sought to obtain information about preventive behaviors. Because a significant relationship has been established between negative consequences and preventive behaviors in past studies. In addition, the role of gender had no effect on the positive outcomes and dimensions related to Covid-19, except for the economic dimension component. The field of study and level of study did not make a significant difference in the research variables. Based on this, it is suggested to hold training courses to improve the quality and awareness of health information literacy in social networks and news media for students of different levels. Also, policy makers and decision makers should pay more attention to providing authentic information on social media for the audience. Social networks and internal messengers should be adapted in the field of providing health information. Future researches can examine the subject of study in other societies and use different research methods to collect data or analyze findings.

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