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Showing 23 results for Information Behavior

Vahideh Zeinali, Mahtab S. Mahdavi,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (7-2014)

Background and Aim: Collaborative information behavior (CIB) is strongly affected by contextual factors and in different contexts we can see various aspects of collaborative information behavior. In this study, we investigate the triggers and barriers of collaborative information behavior in an educational-medical context in Iran.
Method: This qualitative research uses grounded theory as research method. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with twenty physicians (in Fellowship and Residency stages) in Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Science.
Results: the findings indicated that five main factors trigger collaborative information behavior, including lack of domain expertise, lack of time, information scatter, complexity of information needs and lack of immediately accessible information. The barriers that hinder collaborative information behavior in this context fell under five categories, technological, individual, team, educational structure and cultural barriers. Some of these triggers and barriers have identified in previous researches in different contexts.
Conclusion: the results of this study showed that Lack of time was strongest trigger of CIB in physicians (in fellowship and residency stages). Then complexity of information needs, lack of domain expertise, information scatter and lack of immediately accessible information were the triggers that identified in this study. Also barriers that identified in this context are so important. In order to promoting CIB in this context the barriers should be analysed and resolved.
Zohreh Gholamhoseinzadeh, Mohammad Amin Erfanmanesh,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (7-2014)

Background and Aim: Collaborative information seeking is an interaction among members of a group who purposefully try to access and share joint information. Although collaboration is a key component of information seeking behavior, but most of the studies in this area are focused on individual information seeking behavior and collaborative aspects are considered much less. As a result, there is a need for understanding conceptual features as well as supportive technical methods of information behavior in collaborative activities. Method: The present review article has studied concepts and theories of collaborative information behavior using library method. Results: In this research, firstly, the concept of collaboration is explained and differences with other concepts like communication, coordination and cooperation are explained. Moreover, the concept of collaborative information behavior and collaborative information seeking behavior are discussed from different viewpoints and suggestions are offered for future research. Conclusion: collaborative information behavior is one of the most important concepts in human information interaction studies and it can be known as dynamic activities in a group including searching, combining, publishing and producing information.
Delneshin Danaei Moghaddam,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (7-2014)

Background and Aim: There seems to be a conceptual link between some theories of human information behavior. These links exist because some of these theories have been derived from same theories in similar fields or have a same approach in theorizing.
Method: In this paper 3 theories of information behavior (information poverty, information overload and social capital) have been discussed and compared.
Results: Chatman’s information poverty theory pays attention to the cultural/behavioural aspect of the phenomenon and clarifies that membership within a social group contributes to information poverty. Information overload describes the situation in which one feels anxious and stressed due to encountering to too much information. Social capital is rooted in social network analysis and explains how the social resources inside one’s network influence the success of achieving desired information. Both information poverty and information overload point out information avoidance, where there exists information but access to it is restricted. Social capital and information poverty both focus on the role of social structure in information seeking and the importance of trust in society.
Conclusion: Libraries can generate social capital by presenting some social programs to help users overcome their information overload and poverty.
Maryam Asadi,
Volume 1, Issue 3 (12-2014)

Background and Aim: The basic aim of the present study is to investigate users’ query reformulation behavior with regard to wholistic-analytic cognitive styles, search task type, and experience variables in using the Web. Method: This study is an applied research using survey method. A total of 321 search queries were submitted by 44 users. Data collection tools were Riding’s Cognitive Style Analysis test, Web experience questionnaire, and three search tasks. Results: Results indicated that analytic formulated more queries and longer than wholistic to complete search taks and hi-experienced users formulated more queries and shorter than low-experienced users in completing their tasks.  We identified five methods of query reformulation types: New, Add, Replace, Remove, Repeat. Strong correlations were observed between Add and Replace. Results indicated that there were significant different between query reformulation behavior of wholist and analytic and analytic users seemed to be better than their wholist peers in query reformulations. Also findings showed that the more complex tasks, the more number of search quries to complete tasks. The New and Add dominated amongst the query formulations while performing Web searching. Conclusion: Future HCI researchers and IS developers can utilize the study results to develop interactive and user-cantered search model, and to provide context-based query suggestions for users.  
Zeynab Shormeij, Shahram Sedghi, Homa Talachi,
Volume 1, Issue 3 (12-2014)

Background and Aim: Information seeking is interactive behavior of searcher with information systems and this active interaction occurs in a real environment known as background or context. This study investigated the factors influencing the formation of layers of context and their impact on the interaction of the user with search option dialoge in EBSCO database. Method: Data from 28 semi-structured interviews with graduate students and medical information librarians were collected and coded whith open, axial and selective methods using grounded theory approach. Results: Identified general catagories and central ideas ​​in this study include: features’ search, facility to display data: availability and usability of results, general features (personality and character) of the user, presenting unique features (offering more options in database pages). Conclusion: This research in line with previous ones and with regard to the underlying dimensions of context (place, person, or object), investigaed the need to understand factors for improvement of user’s interaction with the Web search. All dimensions of the user interactions with visual search option require understanding the context’s underlying factors. Identification of contextual factors affecting visual search improves users’ search strategy approaches.  
Khadijeh Gholami, Shahnaz Mohammadi,
Volume 1, Issue 4 (3-2015)

Background and Aim: Pregnant women are the most active users of health information with regard to the growing use of the Internet as an important source of information. This research studies the information interactions of pregnant women in Ninisite forum, andis to create awareness of pregnant women. This site is the largest Persian-language site for women's issues, pregnancy and parenting.
Methods: This applied research uses qualitative content analysis and semiotic analysis techniques. Content analysis method was used to identify the topics of the exchanged messages. Semiotic method was used to explore the dimensions of trust between users. All messages in the two sections of before and during pregnancy in a 6-month period (from October to March 2013) were studied.
Results: Analyzing two forums related to before and during pregnancy showed that users talk about different aspects of life. Medical, sales, education, recreation, friendships and communing, religion and lifestyle and empathy were the main themes of discussions. Most common information needs of women are: infertility disorders, diagnosis and treatment, the symptoms and complications of pregnancy, the fetus disorders, the pregnancy and delivery and birth. Cognitive and affective dimensions were the main components of trust among users.
Conclusion: Results reveals the potential of forums for information exchange, therefore, applying forums for the dissemination of health information is recommended. It is also important that health officials control the quality of health information on the web.
Kobra Babaei, Zahed Bigdeli,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (4-2015)

Background and Aim: The need for cognition to the extent of involvement of the individual in intellectual activities, to assess individual differences in motivation for information processing, individual differences in the tendency of people to engage in and enjoy effortful thinking and, finally, refers to the processing of sound messages. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of need for cognition on students' collaborative information behavior.

Method: This study is applied research .Among 340 students graduate from the Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences in Allameh Tabatabai University, 181 students were selected randomly and measures need to recognize the information behavior participatory out the questionnaires.

Results: The research findings indicate the need to recognize significant differences by gender and field of study participants were women. Students seeking a partnership relationship between need for cognition and behavior were observed. Information seeking behavior in terms of the need to know their students significant difference was found and thus the need to know the information seeking behavior of effective student participation.

Conclusion: the need for cognition is effective on Students’ collaborative information behavior (CIB).

Fatemeh Navidi,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (4-2015)

Background and Aim: Considering the increasing number of users who interact with online social networks, it can be inferred that these networks have become an essential part of users' lives and play different roles in their everyday life. Therefore, the present study aims to explore the role of these networks in users' everyday-life information seeking.

Method: This research is an applied research with qualitative approach and it was conducted using thematic analysis method. This method includes a semi - structured interview with active users of online social networks.

Results: Results indicate that online social networks play different roles in the users' lives, such as entertainment, education, communication and interactions; accompanied by, news, favorite contents, and up-to-date information; but, these networks face some challenges that affect information seeking behavior of users which compels users to utilize active information seeking.

Conclusion: Richer social capital and diversity of users in an individual's social network leads to the access to more qualitative information which in turn increases the probability of finding the required information and achieving the expected results with the least effort.

Zahed Bigdeli, Shabnam Shahini, Narges Shahkarami, Zahra Chalik,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (9-2015)

Background and Aim: This study attempted to investigate the information-seeking process of Shahid Chamran University postgraduate students, and how they use various information sources. The research also investigated he role of demographic characteristics in students' information-seeking process, as well as the problems and barriers they encounter in the process.

Method: The population of the study consisted of 5000 postgraduate students among whom 298 students were randomly selected through classified ratio sampling method. A researcher-made questionnaire was developed and after measuring its validity and reliability, distributed among the sample in person. To analyze the data, descriptive statistics as well as inferential statistics including Friedman Rank Test and MANOVA were applied.

Results: The results show that students were statistically different in some variables. On average, students use the Internet 25.11 hours per week. They also prefer to use electronic, print, and human information sources, respectively, both to meet their information needs and to update their information. Students believe that information and communication technologies have reduced their visits to libraries. Students seek help from librarians primarily to locate books and other documents and to search for information. Students encounter a range of problems and barriers in their information-seeking process; the most important being the scattered information. Females face more problems than males. While students refer to specialists to meet their information needs at the first stage, they refer to their classmates and friends at the first stage to update their information.

Conclusion: Despite the effects of new technologies on students’ presence in academic libraries, all types of information resources are still consulted by them. Various purposes for information-seeking determine the information resource being consulted, and students consider their information needs as well as the context in which they seek information, when decide to choose the information resources

Faramarz Sohaili, Ali Shaban, Aliakbar Khase,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (3-2016)

Background and Aim: The intellectual structure of knowledge and its research front can be identified by co-word analysis. This research attempts to reveal the intellectual structure of knowledge in information behavior inquiries, via co-word, network analysis, and science visualization tools.

Methods: Bibliometric methodology and social network analysis are used. Population comprises 2146 records in the field of Information Behavior during 2006-2014, which had been retrieved from Web of Science.

Results: finding indicate that “Information Retrieval” is the most frequent keyword in the Information Behavior inquiries. Also, “Information Needs and Information Behavior” are the most frequent co-occurred keywords. Use of hierarchical cluster analysis by Ward method led to the creation of 11 topical clusters in Information Behavior, including among others: “User Studies,”  “Health Information Behavior,” and “Social Networks.”

Conclusions: The results indicated that the co-word analysis can be well uncover the intellectual structure of scientific disciplines. The results of the strategic diagram showed that “health information behavior”, “user studies”, “social networks”, and “relevance in information retrieval” are among well-matured and central clusters with pivotal role. Moreover, four clusters, including “information resources”, “Web search”, “information retrieval”, and “information management” are among emerging or declining clusters. Finally, although the “interface and information technology” cluster is in the central part, but it is underdeveloped. Due to the frequency of keywords on the one hand, and clusters obtained on the other hand, it seems to be a close relationship between information behavior and health studies. Therefore, it seem that many of information behavior studies have been conducted in health and medical communities

Hamid Keshavarz, Fatemeh Fahimnia, Alireza Nouruzi, Mohammadreza Esmaeili Givi,
Volume 3, Issue 3 (12-2016)

Background and Aim: The current research aims to develop a literature-dependent and expert-modified model related to credibility evaluation of web information.

Methods: Regarding the approach, mixed method would be utilized. The research method then is mixed-heuristic using both qualitative and quantitative methodologies. In the first stage of the research, meta- synthesis was used as a qualitative research method. Secondly, exploring experts’ points of view was conducted by a Delphi method to develop the conceptual model identified in the first stage.

Results: Using the seven stage mode of meta-synthesis, a model was designed in four layers including concepts, categories, codes and indicators. A set of 68 indicators were incorporated into the different layers of the model. For reliability testing of the conceptual mopdel, a Delphi study was conducted in two rounds after which the comments of the experst were included into the model. Regarding the high degree of Kendall’s coeficinet of concordance about %.65 and the agreement perecentage of the most dimensions of the model higher than %90 the conceptual model was confirmed by the sample experts.

Conclusion: The conceptual model derived from the meta-synthesis and Delphi studies is a model accepted by experts and a base for future research to design some tools for related studies. The findings showed that the credibility evaluation is a concept whith different and multiple dimensions and components suitable for users, designers and policymakers to take them into consideration in design and evaluation of web resources.

Sedigheh Mohammad Esmaeil, Jamileh Naeimi,
Volume 3, Issue 4 (3-2017)

Background and Aim: This study aims to investigate and clustering the information needs and information seeking behavior of seminary and university students using neural network analysis in Khorasan-e- Razavi.
Methods: The quantitative study is an applied and descriptive survey conducted with neural networks analysis. Data were collected by a questionnaire based on the information needs and information seeking behavior of seminary and university students of Khorasan-e- Razavi province. It was distributed between the samples (447 samples) included of Mashhad, Sabzevar and Gonabad University of Medical Sciences faculty members, and four grade seminary students of Nawab, Ayatollah Khoui and Narjes religious schools. After collecting data, the two variables of university and religious schools students were apart for data clustering using Matlab 14 software once in general based on the main components of the study such as (the purpose and the motivation of seeking information, information sources, information barriers, information seeking skills, seeking methods and information services. Then, after deleting each sub-component of the main components of the research, the most effective and the least effective item on information needs and information seeking behavior of seminary and university students were determined.
Results: the most effective component in motivating and aim of the students for information seeking in seminary students was to help them conduct research on cultural and religious activities and in university students was to improve the quality of their teaching. The least effective component in both seminary and university students were determined as academic reputation and compete with peers.
The most effective component of the resources required by both seminary and university students were Persian full-text electronic journals. The least effective needed resources in seminary students were determined Latin books and in university students were determined theses. The most effective way to access information in the seminary schools was print resources and in university students was electronic resources and the least effective way was determined as buying needed resources. Both seminary and university students in the most and least effective component in information services in meeting their required information needs were common and the same. The most services in meeting their information needs were familiarity with a variety of resources in their special field and least effective component was determined as familiarity with RSS and podcasts.
Conclusion. According to the aim and findings of this study, by determining information seeking behavior that descends from information needs, preparing required sources for seminary and university student is one of the most important needs that must be done to solve their informations needs and provide information deciding for libraries administrators.

Fatemeh Saleki Maleki, Esmat Momeni, Golnesa Galini Mogadam,
Volume 3, Issue 4 (3-2017)

Background and Aim: This study is set to represent information search process in the selected preschool children in Tehran (namely Mahgol and Taranom) and compare the results with BAT model.
Methods: This is an Applied and comparative study with qualitative approach based on grounded theory. Research population was preschool children in Tehran from two different regions of city. Sampling was done by multi-stage and clustering purposive method. Considering the context of the society, preschools in two different regions of Tehran were selected. 20 children were selected as a sample of the study. Three groups including children, teachers and parents were studied.
Results: The results show that information search behavior in Mahgol and Taranom preschools include education, preparing, predictive behavior, curiosity and incomprehension. In comparison with BAT model, it has education of concepts instead of reading. They have shown planning, finding, gathering data and organizing behavior in doing research assignments. Defining behavior was rare and there were no evaluating behavior in comparison with BAT model. Some similar behaviors with BAT model were seen in the second stage. Happiness behavior was seen less than other behaviors. Referencing was seen in the telling stage and there was little interpreting and integrating. The same behaviors with BAT model were seen in the third stage.
Conclusion. Educating information search process to preschool children based on BAT model can enrich children’s skills in research.

Hasan Mahmoudi, Rahmatollah Fattahi, Dr Mohsen Nowkarizi, Mohammad Hosein Dayani,
Volume 3, Issue 4 (3-2017)

Background and Aim: This study aims to explore the concept of information culture, and survey its status among the faculty members of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad.

Method: This research is applied research that conducted via survey research. Population included faculty members of Ferdowsi university of Mashhad that 250 of them were selected via random sampling. A questionnaire based on (Choo et al., 2008) model were used for data collection. This questionnaire including six dimensions: information integrity, information formality, information control, information transparency, information sharing, and proactive use of information. Before collecting data, validity and reliability of the questionnaire was confirmed.

Results: The results showed that, from the perspective of faculty members of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, information culture and its dimensions are not desirable at the university. Among the dimensions of information culture information sharing has highest average and information transparency has the lowest average. Also the results show information culture pattern of the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad is Relationship-Based Culture. The relationship between demographic variables and information culture also showed that there is a significant relationship between gender and field of study with some dimensions of information culture.

Conclusion: survey the information culture as an empowerment variable that influence information behaviors and programs in organizations is essential, Because of the important role of information in organizations. Moreover, information culture is a new subject that addressing the new research area for further research, especially in the field of knowledge and information science. 

Gholamreza Heidari, Zahed Bigdeli, Babak Mokhtari, Rohollah Khademi,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (9-2017)

Background and purpose: Business Information is among the important sources for companies, especially for those located in Science and Technology Park which intend to launch a technological business and enter the market. To this end, different aspects of business information behavior of the companies need to be investigated. The aim of this article is to study business information behavior of companies based in Khuzestan Science & Technology Park.

Methodology: This qualitative study was conducted based on grounded theory. Companies affiliated with Khouzestan Science and Technology Park formed our research population. The data was collected through semi-structured interviews with 14 companies.

Finding: The results show that the aims of business information seeking include: organizational goal completion and task fulfillment, updatedness, efficiency, competitiveness and preparation for difficult situations and problem solving. Furthermore, business information need includes knowledge of market, national and international policies, laws, financial information, information about products, information about management, as well as information management. Sources of business information were mass media, science and technology park, internet, educational courses, informal communication, and library and financial consultants.  However, barriers to business information seeking included lack of information seeking and information literacy skills, problems about information, technical infrastructure, personal factors, cultural, political and ethical problems, problems in receiving information from the science & technology park and organizational problems.

Conclusion: Companies based in science and technology parks are well-aware of the importance of business information. Moreover, their business information needs are in line with other researches. By identifying the relevant sources and obstacles, this paper can help to provide appropriate information services to these companies.

Sara Behimehr, Yazdan Mansourian,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (6-2018)

Background and Aim: considering the significance of cognitive and psychological factors in human-information interaction, this study investigates the role of cognitive biases in academic information behavior of postgraduate students at Kharazmi University.
Methodology:  this qualitative research used classic grounded theory as the method. The research population included all postgraduate of Kharazmi University who were at the writing up stage. Twenty-five students were chosen through a purposive convenient sampling process. The data were collected through semi-structured interviews and were analyzed based on the classic grounded theory coding and qualitative content analysis. Eisenberg & Berkowitz information behavior model was used as the framework.
Findings: The results showed that cognitive biases influence people's information behavior and 28 of cognitive biases were identified. Cognitive biases interfere on different six steps of Eisenberg & Berkowitz information behavior model. Biases can play a role in identifying and explaining information needs, selecting information resources, selecting information centers, using information, organizing and sharing information and evaluating the information seeking process.
Conclusions: cognitive biases can affect or be affected by other factors involved in information behavior. Failure in information access and information retrieval, information avoidance and also failure in resolving information needs are some of cognitive biases’ consequences. Cognitive biases should be studied in different contexts so that other aspects can be more thoroughly understood.
Elmira Karimi, Mahmoud Babaee, Moloukosadat Hosseini Beheshti,
Volume 5, Issue 3 (12-2018)

Background and Aim: Information systems cannot be well designed or developed without a clear understanding of needs of users, manner of their information seeking and evaluating. This research has been designed to analyze the Ganj (Iranian research institute of science and technology database) users’ query refinement behaviors via log analysis.   
Methods: The method of this research is log analysis. In this research, the Ganj users’ query refinement behaviors were analyzed. User’s logs during 3 months between May and June 2016 were analyzed for semantic features. The study tool was a researcher-made checklist of semantic features. The total searches were 10 milion records which were limited to information science domain. About 106641 records were selected for analysis. 
Results: The semantic relationships (based on thesaurus relationships) were revealed between pair’s terms in user’s searches. The results showed that users refined their searches based on some semantic relationships.    
Conclusion: The results of this research can be used to improve the Ganj results and for term suggestion for users, so that they be able to choose proper terms while there are several related terms.
Professor Zahed Bigdeli, Mr Mohammad Akbari Mahalekolaei, Mr Abdolreza Izadi,
Volume 6, Issue 2 (8-2019)

Background and Aim: The purpose of the present research is to implement a part of Wilson's model of information behavior to approach consumer behavior. Therefore effect of personality and demographic characteristics were assessed on the information needs of mobile phone customers.
Methods: This is a descriptive correlational survey research. Instruments applied were Rammstedt & John's Personality questionnaire and a researcher made questionnaire. Population consisted of Tehran's main mobile center customers. Sample selected was 384 Mobile customers.   Hypotheses were  tested by  t- test, Spearman correlation, multivariate regression and Pearson correlation.
Findings: Findings for personality  traits reveal that: The effects of four variables including agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism and openness on information needs have been confirmed and concerning the variable of extroversion, the null hypothesis has been confirmed. The demographic data showed that age, income and gender have an influence on information needs. Also, findings related to the variable of education, confirmed the significant relation of this variable with brand conscious.
Conclusion: In addition to highlighting the link between two areas of information behavior and consumer behavior, the research confirmed the relationship and effectiveness of the two intervening variables in Wilson's information behavior model with information needs.
Heidar Mokhtari, Noroz Shafitabar Samakosh,
Volume 6, Issue 3 (10-2019)

Background and aim: Analyzing the newly-emerged field of human-information interaction (HII) needs to study the field from diferent aspects and perspectives. Religious literature, including among others the Koran is one of main resources for doing so. This study aimed to extract and explain the guidelines and main points related to HII by deeply reflecting on Koranic verses and chapters that regard this notion.
Method: By applying Koranic scientific and topical interpretion approach and using a qualitative content analysis, the related guidelines and points were extracted from the Koran by using a comprehensive and popular 10-volumed Persian interpretion book, Tafsīr Nūr authored by an Iranian scholar, Muhsin Qarā‘tī.
Findings: 25 Koranic guidelines on HII were found from the Koran. In total, the Koran has direct and indirect guidelines on HII, including information search, evaluation, dissemination, use and verification, and approaches of sending-receiving and using information.
Conclusion: Considering the Koranic guidelines on HII and conducting further research on them can resolve many challenges of encountring information of any types in the information age
Saiede Khalilian, Ahmad Shabani,
Volume 6, Issue 4 (3-2020)

Background and Aim: Information seeking behavior arises when one feels a void in his/her knowledge which inspires one to acquire new information. The central point in explaining behavior is the fact that many features influence its occurrence, and emotions are considered to be a major element involved in human information behavior.  Also, Information seeking is a positive and negative emotional experience. The aim was to survey the role of emotions in information behavior.
Method:  Library research method was applied to study theoretical foundations and conceptual relationships of emotions in relation to information needs and related concepts. 
Results: By conceptual studies of the models process of information retrieval behavior of Kuhlthau and Nahl, it was found that emotional factors are very important in information retrieval and information-seeking behavior, which is influenced by negative (uncertainty, fear, anger) and positive emotions (happy, confident, satisfied).  Negative emotions increase at the beginning and over time and in the process of searching for information, decreases, while positive emotions intensifies.  Also,  these results indicate that positive emotions may help individuals acquire information to resolve an existing problem, whereas negative emotions may aid individuals acquire information when there is no apparent problem.
Conclusion:   In order to solve information need and to attain appropriate   desirable feedback, it is necessary that emotions be well identified and understood by both the user and the information systems, so  they could be better controlled.

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