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Showing 15 results for Information Seeking Behavior

Shahrzad Nasrollahzadeh,
Volume 1, Issue 4 (3-2015)

Background and Aim: In studies of special groups’ information seeking behavior, there is not a complete understanding of pregnant women's information seeking process. The purpose is to gain a deeper understanding of health information seeking behavior of the pregnant women.
Method: This is an applied qualitative method using Grounded Theory approach. Data were collected through semi- structured interviews with 15 pregnant women who were selected from 5 women's hospitals in Tehran. Data was analyzed using three stages of: Open axial and selective coding- used in Grounded theory approach- and a model of pregnant women’s health information seeking behavior was extracted.
Results: five conceptual categories: information seeking motives, barriers, information seeking, information evaluation, and information sharing were the results of three stages of coding, expanded around the main idea of “pregnant women’s health information seeking behavior” to establish a model for this process. Based on the findings, pregnant women's most essential information needs were psychological needs, nutrition, health of mother and fetus, and the ways of childbirth. The most important information seeking barriers were lack of time for searching information, lack of ability in information evaluation, and the high level of difficulty of the books. Physicians were the first and the most important reference in information acquisition and important criteria for information evaluation.
Conclusion: Findings reveal the importance of information acquisition in pregnant women, effective intervention of information professionals in meeting information needs, removal of information seeking barriers, facilitating information seeking process and more attention to information centers seems necessary. Also, results could be applicable to various organizations for women’s health.
Yazdan Mansourian, ,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (9-2015)


Background and Aim: These days, Internet and online databases play a significant role in peoples’ information-seeking behavior, especially for postgraduate students. The kind of behavior seen on the part of those students who get help from online databases to write their theses might be completely different from those who search library sources to get the needed information. This study investigates the information-seeking behavior of postgraduate students of Kharazmi University who are writing their theses.

Method: This study used both qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection. Quantitative data were gathered using an information-seeking behavior questionnaire, which was then, analyzed using statistical analysis (T-Test and Friedman-Test). Content analysis and semi-structured interviews were used to analyze qualitative data. The participants were 100 students including 50 male and 50 female students.

Results: Results of analyzing the T-Test for male and female groups showed that there is not any significant difference of girls' and boys' information-seeking behavior. Results of analyzing the Friedman-Test however showed difference in average ratings of information-seeking behavior dimensions. With regard to results obtained from this analysis: pre-existing knowledge confirmation, relevancy judgments, bringing up new thoughts, time and effort for searching information contain maximum to minimum rates in a respective manner. Results of the qualitative data also showed that: most of the students’ problems lie in: seeking for and using the collaborative behavior and collaborative searching, difficulty in finding the related information, language limitations, diversity of goals, limitations the forms of the sources, unfamiliarity with the specific sources, lack of information literacy, and spending so much time to search.

Conclusion: Findings obtained in this study showed that postgraduate students do not have the skills and knowledge needed for using online data. This also indicates their deficiency and lack of information seeking and information literacy skills. So, recognizing the obstacles on the way of knowing and using these online databases and training students for purposeful searching seem to be essential.

Reza Mokhtarpour, Maryam Keshvari,
Volume 2, Issue 3 (12-2015)

Background and Aim: The aim of this article is to revise the methodological status of some of the most prominent studies and models in the field of Information Seeking Behavior in order to provide Iranian researchers with a brief comparative perception of the field.

Method: A literature review approach is applied to identify the research methods and historical origins of each study related to the realm of ISB.

Results: Research studies suggest that Iranian researchers - in their information seeking endeavors - have been unaware of the methodological tradition of the most prominent studies in this capacity, which are mainly based on the principle of methodological diversity and most of time have been imitating the methodological approach of other researchers in a stereotyped manner.

Conclusion: By deliberating the books written on the subject of study and research methodologies across a wide range of scientific disciplines, one can in a deductive manner, grasp a list of scientific methods in the form of independent researches to test the extent of their capabilities.  The main Key to current problems is methodological diversity

Mahdi Mohammadi, Zainab Sapidnameh, Jafar Ebadollah Amoghin,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (3-2016)

Background and Aim: The present study was conducted to determine health, educational, religious, economic and cultural information needs of nomadic women in Kohkilouyeh city and identifying the way they use resources, their barriers and problems in accessing information, their information priorities.

Methods: This is applied survey conducted using a researcher-made questionnaire and oral interviews with 235 nomadic women. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics through SPSS v.19.

Results: The findings showed that over %60 of samples had primary school degree. The main information need of nomadic women was health information needs (%36.2), and the main motivation for them for access and seeking information was to create a healthier life (%56.2). Among the resources of information, Radio had been used mostly in over %57.9 compared to other resources. The research findings showed that %53.2 of women nomads had a very low familiarity to public libraries as an information center. Respondents stated the most important obstacles to access to information resources impassable roads for commuting, lack of information and communications infrastructure, lack of familiarity with the sources of information, lack of easy access to health, training, cultural and service centers.

Conclusion: It seems that nomadic women are in serious needs with information resources, and especially hygenic and educational information, thus full attention must be paid to them.

Zahed Bigdeli, Zouhayr Hayati, Gholam-Reza Heidari, Tahere Jowkar,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (6-2016)

Background and Aim: Nowadays, Internet is known as an attractive source of health information to manage individual's health.  Given the importance of it, this study examined the role of Internet in health information seeking behavior among young people in Shiraz.
     Method: This research was a survey which target population were youth Internet users in the city of Shiraz.  A sample of 400 were randomly selected using, multi-stage cluster sampling. Data were collected by a questionnaire.
     Results: Most of respondents used the Internet to search health information. Young women were more likely to seek online health information than young men. As well as level of education, the experience and self-efficacy to search the Internet, showed a significant correlation with searching OHI, too. The main goal of respondents to search OHI was to understand their health condition or disease, better understanding of health information provided by physicians and self-medication. The results also showed that respondents have positive attitude towards health information retrieved via the Internet.

     Conclusion: There is a high demand of OHI among young people to manage personal health. Undoubtedly, foresight and planning to improve the quality of OHI, efforts to create a reliable health information database and public education to care about assessing the quality of OHI can herald the development of individual health and consequently the health of our community.

Ahmad Yousefi, Zahed Bigdeli, Ladan Mokhberalsafa,
Volume 4, Issue 1 (6-2017)

Background and Aim: Usually, researchers who have different levels of academic degrees, are different in terms of specialized knowledge. Also, academic degree may affect the information seeking behavior of researchers. Therefore, in this study, the difference of information seeking behavior of researchers with different academic degree for “conducting the research” and “updating scientific information” was investigated.
Methods: Survey method was used to conduct the research. In order to gather data, self made questionnaire was used. We have not sampled. In total, 140 researchers (70%), out of the 200, completed the questionnaires. Data were analyzed with descriptive and analytical statistics methods and were performed using IBM SPSS 22. In order to analysis the data, Kruskal-Wallis and Friedman's tests were used.
Results: Findings showed that the use of “journal articles” (high and very high more than 90%) was a top priority of “PhD and master students” and “PhDs”. In order to access scientific information, “PhD and master students" and “masters/professional doctors” mostly used “communication and consultation with Iranian experts and researchers” (high and very high with 75%) and “personal experiences” (high and very high with 65%). While minimal use of “communication and consultation with foreign experts and researchers” (low and never with 56%) and “participating in foreign congresses” (low and never with 69%) was used by “masters/professional doctors”.
Conclusion: Just in using the "journal articles" was significant difference in order to "update scientific information" and "research" (p<0.05). “PhD and master students”, compared to other levels of education, used “journal articles” more. While, in using the “communication and consultation with foreign experts and researchers”, “participating in foreign congresses”, and “personal experiences”, there was significant differences; So that, PhDs used them more than the others.

Nilofar Barahmand, Maryam Nakhoda, Fatima Fahiminia, Mahin Nazari,
Volume 4, Issue 1 (6-2017)

Background and Aim: Due to recent attention to health promotion and self-care as one of the prerequisites of health services and intervention programs, health information seeking behavior research has gain increasing importance. Factors such as attention to user centered studies, context and self-care require using of methods and tools that help study people in their natural environment. However, review studies have shown the dominance of quantitative and positivist approaches in health information seeking behavior studies. This study aims at introducing episodic interview as a tool for gathering unique data from peoples’ natural lives and its application in health information seeking studies.
Method: This review article has been conducted by library method. It addresses health information seeking behavior concept and its affecting factors. It also introduces episodic interview and its underlying concepts including narration and narrative interviewing. Further, it investigates implications of applying episodic interview in health information behavior studies and eventually it discusses steps of conducting episodic interview with examples of narrations.
Findings: The strength point of episodic interview is its focus on narration of people about their lived experiences as research data which help researchers study and analyze people in a different way from conventional approaches. Implications of applying episodic interview are: 1.concentration of health information behavior studies on pattern of behavior, 2. health information seeking behavior being interwoven in everyday life, and 3. health information seeking behavior being intentional and purposeful.
Results: Episodic interview help researchers listen to the voices of different groups of people, especially whom their voice is not heard due to sickness and social and cultural conditions, a point which should be considered in designing any information and intervention services. 
Hadi Harati, Fatemeh Nooshinfard, Alireza Isfandyari-Moghaddam, Fahimeh Babalhavaeji, Nadjla Hariri,
Volume 5, Issue 2 (9-2018)

Background and Aim: The present study aimed at investigating the factors affecting the unplanned behavior of users to use academic library resources and services.
Methods: The present study is considered as being an applied one in terms of purpose ,and it has has been conducted using descriptive-survey method. Research population consist of the students of central libraries at Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Shahid Chamran universty of Ahwaz, universities of Tabriz and Shiraz, as well as the Tehran Univrsity. Having determined the validity and reliability of the questionnaire, 700 questionnaires were distributed among the participants and 654 questionnaires have been analyzed applying stratified random sampling method based on the population size. Path analysis and LISREL software have been used in order for data analysis to be carried out.
Results: The results shows that the environmental factors and also the ones associated with technology affect the students’ unplanned behavior as far as using resources and services of university libraries through the situational factor of time are concerned. In addition, the data resources and services have no direct or indirect influence on the incidence of these behaviors.
Conclusion: Libraries should pay a special attention to the factors affecting the clients’ unplanned behavior, especially the ones whose impact has been proven including "environmental factors", "factors associated with technology", and the "accessible time ". This way, it will be possible for the libraries to have an optimized and efficient use of their resources and services. The result of paying attention to these factors will be the greater use of library resources and services, attracted audiences, and an increased level of awareness and information of users.
Ms Zohre Eftekhar, Ms Soraya Ziaei, Mr Hadi Sharif Moghaddam,
Volume 5, Issue 4 (3-2019)

Background and Aim: This paper aims to survey the method of Selecting subject to coping with Information Resources based on the Ellis model in Seminary, study 323 Students in Fars and Bushehr Province.   
Methods: The method of this study is a survey with analytical approach. Data collection tools in this study was questionnaire and in order to assess validity (content), and the questionnaire reliability was obtained by Cronbach alpha. Sampling is purposeful; Descriptive and analytical statistical methods such as Spearman's correlation coefficient, Kruskal-Wallis and Friedman tests were utilized. 
Results: prying mind (2/6), reviewing of information resources (3/13), Sites in the Internet related to subjects or social networks (3/92), Using online databases or weblogs (3/48), Authority (3/7), Studying abstract (2/48), is so important for seminary students.      
Conclusion: The results showed that Students of Seminary selected different methods that selected by research population for Selecting subject to coping with Information Resources and its not based on the Ellis Model
Afshin Mohsen, Darioush Afshin, Alireza Rousta,
Volume 8, Issue 3 (11-2021)

Objective: The study aims to explain the role of brand equity in increasing market share, based on information seeking behavior and needs in Kish commercial centers.
Method: This is applied exploratory-explanatory qualitative research. Population included branding and economics experts who were selected as a research sample by targeted snowball method of 14 people. To analyze the information related to the semi-structured interview, the content analysis method based on open coding, axial coding and selective coding based on the data theory of the foundation was used.
Findings: The results showed that marketing strategies through 5 elements of product, price, location, promotion, process management. Management factors through two components of leadership and human resource management have added value to the brand of Kish commercial centers. The added value created creates a competitive advantage. Also, environmental capabilities include: Infrastructure, technology, environmental features, security and recreation as background conditions and external factors including political-economic factors, information seeking behavior and information needs through customer information and market information as an intervener. The competitive advantage of Kish commercial centers is affected and ultimately increases the market share or in other words the development of customers and improves the financial performance of these centers.
Results: The results showed that increasing market share is a complex process and is strongly influenced by brand value added, which is affected by marketing strategies and management factors. In addition, in order for Kish commercial centers to be known as a brand, they must first gather the necessary and sufficient information about customers and then the market.

Maryam Bomery, Dr. Reza Karimi, Dr. Rouhallah Khademi,
Volume 9, Issue 1 (5-2022)

Objective: Health information on diseases could help prevent the spread and the treatment and is the most vital needs of people in daily life. One health issue that has plagued the world in recent years is the corona virus. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to investigate the health information behavior of graduate students at Qom University.
Methodology: Applied descriptive survey method was used. Population was all 3000  graduate students at Qom University. Using Morgan table, sample of 300 students were seleted, out of which 200 studnts answered the questionnaires. Data was collected through the standard Lango questionnaire. Research hypotheses were scrutinized using independent t and one-way ANOVA. Age, gender, place of residence, income and information seeking behavior of graduate students  were investigated.
Findings: The most information sources were Internet, Social networks, TV and the family. while the least go to brochures and pamphlets. Althugh, graduate students could obtain corona information from social networks and Internet, nonetheless their active use of corona information is slightly more from traditional sources of television and radio. There was no significant relation of behavior variables in information retrieval, perception in information retrieval, interpersonal interaction in information retrieval, impact of information on disease, active retrieval of information and passive retrieval of information with regard to age, gender and place of residence of graduate students.
Conclusion: Results revealed that the students have health information literacy and could identify and use related health information. In spite of increasing use of new sources such as social networks and Internet, information obtained from traditional sources has been more trusted and used. Non of the variables of gender, age, income and place of residence had any effect on health information seeking behavior of students. All subjects had the same information seeking behavior.

Miss Neda Abbasi Dashtaki, Mr. Ahmad Shabani,
Volume 9, Issue 2 (9-2022)

Background and aim: Information seeking behaviors are the reflection of users' needs that Identifying and understanding them correctly is imperative in information seeking endeavors. Experts have presented cognitive and Process user-oriented approach models to better understand scholars’ information seeking behaviors.  The intent of models are to define and clarify the conditions that predict people's actions to gain information.  As a result of different understanding of information behavior, the study was directed with the intention that Bystrom and Jarvelin's model emphasizes on which concept of this behavior and its measure of Criticism.
Method: Library method was used to study and analyze the Bystrom and Jarvelin's Information Seeking Behavior Model   
Findings: The findings showed that the task complexity, uncertainty, and ambiguity of concepts were related, so it could establish a strong place in the establishment of models.
 With the task complexity, the need for knowledgeable people rises. Thus, the setting of resources is significant. Also, as complexity increases, more resources and more time are required to perform the search.
Conclusion: The task complexity is an important variable in the information seeking process.  Consequently, the requirement for the type of information, number, and location of resources arises thus determines the type of information and resources used. Result of which is the increase of collaboration of knowledgeable people as source of information. Thus, information systems are facilitating information counseling of individuals. They are active in this field and could be considered a supplement source of information. Therefore, it is proper to focus more on this aspect of information resources in information systems. Since the task complexity has played a key role in the Bystrom and Jarvelin's model, this notion can be placed next to situational, personal, and organizational factors and may be considered as one of the imperative factors in the information quest, it will thus be a suitable measure for this model.
Dr Zivar Sabaghinejad, Mr Abdolreza Khalaf-Kabomeiri, Dr Ahmad Fakhri,
Volume 9, Issue 2 (9-2022)

Introduction: Study evaluated the internal structure of Ellis information seeking model in the student community with the aim of presenting the Persian norm.
Methods: This is a descriptive-analytical study conducted by cross-sectional survey method in the second semester of the academic year 1399-1400. Population comprise of 280 graduate students at Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences. Data collection tool is a questionnaire based on Ellis information seeking behavior pattern with 41 questions. Findings were analyzed using SPSS software and Amos.
Results: Results of exploratory factor analysis by principal component method with Varimax cycle led to identify five factors of identification, confirmation and organization; Monitoring, conservation and extraction; Relevance; Availability and up-to-datedness and credit factor. The extracted five-factor pattern explains more than 66% of the changes in information seeking behavior. The results of confirmatory factor analysis indicate the optimal fit of the extracted pattern. All factors had good consistency and Cronbach's total alpha of the instrument was 0.97.
Conclusion: The five-factor pattern of web-based information retrieval behavior is a new self-report tool for assessing the nature of academic user retrieval behavior on the Web. This pattern is based on Ellis's information pattern in terms of content and items used, but it differs from it in terms of subscale.
Zahra Poorpir, Mohammadreza Kiyani, Mohammad Ali Rostaminegad, Seyyed Ebrahim Hosseini Zargaz,
Volume 10, Issue 2 (9-2023)

Introduction and Objective: Covid-19 is an infectious respiratory disease that, like other infectious diseases, has affected people's health. As an important source for obtaining health information, social media have made a major contribution in meeting the need for information about Covid-19. The role of people's health information-seeking behavior is important in disease management and control, and it has an impact on the health of the society in the future.
Methodology: This research was practical and survey type. Statistical population, all students were studying at Birjand University at the time of the study. Sampling was done based on proportional classification random sampling (370 people). The research tool was a researcher-made questionnaire. The validity of the questionnaire was measured by using the opinions of experts and experts in information science, epistemology and medical sciences, and its reliability was measured using Cronbach's alpha (0.897).
Findings: The findings of the research showed that students used more search engines, foreign social networks and news media to get information about Covid-19 than reliable sources such as official specialized medical websites. Telegram and Instagram were the most used. They paid more attention to news related to covid-19 and preventive behaviors than getting information about treatment methods. The amount of negative and positive consequences of obtaining information about this disease on students was less than expected and among the components of information-seeking behavior, they paid the least attention to information sharing. In the field of aspects related to Covid-19, they paid the most attention to the educational aspect and the least attention to the political aspect.
Conclusion:  Information and realizing its value and importance in human life today, leads to the concern of how to access the required information from among the multitude of available information. Information-seeking behavior follows the need for information, which includes activities such as information search, search tools, the type of information sought, search problems, and factors affecting it. Since the need for health information due to the spread of the Covid-19 disease creates concerns. Therefore, it leads to health information-seeking behavior, which includes actions related to searching and finding health-related problems, information about diseases, risk factors, and health promotion (Jalilian et al., 2021). In the course of searching for information, a person may use a manual information system or a computer-based system (Wilson, 2000).
Social media, as a platform that provides a lot of information, including health-related information, has been distinguished from other information systems due to components such as quick and easy access, interactive and comprehensible, and convenience. In the process of health information seeking behavior, the role of social media as a tool for searching for information and its effect on people's behavior is important (Liu, 2020). The types of information about which the search helps to meet the need for information and curiosities in the midst of this pandemic, information such as news related to Covid-19 (the number of patients and deaths), preventive behaviors (washing hands regularly, wearing masks) , vaccination, etc.) and various medical methods and related drugs.
Covid-19 is a respiratory disease caused by the corona virus and spread in late 2019. The Corona pandemic was declared by the World Health Organization as a public health emergency (Jalilian et al., 2021). This epidemic prompted scientists in different disciplines to investigate various issues arising from this phenomenon (Shehata, 2020). Access to health information is essential for any country and this is more important in developing countries where health challenges are more (Ankama et al., 2021). Progress in the prevention of Covid-19 is partially dependent on understanding the process of health information seeking behavior and its tools. To promote effective health knowledge, behavior change must be done at the individual level, and health messages must be accurate, transparent, and comprehensible. Also, be available and appropriate to the cultural environment of the society (Jalilian et al., 2021). Due to the epidemic nature of this disease and its unexpected consequences, the role of people and their information behaviors in fighting and controlling this disease is very important (Ostadi, 2019).
The main variables of the research included: the amount of use of each type of social media, the amount of use of each type of social network, the types of information obtained, the amount of negative and positive consequences of obtaining information about Covid-19, the amount of each From health information seeking behaviors and aspects related to covid 19.
To carry out the research, the researcher-made questionnaire was used as a data collection tool. This questionnaire was compiled in two parts based on the objectives and questions of the research. The first part includes questions related to the objectives of the research, and in the second part, three questions are asked about the personal characteristics of the respondents.
This questionnaire had 42 items and was measured in 7 variables, which are: social media (items 1-9), social networks (items 10-16), types of information obtained (item 17-21), negative consequences of information acquisition (items 22-26), positive consequences of information acquisition (items 27-33), types of health information-seeking behavior (items 34-37) and related dimensions with covid 19 (items 42-38). The mentioned questionnaire was distributed among the statistical population after checking and testing the validity and reliability. In this research, in order to measure the content validity of the questionnaire, the questions of the questionnaire were prepared by studying and reviewing related study sources, and then using the opinions of experts and experts in information science, philology, and medical sciences, they were reviewed and modified.
Out of a total of 224 respondents, that is, 58% of the people were women and 162 of them, equal to 42%, were men. Students in the study field of humanities with 167 people (43%) have the highest frequency among the respondents. After that, engineering science group with 112 people (29 percent), basic science group with 63 people (16 percent) and agricultural science group with 44 people (12 percent) respectively.
The number of respondents in the undergraduate level was the highest with 319 people (83 percent), as well as 47 people (12 percent) in the master's degree and 20 people (5 percent) in the doctoral level.
In the social media variable, the results showed that the average amount of social media use was generally lower than average. In the components of official medical websites, doctors' websites, unofficial websites, internal social networks, Wikipedia and encyclopedias, discussion groups and forums are also less than It was average. According to Zhang and Zhao (2017) and Haider et al. (2009), concern about the quality of information reduces the amount of social media use and consumer participation.
In the variable of social networks, the findings show that the average amount of use of the variable of social networks was generally lower than the average. Due to the filtering of YouTube, Twitter, and Clubhouse platforms, their use was quite logically lower than average. In the components of the Telegram and Instagram platforms, the average amount of use was more than average. The researchers' field observations of the users' use of these networks are consistent with the obtained results, as a result, the use of social networks due to their accessibility and the widely used role of mobile phone technology today is a source of information dissemination and information acquisition. Since the specialized information on websites and official sources is valuable, it is necessary to pay attention to the reason why they are not given much attention, and it should be carefully rooted and investigated.
The search rate of Birjand University students regarding each type of health information about Covid-19, the research indicates that, in general, the search rate in the variable of types of information about Covid-19 was equal to the average. But in the components of news related to Covid-19, preventive behaviors were more than average. Since the purpose of searching users during the Covid-19 pandemic was to deal with the said disease; Therefore, the results refer to the consumption of health information related to the news of Covid-19 and various preventive behaviors, because obtaining health information about each of the information related to Covid-19 is important in the process of managing and controlling this disease.
The rate of negative consequences of acquiring information about Covid-19 was below average. Also, in all components of worry, anxiety, lack of trust in information, confusion and confusion, and cognitive avoidance were also below the average level. What causes worry and anxiety in people is often lack of awareness and lack of ability to manage a crisis. In Nakheizadeh's new research (2019), the level of anxiety caused by covid-19 was high, as Nakheizadeh's study shows, his research is related to the early period of the corona epidemic. What is remarkable at the beginning of the matter, with the indiscriminate spread and the lack of sufficient and correct information about this disease, as well as the lack of a related vaccine, the influx of this amount of anxiety and worry among people can be considered normal. Moreover, the data of the current research was collected after about two years of the corona virus, when the students were in the approximate routine of life before the corona virus, right at the same time as face-to-face education in the university, and this change in the results can be completely logically explained. Justified. Also, the study of Bigdali et al. (2013) also expressed the positive view of users towards health information on the web. Montsi (2020) also stated that even receiving fake information does not affect people's physical or mental health, and its results are completely intangible, which can be roughly generalized to the results of this research and considered consistent.
In the variable of positive outcomes of acquiring information about Covid-19, it was below average. Also, in the components of the ability to recognize the need for information, search skills, the spirit of cooperation and information sharing, and the promotion of critical thinking, it was also below average. Also, in the components of knowledge of information sources and ability to evaluate information sources, it was equal to the average level. As a result, considering that in some components of the skill of recognizing the need for information and the ability to evaluate information sources, their average score was equal to the average level, which indicates that their health literacy is average; Because the results are consistent with the acquisition of their health information sources (social networks), so it is in line with the results of Apok and Ellis.
The average rate of performing various types of information-seeking behavior about Covid-19 was higher than average. Also, in the components of information search, identifying the need for information and changing health and treatment behavior, seeking more information was more than average. In the information sharing component, the average score of this component was equal to the average; Considering that the sources of obtaining health information about this disease are basically the media and social networks. What emerges from the evidence is that following a crisis or problem related to health and feeling the need for related information, people start searching for related sources and if it is noticeable, their health information seeking behavior is an increasing trend. has it. Therefore, the present study is consistent with all previous studies.
The results of the present study show that the average of information acquisition in the variable of information dimensions related to Covid-19 was higher than the average and also in all components, including dimensions related to health, economic, political, social and educational, the average score was higher. It was average. In other words, the findings show the students' concerns about each of the dimensions related to economy, health, politics, social justice, and especially about education and concerns about holding classes, not having the necessary infrastructure in an optimal way. In some people, lack of concentration and anxiety is caused by the situation.
The findings showed that the most sources of obtaining health information for students of Birjand University are search engines, foreign social networks and news media, and they paid less attention to reliable media such as official specialized medical websites. Also, the results point to the important and prominent role of Telegram and Instagram platforms. In addition, what the studied community sought to obtain information about covid-19 was mostly preventive behaviors and news related to covid-19 rather than its treatment methods. Also, the results showed that the health information-seeking behavior of Birjand University students has generally increased during this pandemic; But they have done the behavior of sharing information related to Covid less. Meanwhile, the role of dimensions related to Covid-19, including dimensions related to health, economic, political, social and educational, and obtaining information about each of these dimensions was of great importance for students, and the most important aspect for them was the educational dimension. .
The results showed that women used reliable sources such as official specialized medical websites and news media compared to men, and men used social networks (Telegram, Instagram, Twitter and YouTube) and search engines to get information about Covid. 19 have used. The influence of the role of gender showed that women are more interested in obtaining all kinds of information about this disease, and also paid more attention to the negative consequences of women; After creating negative consequences in women, they sought to obtain information about preventive behaviors. Because a significant relationship has been established between negative consequences and preventive behaviors in past studies. In addition, the role of gender had no effect on the positive outcomes and dimensions related to Covid-19, except for the economic dimension component. The field of study and level of study did not make a significant difference in the research variables. Based on this, it is suggested to hold training courses to improve the quality and awareness of health information literacy in social networks and news media for students of different levels. Also, policy makers and decision makers should pay more attention to providing authentic information on social media for the audience. Social networks and internal messengers should be adapted in the field of providing health information. Future researches can examine the subject of study in other societies and use different research methods to collect data or analyze findings.

Mousa Bamir, Associate Professor Maryam Okhvati,
Volume 10, Issue 3 (11-2023)

Introduction: Information behavior is a term used to describe the ways of human interaction with information, especially information search methods, which is intended to understand the relationship between humans and information.  Information behavior refers to the complex patterns of human behavior and mutual interactions when searching for any type of information, which leads to information seeking Information seeking, as an information behavior, is a set of activities that are used to meet information needs, information search, information search method and factors affecting information search, and includes two important aspects, information search and information retrieval, which In it, recognition, evaluation and understanding of users' behavior with information needs and their performance in facing information sources, the method of retrieving and accessing information are taken into consideration. Information seeking is a growing behavior that has enabled individuals and organizations to change their information seeking behaviors to meet their needs and users. Searching for information has been studied for years and various definitions and models have been presented for them, which today, with the increase in the number of sources, the number of information systems, the prevalence of social networks, collaborative research and the increase in digital literacy, increase cooperation. International scientific events, multi-specialization of research, increase of work teams, etc. have led to a change in information behavior. Since the type of information behavior has seen many changes as a result of the interactions of existing information carriers and the effects of technology, and is of great importance in today's world, and so far no research has been conducted in the form of a review of information search behaviors, in The world level has not been done, so it is necessary to have a comprehensive research of information search behaviors, all existing studies should be included in one study in order to get a general impression of information search behaviors and their direction. Based on this, the researchers of this research decided to review the studies related to information seeking behaviors, to determine their direction.
Methodology: In order to examine the topic of the research, a narrative review method has been used. Narrative review is one of the important scientific functions that is used to review detailed and comprehensive topics. In fact, a narrative review creates a bridge between a wide and scattered set of articles on a topic or a reader who does not have enough time and resources to follow them. Since in this research, giving meaning to scattered and read sources does not require the study of individual sources, therefore, narrative review is an appropriate method. In this narrative review study, in order to collect data, keywords related to information search behavior in English such as Information seeking behavior, collaborative information seeking, CIS, collaborative information retrieval, CIR, collaborative search, collaborative information behavior, CIB, individual information behavior and IIB and search for Persian articles using keywords, collaborative information search, CIS, collaborative information retrieval, CIR, collaborative search, collaborative sense, collaborative information behavior, CIB, individual information search, and IIB; In the reliable scientific databases and search engines, Web of Science, Pubmed, google scholar, Google SID, Magiran were examined in the period from 1980 to 2023, which 115 studies were obtained in the initial search and after entering the entry criteria and Exclusion, studies that were generally in the field of information seeking behavior were excluded from the study circle and 12 related studies entered the final stage. Then related studies were summarized in terms of concept and findings and categorized and interpreted in the form of individual and collaborative search behavior.
Findings: After searching and selecting related articles, finally analysis was done on twelve articles. What was extracted from the results of this narrative review study, in the general field of information search behavior, in the 4 main axes of individual search behavior, cooperative search behavior, advantages and disadvantages of individual and cooperative search behavior, and the comparison of these two types of information search behavior are described below. This narrative review study was carried out in order to investigate the direction of information behaviors, the findings of this research generally showed that the studies investigated individual and cooperative information behavior and the difference between these two behaviors and the reasons for the direction of individual search behavior. According to the results of studies, one of the types of information search behavior is individual search behavior. As the findings of the research showed, information behaviors have been studied for years and various definitions and models have been presented for them, but in the early stages, in most of these studies, the emphasis was on individual needs and behaviors.  It has also been investigated in some studies. Kolthau, by studying the search behavior of high school students, presented a model for individual search behavior.  Ellis also presented a model for individual information seeking behavior, which is the result of studying the information seeking behavior of engineers and researchers of an industrial company, which examined the search behavior from an individual point of view. presented, which paid attention to the individual nature of information search.  After studying the researches conducted on the information behaviors of engineers, doctors and lawyers, Laki and his colleagues have presented a model for individual information behavior. Another area investigated in the present study was the investigation of collaborative information behavior. The findings of the research showed that in recent years, many researches have been proposed and investigated in the field of collaborative behavior, and they have investigated the motivating factors and obstacles in the collaborative search behavior. In his last work, Shah has introduced participatory search behavior as an interdisciplinary field that is based on participation, human-computer interaction, networks and social media. In another research, the collaborative search behavior in an exploratory search team has been investigated. In this research, three main factors in the collaborative search behavior were identified, which are: repeated communication between team members, division of work and awareness. Karanakaran, with the cooperation of Reddy, has studied the factors inhibiting cooperative behaviors in organizations by using the findings of previous researches. Another area investigated in this research is the difference between individual and collaborative search behavior. The findings of this research showed that both types of search behavior have obstacles and inhibiting factors. The research findings of Karanakaran and Redi have identified the factors of complexity of information needs, lack of sufficient expertise, dispersion of information sources and lack of access to information sources as the advantages of cooperative information behavior. Some studies have also identified the barriers to cooperative information behavior and the lack of spirit of participation, responsibility, and envy of the progress of others is a serious obstacle to any cooperative activity. Another area investigated by the research is the comparison of these two types of information search behavior. The findings of this research showed that the strengths and motivating factors of collaborative search behavior along with the weaknesses of individual search behavior and other stimuli are among the most important differences of this research. There are two types of information search behavior, which has provided the context for the orientation from individual to collaborative search behavior. Reddy and Jansen observed that two main concepts: (a) collaboration (two or more people working together to search for information) and (b) solving an information need as a group; Also, the important role of communication as the first motivating factors has been one of the most important reasons for the direction towards collaborative search. In another study, Kurankaran and colleagues considered the stimuli and technology of information and communication recovery as one of the main motivating factors in directing towards cooperative behavior. Early search behaviors, most of the research activities focused on individual search, but as a number of researchers have stated, the importance of collaboration in organizations is increasing and collaborative information behavior is increasing, and attention is shifting from focusing on individual search to more research. Focused collaborative search. Although there are different views and different vocabulary in the relationship between individual and collaborative search behavior and clear demarcation between these two types of search behavior is still in the early stages and despite some barriers to collaborative search and some strengths of individual search, but stimuli such as The complex nature of information, dispersion of information, lack of specialization, the role of information retrieval technologies, the importance of collaborative aspects of work, time constraints, targeted information search, meaning understanding, information search troubleshooting, workload sharing, sending diverse questions, communication and interaction. , the complexity of information problems, the interdisciplinary nature of information, understanding the behavior of collaborative information in organizations, in turn, are the starting point and the factor of moving from individual search to collaborative search. The researchers believe that, despite the identification of the direction of information behaviors, there are still gaps, and to know how this process is, one should learn about the existing approaches in the field of information systems design and identify the type of information behaviors based on this.Also, there is an urgent need to understand the conceptual characteristics of cooperative search behavior and its supporting technical methods in cooperative activities, because the main characteristics of cooperative information behavior and the activities that lead to cooperative information behavior are still completely unclear.
Conclusion: Early search behaviors, most of the research activities focused on individual search, but as a number of researchers have stated, the importance of collaboration in organizations is increasing and collaborative information behavior is increasing, and attention is shifting from focusing on individual search to more research. Focused collaborative search. However, there are different views and different terminology on the relationship between individual and collaborative search behavior, and a clear demarcation between these two types of search behavior is still in the early stages. The research findings indicated that despite the barriers and benefits of individual and collaborative information seeking behavior, factors such as the complex nature of information, scattered information, lack of expertise, the role of information retrieval technologies, the importance of collaborative aspects of work, time constraints, targeted information seeking, understanding meaning, motivation for collaboration, workload sharing, diversity of requests, communication and interaction, complexity of information problems, interdisciplinary nature of information, and understanding of collaborative information behavior in organizations are motivating factors leading to a shift from individual to collaborative information seeking behavior. Also, there is an urgent need to understand the conceptual characteristics of cooperative search behavior and its supporting technical methods in cooperative activities, because the main characteristics of cooperative information behavior and the activities that lead to cooperative information behavior are still completely unclear.

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