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Hossein Raghfar, Mir Hossen Mousavi, Batool Azari, Mitra Babapour,
Volume 5, Issue 15 (3-2014)

One of the issues discussed in economy is the socioeconomic inequality in the society. Income mobility is another measure which indicates the degree of inequality of opportunity in a society. The extent of income mobility depends on socio-economic status of the individuals. Different socio-economic status leads to further inequality and increases inequality of opportunity. Such inequalities lead to the formation of Poverty which can be reproduced and transmitted from one cohort to the other, if not utilize the appropriate method. income mobility is measured as either conditional or absolute one. In Conditional mobility fixed effects are considered, however in absolute mobility it is not so. Fixed effect parameter that indicates the heterogeneity between individuals. According to the importance of the issue of poverty and the relation it has with inequality, this paper studies the conditional mobility in the economy of  Iran. In this study Household Survey Data collected by Iran Statistical Center from 1988 till 2011 is used. The method of nonlinear dynamic pseudo-panel has been used in order to measure income inequality dynamics. Nonlinear dynamics of income inequality for urban areas in Iran are estimated. This method enables us to track the performance of each cohort over time. The main results of this study indicate that the conditional income mobility is low and dine quality in the country has increased over time. Facing negative shocks, households cannot quickly improve their situation and return to the initial income, and at the same time, the market operation in itself cannot fix the problem. This means that the market provides more favorable conditions for people who have higher power and wealth. This leads the inequality to spread to the higher level.

Mir Hossein Mousavi, Batoul Azari Beni,
Volume 6, Issue 21 (10-2015)

Maximizing the social welfare considered as one of the main aspects the development process in society. This important is achieved through increased quality of life and welfare consumer the individual. In this context, quality of life and welfare consumer women as an important group of human resources in society, is affected by various factors. Despite women’s welfare patterns there is no precise information in this regard. Given the importance this issue, the present study using method Deaton and Paxson (1997) and life cycle model separation women heads of household expenditure as variable of welfare to three age, cohort and period effect. Therefore, in this paper, typical pattern is used pseudo-panel data. Pseudo-panel data using repeated cross-sectional data, Create generations of families during time. The feature of this method is, to trace the performance of each cohort over time. The results showed that lowest consumption is done by first generation. The age effect shows household consumption expenditure increased with increasing age. The time effect also shows Amount increase in consumption in the first decade (1991 to 2001) to more than the amount consumed in the second decade (2001 and 2011).

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