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Hassan Daliri,
Volume 11, Issue 39 (3-2020)

This study examines the Kuznets environmental curve among D8 countries in the period 1961–2016. The Kuznets environmental curve shows the reversed U-shaped relationship between economic growth and environmental degradation. In this paper, two methods of time series estimation and smooth panel transition estimation were used to test the hypothesis of this relationship. Also, the ecological footprint index was used as an indicator of environmental degradation. The time series estimation results show that there is a nonlinear relationship in all D8 countries but the classical Kuznets hypothesis was confirmed only in Malaysia, Egypt and Turkey and in other countries the relationship was not inverted U. In Iran, the relationship between GDP per capita and the per capita ecological footprint is N-shaped, and at the GDP levels of $5864 and $10514, the relationship between the two variables will change. On the other hand, testing of the Kuznets hypothesis by using panel smooth transition models showed that there was a nonlinear relationship between GDP and ecological footprint in D8 countries with a threshold. There was a direct relationship between ecological footprint and GDP per capita when economic growth below 8.3 percent and reverse relationship when economic growth above 8.3 percent

Dr Hassan Daliri,
Volume 12, Issue 43 (3-2021)

Identifying the behavior of business cycles and factors affecting business cycles has always been one of the most important issues in macroeconomics. Importance of business cycles and the unique economic structure of OPEC member countries, so, this article identifies the behavior of business cycles in these countries. This study uses Quantile Panel Regressions Model to examine the impact of variables such as government expenditure, trade openness, liquidity growth, oil prices and two dummy variables of the global recession and the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) agreement on the formation of business cycles in OPEC countries in the period 2000-2019. The results show that the values of the coefficients of each variable in different quantiles were significantly different from each other. Government expenditure and trade openness in the initial quantile has been in the agreed direction to the cycles and the End quantile opposite direction. The results of the effect of liquidity growth show that in the initial and end quantile has been agreed with direction to the cycles and in the middle quantile opposite direction to the cycles. Oil prices have also been agreed with the direction of the business cycles. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) agreement variable in the first quantile has a significant impact on business cycles and the global financial recession has also acted against cycles.

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