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Dr Abolfazl Shahabadi, Dr Mohamad Kazem Naziri, Nima Nilforoushan,
Volume 3, Issue 9 (10-2012)

  Parties and candidates in the election campaign try to raise the community to vote for them by offering a variety of social policies. However, the public health expenditures have been raised among the candidates as one of the most important tools to attract votes. Thus, this study uses panel data to investigate whether the components of electoral cycle have affected the growth of public health expenditures in both developed and developing countries over the period of 1994-2010. Using the related tests, two methods of static panel (random effects) and dynamic panel estimation were selected. According to the results, the presence of electoral cycles could not be rejected in both types of countries. Based on these results, politicians in every country increase the public health expenditures before the election in hopes of gaining a greater share of people's votes.

Dr Abolfazl Shahabadi, Dr Mohamad Kazem Naziri, Morteza Nemati,
Volume 4, Issue 12 (7-2013)

In the current structure of world economy, imports play an important role in the economic development strategy. Although taking the suitable policies for the imports of goods and services is important, but taking the correct strategy is subject to factors affecting imports. In the most of empirical studies, imports are a function of real income and real exchange rate. So, the effect of income inequality on imports of goods and services has less been investigated. Whereas, increase in income inequality causes an increase in the purchasing power of high income people and demand for imported luxury goods and also causes a change in the composition of domestic and imported consuming goods. This study examine the effect of income inequality on import of goods and services in 17 developed countries and 18 developing countries in the period 1990-2010 using generalized method of moment (GMM) analysis. The results indicate that there is a positive relationship between income inequality and imports of goods and services in developed countries while this relation is negative in developing countries. Furthermore, the relationship between GDP and imports of goods and services is positive in both groups of countries, while the relationship between real exchange rate and imports of goods and services is negative in both groups. Thus, policy makers should redistribute income and wealth in favor of the low income people and motivate them to participate in the production sectors, reduce the inequality gap and improve their competitiveness power in the market and enhance the income from the abroad.
Saeed Eisazadeh, Mohammad Kazem Naziri, Hadi Naeini,
Volume 8, Issue 30 (12-2017)

One of the causes of unemployment is lack of fit between individual skill and needs for skills in the community. The situation of mismatch between the demand and supply of labour, particularly in terms of skills is defined as structural unemployment. Therefore, in this study quantitatively explores the impact of skill mismatches one of the main parameters of structural unemployment on unemployment rate. For this purpose of information available in the Labour Force Survey from 2006 to 2013 is used. Skill mismatch index is calculated from the root mean square error in supply and demand for skills. According to results of this study, skill mismatch have a significantly and positively effects on the unemployment rate. So thata1%increase in skill mismatch index led to an increase in the unemployment rate will be 0.13%. Therefore, creating exact information about job vacancies , reforming the contexts of courses and creating new fields in new areas according to necessities of entrepreneurs in order to updating of applicants knowledge  should be mentioned.
Mehdi Pourmehr, Hamid Sepehrdoust, Mohamad Kazem Naziri, Nader Mehrgan ,
Volume 9, Issue 34 (12-2018)

Considering the importance of the Banking system in Iran economy and taking into account  the strategic objectives of  bank’s activities to improve their performance indicators, the main objective of the present study was to investigate the impact of internal and external factors affecting the three profitability components; including the return on assets (ROA), return on equity (ROE) and the net income margin (NIM) indicators of 13 private banks' in Iran for the period 2006 to 2016; using structural autoregressive vector panel model. For this purpose, the macro level factors responsible for profitability of banks are divided into internal components; including the quality of management, asset quality, capital adequacy and liquidity and external components such as inflation rate, interest rates, the growth of GDP, and the development of the stock market. The results indicate that the percentage of coverage of liquidity and the ratio of Non-performing loans to total loan as internal bank variables have a negative effects and the growth of GDP as the external variable has positive effect on the profitability components.

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