دوره 12، شماره 24 - ( 10-1401 )                   جلد 12 شماره 24 صفحات 31-16 | برگشت به فهرست نسخه ها

XML English Abstract Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Asadi A, Sheikh M, Hoomanian D, Rafiee S. The Interaction of Overt and Covert Attention of Children During Performing a Targeting Task. JRSM 2022; 12 (24) :16-31
URL: http://jrsm.khu.ac.ir/article-1-2990-fa.html
اسدی ایوب، شیخ محمود، حومنیان داود، رفیعی صالح. تعامل توجه پنهان و توجه آشکار کودکان حین اجرای یک تکلیف هدف گیری. پژوهش در مدیریت ورزشی و رفتار حرکتی 1401; 12 (24) :31-16

URL: http://jrsm.khu.ac.ir/article-1-2990-fa.html


1- دانشگاه تهران ، ayoub.asadi68@yahoo.com
2- دانشگاه تهران
3- پژوهشگاه تربیت بدنی وعلوم ورزشی
چکیده:   (1015 مشاهده)
در تحقیقات مختلف نشان داده شده است که کانون توجه و دوره چشم ساکن از متغیرهای اثرگذار بر عملکرد تکالیف هدف­گیری می باشد اما در مورد اثرگذاری این متغیرها بر مهارت حرکتی کودکان نیازمند بررسی های بیشتر است؛ بنابراین هدف از پژوهش حاضر بررسی اثر دستورالعمل های مختلف کانون توجه بر مدت زمان چشم ساکن و دقت پرتاب دارت کودکان بود. آزمودنی ها شامل 12 کودک راست دست (سن: میانگین= 83/8، انحراف استاندارد= 79/0) بدون هیچ گونه سابقه تمرینی در پرتاب دارت بودند که در پژوهش شرکت کردند؛ درحالیکه  حرکات چشم آنها با استفاده از یک سیستم ردیاب بینایی ثبت می­شد، آزمودنی­ها 18 پرتاب (6 بلوک سه کوششی) تحت سه شرایط توجهی مختلف: 1) بیرونی، 2) درونی، و کنترل انجام دادند. نتایج نشان داد اثرات کانون توجه نه برای دقت و نه برای مدت زمان دوره چشم ساکن معنی دار نبود. بنابراین برای آگاهی کانون توجه بهینه کودکان، نیازمند پژوهش های بیشتر در تکالیف مختلف حرکتی می باشد.
متن کامل [PDF 791 kb]   (40 دریافت)    
نوع مطالعه: پژوهشي | موضوع مقاله: رفتار حرکتی
دریافت: 1399/12/29 | پذیرش: 1400/6/1 | انتشار الکترونیک پیش از انتشار نهایی: 1400/6/8 | انتشار: 1401/10/10

فهرست منابع
1. Wulf G. Attentional focus and motor learning: a review of 15 years. International Review of sport and Exercise psychology. 2013;6(1):77-104. [DOI:10.1080/1750984X.2012.723728]
2. Wulf G, Lauterbach B, Toole T. The learning advantages of an external focus of attention in golf. Research quarterly for exercise and sport. 1999;70(2):120-6. [DOI:10.1080/02701367.1999.10608029]
3. Wulf G, Höß M, Prinz W. Instructions for motor learning: Differential effects of internal versus external focus of attention. Journal of motor behavior. 1998; 30(2):169-79. [DOI:10.1080/00222899809601334]
4. Lohse KR, Sherwood DE, Healy AF. How changing the focus of attention affects performance, kinematics, and electromyography in dart throwing. Human Movement Science. 2010; 29(4):542-55. [DOI:10.1016/j.humov.2010.05.001]
5. Zachry T, Wulf G, Mercer J, Bezodis N. Increased movement accuracy and reduced EMG activity as the result of adopting an external focus of attention. Brain research bulletin. 2005; 67(4):304-9. [DOI:10.1016/j.brainresbull.2005.06.035]
6. Chiviacowsky S, Wulf G, Wally R. An external focus of attention enhances balance learning in older adults. Gait & posture. 2010; 32(4):572-5. [DOI:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2010.08.004]
7. Bell JJ, Hardy J. Effects of attentional focus on skilled performance in golf. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology. 2009; 21(2):163-77. [DOI:10.1080/10413200902795323]
8. Asadi A, Farsi A, Abdoli B, Saemi E, Porter JM. Directing Attention Externally and Self-Controlled Practice Have Similar Effects on Motor Skill Performance. Journal of Motor Learning and Development. 2019; 7(1):141-51. [DOI:10.1123/jmld.2017-0027]
9. Porter JM, Anton PM, Wu WF. Increasing the distance of an external focus of attention enhances standing long jump performance. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. 2012; 26(9):2389-93. [DOI:10.1519/JSC.0b013e31823f275c]
10. Asadi A, Abdoli B, Farsi A, Saemi E. Effect of various attentional focus instructions on novice javelin throwing skill performance. Medicina Dello Sport. 2015; 68(1):99-107.
11. Wulf G, Dufek JS, Lozano L, Pettigrew C. Increased jump height and reduced EMG activity with an external focus. Human movement science. 2010; 29(3):440-8. [DOI:10.1016/j.humov.2009.11.008]
12. Radlo, S. J., Steinberg, G. M., Singer, R. N., Barba, D. A., & Melnikov, A. The influence of an attentional focus strategy on alpha brain wave activity, heart rate and dart-throwing performance. International Journal of Sport Psychology. 2002; 33(2), 205
13. Lohse KR, Sherwood DE. Thinking about muscles: The neuromuscular effects of attentional focus on accuracy and fatigue. Acta psychologica. 2012; 140(3):236-45. [DOI:10.1016/j.actpsy.2012.05.009]
14. Lohse KR, Sherwood DE, Healy AF. Neuromuscular effects of shifting the focus of attention in a simple force production task. Journal of Motor Behavior. 2011; 43(2):173-84. [DOI:10.1080/00222895.2011.555436]
15. Asadi, A., Farsi, A. R., & Abdoli, B. Effect of increasing the distance of an external focus of attention on performance and kinematic of horizontal jump in skilled athletes. Motor Behavior. 2016; 8(23), 65-78.
16. Vickers JN. The quiet eye: origins, controversies, and future directions. Kinesiology Review. 2016;5(2):119-28. [DOI:10.1123/kr.2016-0005]
17. Vine SJ, Moore LJ, Wilson MR. Quiet eye training: The acquisition, refinement and resilient performance of targeting skills. European Journal of Sport Science. 2014;14(sup1): 235-42. [DOI:10.1080/17461391.2012.683815]
18. Williams AM, Singer RN, Frehlich SG. Quiet eye duration, expertise, and task complexity in near and far aiming tasks. Journal of Motor Behavior. 2002; 34(2):197-207. [DOI:10.1080/00222890209601941]
19. Vine SJ, Wilson MR. The influence of quiet eye training and pressure on attention and visuo-motor control. Acta psychologica. 2011; 136(3):340-6. [DOI:10.1016/j.actpsy.2010.12.008]
20. Moore LJ, Vine SJ, Cooke A, Ring C, Wilson MR. Quiet eye training expedites motor learning and aids performance under heightened anxiety: The roles of response programming and external attention. Psychophysiology. 2012; 49(7):1005-15. [DOI:10.1111/j.1469-8986.2012.01379.x]
21. Wulf G. Attentional focus and motor learning: a review of 15 years. International Review of sport and Exercise psychology. 2013;6(1):77-104. [DOI:10.1080/1750984X.2012.723728]
22. Sherwood DE, Lohse KR, Healy AF. Judging joint angles and movement outcome: Shifting the focus of attention in dart-throwing. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance. 2014; 40(5):1903. [DOI:10.1037/a0037187]
23. Vickers JN, Williams AM. Performing under pressure: The effects of physiological arousal, cognitive anxiety, and gaze control in biathlon. Journal of motor behavior. 2007; 39(5):381-94. [DOI:10.3200/JMBR.39.5.381-394]
24. Schorer J, Jaitner T, Wollny R, Fath F, Baker J. Influence of varying focus of attention conditions on dart throwing performance in experts and novices. Experimental brain research. 2012;217(2):287-97. [DOI:10.1007/s00221-011-2992-5]
25. Klostermann A, Kredel R, Hossner EJ. On the interaction of attentional focus and gaze: the quiet eye inhibits focus-related performance decrements. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology. 2014;36(4):392-400. [DOI:10.1123/jsep.2013-0273]
26. Rienhoff R, Fischer L, Strauss B, Baker J, Schorer J. Focus of attention influences quiet-eye behavior: An exploratory investigation of different skill levels in female basketball players. Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology. 2015; 4(1):62. [DOI:10.1037/spy0000031]
27. Querfurth S, Schücker L, de Lussanet MH, Zentgraf K. An internal focus leads to longer quiet eye durations in novice dart players. Frontiers in psychology. 2016;7(1):633. [DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00633]
28. Emanuel M, Jarus T, Bart O. Effect of focus of attention and age on motor acquisition, retention, and transfer: a randomized trial. Physical Therapy. 2008; 88(2):251-60. [DOI:10.2522/ptj.20060174]
29. Perreault ME, French KE. External-focus feedback benefits free-throw learning in children. Research quarterly for exercise and sport. 2015;86(4):422-7. [DOI:10.1080/02701367.2015.1051613]
30. Agar C, Humphries CA, Naquin M, Hebert E, Wood R. Does varying attentional focus affect skill acquisition in children? A comparison of internal and external focus instructions and feedback. Physical Educator. 2016;73(4):639. [DOI:10.18666/TPE-2016-V73-I4-6883]
31. Bahmani M, Babak M, Land WM, Howard JT, Diekfuss JA, Abdollahipour R. Children's motor imagery modality dominance modulates the role of attentional focus in motor skill learning. Human Movement Science. 2021; 75:102742 [DOI:10.1016/j.humov.2020.102742]
32. Tse AC. Effects of attentional focus on motor learning in children with autism spectrum disorder. Autism. 2019; 23(2):405-12. [DOI:10.1177/1362361317738393]
33. Wilson MR, Miles CA, Vine SJ, Vickers JN. Quiet eye distinguishes children of high and low motor coordination abilities. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 2013;45(6):1144-51. [DOI:10.1249/MSS.0b013e31828288f1]
34. Schmidt RA, Wrisberg CA. Motor learning and performance, a problem-based learning approach. Champaign: Human Kinetics. 2000; p 236.
35. Wulf G, McNevin N, Shea CH. The automaticity of complex motor skill learning as a function of attentional focus. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology Section A. 2001;54(4):1143-54. [DOI:10.1080/713756012]
36. Gentile AM. Movement science: Implicit and explicit processes during acquisition of functional skills. Scandinavian journal of occupational therapy. 1998;5(1):7-16. [DOI:10.3109/11038129809035723]
37. Van der Kamp J, Oudejans R, Savelsbergh G. The development and learning of the visual control of movement: An ecological perspective. Infant Behavior and Development. 2003;26(4):495-515. [DOI:10.1016/j.infbeh.2003.09.002]
38. Yan JH, Thomas JR, Stelmach GE, Thomas KT. Developmental features of rapid aiming arm movements across the lifespan. Journal of motor behavior. 2000 Jun 1;32(2):121-40. [DOI:10.1080/00222890009601365]
39. Wulf G, Chiviacowsky S, Schiller E, Ávila LT. Frequent external focus feedback enhances motor learning. Frontiers in psychology. 2010; 1:190. [DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2010.00190]
40. Klostermann A. Finale fixations, sport motor performance and an inhibition hypothesis. Sports Science. 2014; 44 (1): 49-59. [DOI:10.1007/s12662-013-0313-9]
41. Vickers JN. Visual control when aiming at a far target. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance. 1996; 22(2):342. [DOI:10.1037/0096-1523.22.2.342]
42. Vickers JN, Rodrigues ST, Edworthy G. Quiet eye and accuracy in the dart throw. International Journal of Sports Vision. 2000;6(1):30-6.
43. Klostermann, A., Kredel, R., & Hossner, E. J. The "quiet eye" and motor performance: Task demands matter! Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance. 2013; 39(5), 1270-1278. [DOI:10.1037/a0031499]
44. De Oliveira RF, Oudejans RR, Beek PJ. Gaze behavior in basketball shooting: Further evidence for online visual control. Research quarterly for exercise and sport. 2008;79(3):399-404. [DOI:10.1080/02701367.2008.10599504]
45. De Oliveira RF, Oudejans RR, Beek PJ. Late information pick-up is preferred in basketball jump shooting. Journal of Sports Sciences. 2006;24(9):933-40. [DOI:10.1080/02640410500357101]
46. Yamada M, Diekfuss JA, Raisbeck LD. Motor behavior literature fails to translate: A preliminary investigation into coaching and focus of attention in recreational distance runners. International Journal of Exercise Science. 2020;13(5):789.
47. Bahram A. It is Time to Move from Motor Behavior and Sport Psychology Labs to Naturalistic Environments. International Journal of Motor Control and Learning. 2019;10;2(2):27-30. [DOI:10.29252/ijmcl.2.2.1]
48. Bahmani M, Bahram A, Diekfuss JA, Arsham S. An expert's mind in action: Assessing attentional focus, workload and performance in a dynamic, naturalistic environment. Journal of sports sciences. 2019 18;37(20):2318-30. [DOI:10.1080/02640414.2019.1631102]

ارسال نظر درباره این مقاله : نام کاربری یا پست الکترونیک شما:
CAPTCHA

ارسال پیام به نویسنده مسئول


بازنشر اطلاعات
Creative Commons License این مقاله تحت شرایط Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License قابل بازنشر است.

کلیه حقوق این وب سایت متعلق به پژوهش در مدیریت ورزشی و رفتار حرکتی می باشد.

طراحی و برنامه نویسی : یکتاوب افزار شرق

© 2023 CC BY-NC 4.0 | Research in Sport Management and Motor Behavior

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb