دوره 13، شماره 26 - ( 10-1402 )                   جلد 13 شماره 26 صفحات 122-101 | برگشت به فهرست نسخه ها

XML English Abstract Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Ramezanzade H. The Role Of Movement Reinvestment In Learning And Automaticity Of Skill Based On The Interference-Error Model. JRSM 2023; 13 (26) :101-122
URL: http://jrsm.khu.ac.ir/article-1-3104-fa.html
رمضان زاده حسام. نقش سرمایه‌گذاری مجدد حرکت در یادگیری و خودکاری مهارت بر اساس مدل تداخل-خطا. پژوهش در مدیریت ورزشی و رفتار حرکتی. 1402; 13 (26) :101-122

URL: http://jrsm.khu.ac.ir/article-1-3104-fa.html


دانشگاه دامغان ، h.ramezanzadeh@du.ac.ir
چکیده:   (1488 مشاهده)
هدف این پژوهش، مطالعه نقش سرمایه‌­گذاری مجدد حرکت بالا و پایین بر اکتساب، یادداری و خودکاری مهارت پرتاب دارت در بر اساس مدل تداخل-خطا بود. تعداد 100 دانشجوی کارشناسی انتخاب و بر اساس مقیاس سرمایه­‌گذاری مجدد­ حرکت به دوطبقه بالا و پایین تقسیم شدند. افراد هر طبقه به‌طور تصادفی در پنج گروه مسدود-کم­‌خطا، مسدود-پرخطا، تصادفی-کم­‌خطا، تصادفی-پرخطا و تصادفی قرار گرفتند. نتایج نشان داد، گروه تصادفی-کم‌خطا و تصادفی-پرخطا به ترتیب بهترین و بدترین عملکرد را نسبت به سایر گروه­ها از خود به نمایش گذاشتند. تفاوت بین دو گروه سرمایه‌­گذاری مجدد بالا و پایین در آزمون یادداری و خودکاری معنی­‌دار و به نفع سرمایه‌­گذاری مجدد پایین بود. در آزمون­های اکتساب و یادداری، گروه­های مسدود در طبقه سرمایه­‌گذاری مجدد بالا و گروه­های تصادفی در طبقه سرمایه‌گذاری مجدد پایین، عملکرد بهتری داشتند. نتایج در مرحله خودکاری متفاوت و در تمام گروه­ها به نفع سرمایه­‌گذاری مجدد پایین بود. نتایج این پژوهش، نشان می‌­دهد، سطح سرمایه­‌گذاری مجدد افراد می­‌تواند نقش مهمی در یادگیری و خودکاری مهارت­‌های حرکتی داشته باشد. افراد با سطح سرمایه­‌گذاری مجدد کمتر، در شرایط تمرینی با تلاش شناختی بیش­تر (تمرین تصادفی) و افراد با سطح سرمایه­‌گذاری مجدد بالاتر، در شرایط تمرینی با تلاش شناختی کمتر (تمرین مسدود) عملکرد بهتری دارند.

متن کامل [PDF 1987 kb]   (128 دریافت)    
نوع مطالعه: پژوهشي | موضوع مقاله: رفتار حرکتی
دریافت: 1401/11/30 | پذیرش: 1402/10/1 | انتشار الکترونیک پیش از انتشار نهایی: 1402/10/1 | انتشار: 1402/10/8

فهرست منابع
1. Masters RSW, Maxwell JP. Implicit motor learning, reinvestment and movement disruption: What you don't know won't hurt you? In A.M. Williams & N.J. Hodges (Eds.) Skill Acquisition in Sport: Research, Theory and Practice (pp. 207-228). 1, editor. London: Routledge; 2004.
2. Deikman. Deautomatization and the mystic experience. In C.T. Tart (Ed.) Altered States of Consciousness. New York: Wiley; 1969.
3. Masters RSW, Maxwell JP. The theory of reinvestment. International. Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology. 2008; 1:160-83. [DOI:10.1080/17509840802287218]
4. Masters RSW. Knowledge, knerves and know-how: the role of explicit versus implicit knowledge in the breakdown of a complex motor skill under pressure. British Journal of Psychology. 1992;83:343-58. [DOI:10.1111/j.2044-8295.1992.tb02446.x]
5. Mor N, Winquist J. Self-focused attention and negative affect: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin. 2002;128:638-62. [DOI:10.1037/0033-2909.128.4.638]
6. Hamilton NA, Ingram RE. Self focusing attention and coping: Attending to the right things. In C.R. Snyder (Ed.) Coping with stress: Effective people and processes (pp. 178-95). Oxford, University Press. 2001.
7. Beilock SL, Carr TH. On the fragility of skilled performance: What governs choking under pressure? Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. 2001;130:701-25. [DOI:10.1037//0096-3445.130.4.701]
8. Dietrich A. Neurocognitive mechanisms underlying the experience of flow. Consciousness and Cognition. 2004;13:746-61. [DOI:10.1016/j.concog.2004.07.002]
9. Carver CS, Scheier MF. On the self-regulation of behavior. 1, editor. New York: Cambridge, University Press; 1998. [DOI:10.1017/CBO9781139174794]
10. Duval S, Wicklund RA. A theory of objective self-awareness. New York: Academic Press; 1972.
11. Vance J, Wulf G, Tollner T, Mcnevin N, Mercer J. EMG activity as a function of the performer's focus of attention. Journal of Motor Behavior. 2004; 36: 450-9. [DOI:10.3200/JMBR.36.4.450-459]
12. Gucciardi DF, Dimmock JA. Choking under pressure in sensorimotor skills: Conscious processing or depleted attentional resources?. Psychology of Sport and Exercise. 2008; 9:45-59. [DOI:10.1016/j.psychsport.2006.10.007]
13. Bellomo E, Cooke A, Hardy J. Chunking, Conscious processing, and EEG during sequence acquisition and performance pressure: A comprehensive test of reinvestment theory. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology. 2018;40(3):135-45. [DOI:10.1123/jsep.2017-0308]
14. Pijpers JR, Oudejans RR, Bakker FC. Anxiety-induced changes in movement behavior during the execution of a complex whole-body task. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. 2005;58:421-45. [DOI:10.1080/02724980343000945]
15. Mullen R, Hardy L, Oldham A. Implicit and explicit control of motor actions: Revisiting some early evidence. British Journal of Psychology. 2007;98:141-56. [DOI:10.1348/000712606X114336]
16. Wilson M, Smith NC, Holmes PS. The role of effort in influencing the effect of anxiety on performance: Testing the conflicting predictions of processing efficiency theory and the conscious processing hypothesis. British Journal of Psychology. 2007;98:411-28. [DOI:10.1348/000712606X133047]
17. Maxwell JP, Masters RSW, Eves FF. From novice to know-how: A longitudinal study of implicit motor learning. Journal of Sports Sciences. 2000;18:111-20. [DOI:10.1080/026404100365180]
18. Liao CM, Masters RSW. Self-focused attention and performance failure under psychological stress. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology. 2002;24:289-305. [DOI:10.1123/jsep.24.3.289]
19. Maxwell JP, Masters RSW, Eves FF. The role of working memory in motor learning and performance. Consciousness and Cognition. 2003;12:376-402. [DOI:10.1016/S1053-8100(03)00005-9]
20. Reber A. Implicit learning and tacit knowledge: Oxford University Press; 1993.
21. Orrell A, Masters RSW, Eves FF. Reinvestment and movement disruption following stroke. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair. 2009; 23:177-83. [DOI:10.1177/1545968308317752]
22. Smeeton NJ, Williams AM, Hodges NJ, Ward P. The relative effectiveness of various instructional approaches in developing anticipation skill. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied. 2005;11:98-110. [DOI:10.1037/1076-898X.11.2.98]
23. Poolton JM, Maxwell JP, Masters RSW, Raab M. Benefits of an external focus of attention: Common coding or conscious processing? Journal of Sport Sciences. 2006;24:89-99. [DOI:10.1080/02640410500130854]
24. Maxwell JP, Masters R, Kerr E, Weedon E. The implicit benefit of learning without errors. Quartery Journal of Experimental Psychololgy. 2001;54A:1049-68. [DOI:10.1080/02724980143000073]
25. Tse ACY, Wong TWL, Masters RSW. Examining motor learning in older adults using analogy instruction. Psychololgy of Sport and Exercise. 2017;28:78-84. [DOI:10.1016/j.psychsport.2016.10.005]
26. Kal E, Prosee R, Winters M, van der Kamp J. Does implicit motor learning lead to greater automatization of motor skills compared to explicit motor learning? A systematic review. PLoS ONE. 2018;13(9):e0203591. [DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0203591]
27. Masters RSW, Polman RCJ, Hammond NV. Reinvestment: A dimension of personality implicated in skill breakdown under pressure. Personality and Individual Differences. 1993;14:655-66. [DOI:10.1016/0191-8869(93)90113-H]
28. Bawden MAK, Maynard IW, Westbury T. The effects of conscious control of movement and dispositional self-consciousness on golf putting performance. Journal of Sports Sciences. 2001;19:68-9.
29. Jackson RC, Ashford KJ, Norsworthy G. Attentional focus, dispositional reinvestment, and skilled motor performance under pressure. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology. 2006;28:49-68. [DOI:10.1123/jsep.28.1.49]
30. Kinrade N, Jackson RC, Ashford KJ, Bishop DT. Development and validation of the decision-specific reinvestment scale. Journal of Sports Sciences. 2010;28:1127-35. [DOI:10.1080/02640414.2010.499439]
31. Masters R, MacMahon KMA, Pall HS. Implicit motor learning in Parkinson's disease. Rehabilitation Psychology. 2004;49:79-82. [DOI:10.1037/0090-5550.49.1.79]
32. Poolton J, Masters RSW, Maxwell JP. The relationship between initial errorless learning conditions and subsequent performance. Human Movement Sciences. 2005;24:362-78. [DOI:10.1016/j.humov.2005.06.006]
33. Masters RSW, Poolton JM, Maxwell JP, Raab M. Implicit motor learning and complex decision making in time constrained environments. Journal of Motor Behavior. 2008;40(71-79). [DOI:10.3200/JMBR.40.1.71-80]
34. Capio C, Poolton J, Sit C, Holmstrom M, Masters RSW. Reducing errors benefits the Field-based learning of a fundamental movement skill in children. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sport. 2013;23:181-8. [DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0838.2011.01368.x]
35. Lam WK, Maxwell JP, Masters RSW. Probing the allocation of attention in implicit motor learning. Journal of Sport Science. 2010;28:1543-54. [DOI:10.1080/02640414.2010.517543]
36. Chauvel G, Maquestiaux F, Hartley AA, Joubert S, Didierjean A, Masters RSW. Age effects shrink when motor learning is predominantly supported by nondeclarative, automatic memory processes: Evidence from golf putting. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. 2012;65:25-38. [DOI:10.1080/17470218.2011.588714]
37. Rendell MA, Masters R, Farrow D. The paradoxical role of cognitive effort in contextual interference and implicit motor learning. International Journal of Sport Psychology. 2009;40(4): 636-47.
38. Rendell MA, Masters RSW, Farrow D, Morris T. An implicit basis for the retention benefits of random practice. Journal of Motor Behavior. 2011;43: 1-13. [DOI:10.1080/00222895.2010.530304]
39. Farrow D, Buszard T. Exploring the applicability of the contextual interference effect in sports practice. Progress in Brain Research. 2017;234: 69-83. [DOI:10.1016/bs.pbr.2017.07.002]
40. Masters RSW, Eves FF, Maxwell J, editors. Development of a movement specific Reinvestment Scale. In T. Morris, P. Terry, S. Gordon, S. Hanrahan, L. Ievleva, G. Kolt, & P. Tremayne (Eds.) Proceedings of the ISSP 11th World Congress of Sport Psychology, Sydney; 2005; Australia.
41. Guadagnoli MA, Lee TD. Challenge point: A framework for conceptualizing the effect of various practice conditions in motor learning. Journal of Motor Behavior. 2004;36:212-24. [DOI:10.3200/JMBR.36.2.212-224]
42. Hasan Barani F, Abdoli B, Modaberi S. The effect of contextual interference and practice specificity on learning a throwing skill: A study of effortless process. Journal of Motor Learning and Development. 2015;7(1):41-55.
43. Abdoli B, Farsi AR, Ramezanzade H. Comparison effect of learning implicit and explicit learning with different levels of cognitive load on learning task coincidence anticipation timing. Motor Behavior. 2011;3(9):29-44.
44. Poolton JM, Masters RSW, Maxwell JP. Passing thoughts on the evolutionary stability of implicit motor behaviour: Performance retention under physiological fatigue Consciousness and Cognition. 2007a;16:456-68. [DOI:10.1016/j.concog.2006.06.008]
45. Magill RA, Hall KG. A review of the contextual interference effect in motor skill acquisition. Human Movement Sciences. 1990;9:241-89. [DOI:10.1016/0167-9457(90)90005-X]
46. Lee TD. Contextual interference: Generalizability and limitations. In N. J. Hodges & A. M. Williams (Ed.), Skill acquisition in sport: Research, theory and practice (pp. 79-93). New York: NY: Routledge; 2012.
47. Hung T, Lin J, Lo L, Kao J, Hung C, Chen Y, et al., editors. Effects of anxiety on EEG coherence during dart throwing. In T. Morris, P. Terry, S. Gordon, S. Hanrahan, L. Ievleva, G. Kolt, & P. Tremayne (Eds). Proceedings of the ISSP 11th World Congress of Sport Psychology; 2005;, Sydney, Australia.
48. Masters RSW, Maxwell JP. Implicit motor learning, reinvestment and movement disruption: What you don't know won't hurt you? In A.M. Williams & N.J. Hodges (Eds.) Skill Acquisition in Sport: Research, Theory and Practice (pp. 207-228). 1, editor. London: Routledge; 2004.
49. Deikman. Deautomatization and the mystic experience. In C.T. Tart (Ed.) Altered States of Consciousness. New York: Wiley; 1969.
50. Masters RSW, Maxwell JP. The theory of reinvestment. International. Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology. 2008; 1:160-83. [DOI:10.1080/17509840802287218]
51. Masters RSW. Knowledge, knerves and know-how: the role of explicit versus implicit knowledge in the breakdown of a complex motor skill under pressure. British Journal of Psychology. 1992;83:343-58. [DOI:10.1111/j.2044-8295.1992.tb02446.x]
52. Mor N, Winquist J. Self-focused attention and negative affect: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin. 2002;128:638-62. [DOI:10.1037/0033-2909.128.4.638]
53. Hamilton NA, Ingram RE. Self focusing attention and coping: Attending to the right things. In C.R. Snyder (Ed.) Coping with stress: Effective people and processes (pp. 178-95). Oxford, University Press. 2001.
54. Beilock SL, Carr TH. On the fragility of skilled performance: What governs choking under pressure? Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. 2001;130:701-25. [DOI:10.1037//0096-3445.130.4.701]
55. Dietrich A. Neurocognitive mechanisms underlying the experience of flow. Consciousness and Cognition. 2004;13:746-61. [DOI:10.1016/j.concog.2004.07.002]
56. Carver CS, Scheier MF. On the self-regulation of behavior. 1, editor. New York: Cambridge, University Press; 1998. [DOI:10.1017/CBO9781139174794]
57. Duval S, Wicklund RA. A theory of objective self-awareness. New York: Academic Press; 1972.
58. Vance J, Wulf G, Tollner T, Mcnevin N, Mercer J. EMG activity as a function of the performer's focus of attention. Journal of Motor Behavior. 2004; 36: 450-9. [DOI:10.3200/JMBR.36.4.450-459]
59. Gucciardi DF, Dimmock JA. Choking under pressure in sensorimotor skills: Conscious processing or depleted attentional resources?. Psychology of Sport and Exercise. 2008; 9:45-59. [DOI:10.1016/j.psychsport.2006.10.007]
60. Bellomo E, Cooke A, Hardy J. Chunking, Conscious processing, and EEG during sequence acquisition and performance pressure: A comprehensive test of reinvestment theory. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology. 2018;40(3):135-45. [DOI:10.1123/jsep.2017-0308]
61. Pijpers JR, Oudejans RR, Bakker FC. Anxiety-induced changes in movement behavior during the execution of a complex whole-body task. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. 2005;58:421-45. [DOI:10.1080/02724980343000945]
62. Mullen R, Hardy L, Oldham A. Implicit and explicit control of motor actions: Revisiting some early evidence. British Journal of Psychology. 2007;98:141-56. [DOI:10.1348/000712606X114336]
63. Wilson M, Smith NC, Holmes PS. The role of effort in influencing the effect of anxiety on performance: Testing the conflicting predictions of processing efficiency theory and the conscious processing hypothesis. British Journal of Psychology. 2007;98:411-28. [DOI:10.1348/000712606X133047]
64. Maxwell JP, Masters RSW, Eves FF. From novice to know-how: A longitudinal study of implicit motor learning. Journal of Sports Sciences. 2000;18:111-20. [DOI:10.1080/026404100365180]
65. Liao CM, Masters RSW. Self-focused attention and performance failure under psychological stress. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology. 2002;24:289-305. [DOI:10.1123/jsep.24.3.289]
66. Maxwell JP, Masters RSW, Eves FF. The role of working memory in motor learning and performance. Consciousness and Cognition. 2003;12:376-402. [DOI:10.1016/S1053-8100(03)00005-9]
67. Reber A. Implicit learning and tacit knowledge: Oxford University Press; 1993.
68. Orrell A, Masters RSW, Eves FF. Reinvestment and movement disruption following stroke. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair. 2009; 23:177-83. [DOI:10.1177/1545968308317752]
69. Smeeton NJ, Williams AM, Hodges NJ, Ward P. The relative effectiveness of various instructional approaches in developing anticipation skill. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied. 2005;11:98-110. [DOI:10.1037/1076-898X.11.2.98]
70. Poolton JM, Maxwell JP, Masters RSW, Raab M. Benefits of an external focus of attention: Common coding or conscious processing? Journal of Sport Sciences. 2006;24:89-99. [DOI:10.1080/02640410500130854]
71. Maxwell JP, Masters R, Kerr E, Weedon E. The implicit benefit of learning without errors. Quartery Journal of Experimental Psychololgy. 2001;54A:1049-68. [DOI:10.1080/02724980143000073]
72. Tse ACY, Wong TWL, Masters RSW. Examining motor learning in older adults using analogy instruction. Psychololgy of Sport and Exercise. 2017;28:78-84. [DOI:10.1016/j.psychsport.2016.10.005]
73. Kal E, Prosee R, Winters M, van der Kamp J. Does implicit motor learning lead to greater automatization of motor skills compared to explicit motor learning? A systematic review. PLoS ONE. 2018;13(9):e0203591. [DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0203591]
74. Masters RSW, Polman RCJ, Hammond NV. Reinvestment: A dimension of personality implicated in skill breakdown under pressure. Personality and Individual Differences. 1993;14:655-66. [DOI:10.1016/0191-8869(93)90113-H]
75. Bawden MAK, Maynard IW, Westbury T. The effects of conscious control of movement and dispositional self-consciousness on golf putting performance. Journal of Sports Sciences. 2001;19:68-9.
76. Jackson RC, Ashford KJ, Norsworthy G. Attentional focus, dispositional reinvestment, and skilled motor performance under pressure. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology. 2006;28:49-68. [DOI:10.1123/jsep.28.1.49]
77. Kinrade N, Jackson RC, Ashford KJ, Bishop DT. Development and validation of the decision-specific reinvestment scale. Journal of Sports Sciences. 2010;28:1127-35. [DOI:10.1080/02640414.2010.499439]
78. Masters R, MacMahon KMA, Pall HS. Implicit motor learning in Parkinson's disease. Rehabilitation Psychology. 2004;49:79-82. [DOI:10.1037/0090-5550.49.1.79]
79. Poolton J, Masters RSW, Maxwell JP. The relationship between initial errorless learning conditions and subsequent performance. Human Movement Sciences. 2005;24:362-78. [DOI:10.1016/j.humov.2005.06.006]
80. Masters RSW, Poolton JM, Maxwell JP, Raab M. Implicit motor learning and complex decision making in time constrained environments. Journal of Motor Behavior. 2008;40(71-79). [DOI:10.3200/JMBR.40.1.71-80]
81. Capio C, Poolton J, Sit C, Holmstrom M, Masters RSW. Reducing errors benefits the Field-based learning of a fundamental movement skill in children. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sport. 2013;23:181-8. [DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0838.2011.01368.x]
82. Lam WK, Maxwell JP, Masters RSW. Probing the allocation of attention in implicit motor learning. Journal of Sport Science. 2010;28:1543-54. [DOI:10.1080/02640414.2010.517543]
83. Chauvel G, Maquestiaux F, Hartley AA, Joubert S, Didierjean A, Masters RSW. Age effects shrink when motor learning is predominantly supported by nondeclarative, automatic memory processes: Evidence from golf putting. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. 2012;65:25-38. [DOI:10.1080/17470218.2011.588714]
84. Rendell MA, Masters R, Farrow D. The paradoxical role of cognitive effort in contextual interference and implicit motor learning. International Journal of Sport Psychology. 2009;40(4): 636-47.
85. Rendell MA, Masters RSW, Farrow D, Morris T. An implicit basis for the retention benefits of random practice. Journal of Motor Behavior. 2011;43: 1-13. [DOI:10.1080/00222895.2010.530304]
86. Farrow D, Buszard T. Exploring the applicability of the contextual interference effect in sports practice. Progress in Brain Research. 2017;234: 69-83. [DOI:10.1016/bs.pbr.2017.07.002]
87. Masters RSW, Eves FF, Maxwell J, editors. Development of a movement specific Reinvestment Scale. In T. Morris, P. Terry, S. Gordon, S. Hanrahan, L. Ievleva, G. Kolt, & P. Tremayne (Eds.) Proceedings of the ISSP 11th World Congress of Sport Psychology, Sydney; 2005; Australia.
88. Guadagnoli MA, Lee TD. Challenge point: A framework for conceptualizing the effect of various practice conditions in motor learning. Journal of Motor Behavior. 2004;36:212-24. [DOI:10.3200/JMBR.36.2.212-224]
89. Hasan Barani F, Abdoli B, Modaberi S. The effect of contextual interference and practice specificity on learning a throwing skill: A study of effortless process. Journal of Motor Learning and Development. 2015;7(1):41-55.
90. Abdoli B, Farsi AR, Ramezanzade H. Comparison effect of learning implicit and explicit learning with different levels of cognitive load on learning task coincidence anticipation timing. Motor Behavior. 2011;3(9):29-44.
91. Poolton JM, Masters RSW, Maxwell JP. Passing thoughts on the evolutionary stability of implicit motor behaviour: Performance retention under physiological fatigue Consciousness and Cognition. 2007a;16:456-68. [DOI:10.1016/j.concog.2006.06.008]
92. Magill RA, Hall KG. A review of the contextual interference effect in motor skill acquisition. Human Movement Sciences. 1990;9:241-89. [DOI:10.1016/0167-9457(90)90005-X]
93. Lee TD. Contextual interference: Generalizability and limitations. In N. J. Hodges & A. M. Williams (Ed.), Skill acquisition in sport: Research, theory and practice (pp. 79-93). New York: NY: Routledge; 2012.
94. Hung T, Lin J, Lo L, Kao J, Hung C, Chen Y, et al., editors. Effects of anxiety on EEG coherence during dart throwing. In T. Morris, P. Terry, S. Gordon, S. Hanrahan, L. Ievleva, G. Kolt, & P. Tremayne (Eds). Proceedings of the ISSP 11th World Congress of Sport Psychology; 2005;, Sydney, Australia.

ارسال نظر درباره این مقاله : نام کاربری یا پست الکترونیک شما:
CAPTCHA

ارسال پیام به نویسنده مسئول


بازنشر اطلاعات
Creative Commons License این مقاله تحت شرایط Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License قابل بازنشر است.

کلیه حقوق این وب سایت متعلق به پژوهش در مدیریت ورزشی و رفتار حرکتی می باشد.

طراحی و برنامه نویسی : یکتاوب افزار شرق

© 2024 CC BY-NC 4.0 | Research in Sport Management and Motor Behavior

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb