Volume 12, Issue 24 (12-2022)                   JRSM 2022, 12(24): 88-103 | Back to browse issues page


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Rabiei F, Salehi H. Anticipation in Baseball: Differences in Using Spatial Cues between Skilled and Novice Players. JRSM 2022; 12 (24) :88-103
URL: http://jrsm.khu.ac.ir/article-1-3146-en.html
1- University of Isfahan
2- University of Isfahan , Salehi@spr.ui.ac ir
Abstract:   (2415 Views)
The purpose of this investigation was to examine the differences between novice and skilled baseball players to anticipate the type of ball being pitched and to specify the players’ dependence on distributed or local kinematic spatial cues. Male baseball players (N= 15; Mage: 27.73 ± 6.28 years; baseball experience: 7.90 ± 5.69 years) and novices (N= 15; Mage: 23.10 ± 5.68 years; no playing experience in baseball) were asked to anticipate the type of pitch (i.e., fastball vs. curveball) using a spatial occlusion paradigm. Both groups viewed recorded video simulations of spatially manipulated pitches in which nine specific parts of the pitcher’s body or the ball were either omitted or showed separately. The data was analyzed by a 2 (Skill level) × 9 (Display Condition) mixed-design analysis of variance. The results revealed that skilled baseball players outperformed novices in the occlusion conditions. Furthermore, the results revealed that skilled baseball players used throwing arm and ball as well as upper body kinematic cues for their correct anticipations. The results are in line with previous findings on perceptual-cognitive expertise and decision-making in interactive sports and indicate skilled baseball players are able to obtain information distributed globally within the pitcher's body, rather than reliance on specific isolated or local kinematic cues.
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Type of Study: Research | Subject: motor behavior
Received: 2021/07/7 | Accepted: 2021/10/6 | ePublished ahead of print: 2021/10/6 | Published: 2022/12/31

References
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16. Williams AM, Huys R, Cañal-Bruland R, Hagemann N. The dynamical information underpinning anticipation skill. Human movement science. 2009;28(3):362-70.
17. Williams AM, Ward P, Knowles JM, Smeeton NJ. Anticipation skill in a real-world task: Measurement, training, and transfer in tennis. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied. 2002;8(4):259-70.
18. Loffing F, Hagemann N. Skill differences in visual anticipation of type of throw in team-handball penalties. Psychology of Sport and Exercise. 2014;15(3):260-7.
19. Müller S, Brenton J, Mansingh A. Sources of information pick-up for anticipation by skilled cricket batsmen. European Journal of Sport Science. 2020:1-9.
20. Eklund RC, Tenenbaum G. Encyclopedia of sport and exercise psychology: Sage Publications; 2013.
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22. Abdi H. Bonferroni and šidák corrections for multiple comparisons. Encyclopedia of measurement and statistics. 2007;3:103-7.
23. Lakens D. Calculating and reporting effect sizes to facilitate cumulative science: A practical primer for t-tests and anovas. Frontiers in Psychology. 2013;4:[Article 863].
24. Müller S, Abernethy B, Eid M, McBean R, Rose M. Expertise and the spatio-temporal characteristics of anticipatory information pick-up from complex movement patterns. Perception. 2010;39(6):745-60.
25. Abernethy B, Baker J, Côté J. Transfer of pattern recall skills may contribute to the development of sport expertise. Applied Cognitive Psychology: The Official Journal of the Society for Applied Research in Memory and Cognition. 2005;19(6):705-18.
26. Erickson GB. Topical review: Visual performance assessments for sport. Optom Vis Sci. 2021;98(7):672-80.
27. Hüttermann S, Noël B, Memmert D. Eye tracking in high-performance sports: Evaluation of its application in expert athletes. International Journal of Computer Science in Sport. 2018;17(2):182-203.
28. Grushko A, Leonov S, Veraksa A. Eye-tracking in sport psychology. Advances in Sports Research. 2015:1-15.
29. Morris-Binelli K, Müller S. Advancements to the understanding of expert visual anticipation skill in striking sports. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science/Revue canadienne des sciences du comportement. 2017;49(4):262-8.
30. Brenton J, Müller S, Harbaugh AG. Visual-perceptual training with motor practice of the observed movement pattern improves anticipation in emerging expert cricket batsmen. Journal of Sports Sciences. 2019;37(18):2114-21.
31. Johnson D. The complete guide to pitching. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics; 2013.
32. Higuchi T, Nagami T, Nakata H, Watanabe M, Isaka T, Kanosue K. Contribution of visual information about ball trajectory to baseball hitting accuracy. PLoS One. 2016;11(2):e0148498.
33. Jones C, Miles T. Use of advance cues in predicting the flight of a lawn tennis ball. Journal of human movement studies. 1978;4(4):231-5.
34. Abernethy B. Anticipation in squash: Differences in advance cue utilization between expert and novice players. Journal of Sports Sciences. 1990;8(1):17-34.
35. Abernethy B, Russell DG. Expert-novice differences in an applied selective attention task. Journal of Sport Psychology. 1987;9(4):326-45.
36. Abernethy B, Russell DG. Advance cue utilisation by skilled cricket batsmen. Australian Journal of Science and Medicine in sport. 1984;16(2):2-10.
37. Abernethy B, Russell DG. The relationship between expertise and visual search strategy in a racquet sport. Human movement science. 1987;6(4):283-319.
38. Chase WG, Simon HA. Perception in chess. Cognitive Psychology. 1973;4(1):55-81.
39. Williams AM, Jackson RC. Anticipation in sport: Fifty years on, what have we learned and what research still needs to be undertaken? Psychology of Sport and Exercise. 2019;42:16-24.
40. Huys R, Cañal-Bruland R, Hagemann N, Beek PJ, Smeeton NJ, Williams AM. Global information pickup underpins anticipation of tennis shot direction. Journal of Motor Behavior. 2009;41(2):158-71.
41. Smeeton NJ, Hüttermann S, Williams MA. Postural cues, biological motion perception, and anticipation in sport. In: Williams MA, Jackson RC, editors. Anticipation and decision making in sport. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge; 2019. p. 1-24.
42. Abernethy B, Zawi K. Pickup of essential kinematics underpins expert perception of movement patterns. Journal of motor behavior. 2007;39(5):353-67.
43. Müller S, Abernethy B, Farrow D. How do world-class cricket batsmen anticipate a bowler's intention? The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. 2006;59(12):2162-86.
44. Müller S, Abernethy B. Batting with occluded vision: An in situ examination of the information pick-up and interceptive skills of high- and low-skilled cricket batsmen. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 2006;9(6):446-58.
45. Causer J, Smeeton NJ, Williams AM. Expertise differences in anticipatory judgements during a temporally and spatially occluded task. PLoS One. 2017;12(2):e0171330.
46. Williams AM, Huys R, Cañal-Bruland R, Hagemann N. The dynamical information underpinning anticipation skill. Human movement science. 2009;28(3):362-70.
47. Williams AM, Ward P, Knowles JM, Smeeton NJ. Anticipation skill in a real-world task: Measurement, training, and transfer in tennis. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied. 2002;8(4):259-70.
48. Loffing F, Hagemann N. Skill differences in visual anticipation of type of throw in team-handball penalties. Psychology of Sport and Exercise. 2014;15(3):260-7.
49. Müller S, Brenton J, Mansingh A. Sources of information pick-up for anticipation by skilled cricket batsmen. European Journal of Sport Science. 2020:1-9.
50. Eklund RC, Tenenbaum G. Encyclopedia of sport and exercise psychology: Sage Publications; 2013.
51. Hubbard AW, Seng CN. Visual movements of batters. Research Quarterly American Association for Health, Physical Education and Recreation. 1954;25(1):42-57.
52. Abdi H. Bonferroni and šidák corrections for multiple comparisons. Encyclopedia of measurement and statistics. 2007;3:103-7.
53. Lakens D. Calculating and reporting effect sizes to facilitate cumulative science: A practical primer for t-tests and anovas. Frontiers in Psychology. 2013;4:[Article 863].
54. Müller S, Abernethy B, Eid M, McBean R, Rose M. Expertise and the spatio-temporal characteristics of anticipatory information pick-up from complex movement patterns. Perception. 2010;39(6):745-60.
55. Abernethy B, Baker J, Côté J. Transfer of pattern recall skills may contribute to the development of sport expertise. Applied Cognitive Psychology: The Official Journal of the Society for Applied Research in Memory and Cognition. 2005;19(6):705-18.
56. Erickson GB. Topical review: Visual performance assessments for sport. Optom Vis Sci. 2021;98(7):672-80.
57. Hüttermann S, Noël B, Memmert D. Eye tracking in high-performance sports: Evaluation of its application in expert athletes. International Journal of Computer Science in Sport. 2018;17(2):182-203.
58. Grushko A, Leonov S, Veraksa A. Eye-tracking in sport psychology. Advances in Sports Research. 2015:1-15.
59. Morris-Binelli K, Müller S. Advancements to the understanding of expert visual anticipation skill in striking sports. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science/Revue canadienne des sciences du comportement. 2017;49(4):262-8.
60. Brenton J, Müller S, Harbaugh AG. Visual-perceptual training with motor practice of the observed movement pattern improves anticipation in emerging expert cricket batsmen. Journal of Sports Sciences. 2019;37(18):2114-21.

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