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Showing 16 results for Subject: sport physiology

Mr , Dr , Dr , Dr Mohammad Hassaan Dashty Khavidaki,
Volume 0, Issue 0 (11-2019)
Abstract


Abstract
Purpose:The aim of this study was to effect of quercetin exercise and supplementation on myostatin and folistatin levels in the heart tissue of diabetic rats.Methods:For this purpose, 50 male Wistar rats with an average weight of 237 33 33 g were randomly divided into five groups of 10 including: healthy control, diabetes, diabetes + supplement, diabetes + exercise and diabetes + supplement + exercise.The training week was five sessions per week and 60 minutes per session, and the supplement groups received 50 mg / kg body weight of quercetin daily by gavage. Located.Results:The results showed that there was a significant difference in myostatin levels between exercise + supplement and diabetes groups(P = 0.004) and myostatin levels between exercise + supplement + diabetes and diabetes groups were also significantly different (P = 0.002).There was a significant difference between the supplement + diabetes group compared to the diabetes and control groups(P = 0.001).There was also a significant difference between the supplement + diabetes and exercise + diabetes groups (P = 0.009). Rat heart tissue was observed in exercise + supplement + diabetes group compared to diabetes, control and exercise + diabetes groups(P = 0.001).Conclusion:It seems that the decrease in myocardial myostatin along with the increase in fulostatin, in addition to better showing the opposite role of these two important cardiac cardiacs in diabetic patients, also explains the importance of exercise and quercetin consumption in this disease.
 
, Dr , Dr , Dr Mohammad Hassaan Dashty Khavidaki,
Volume 0, Issue 0 (11-2019)
Abstract

Introduction and purpose:Alzheimer's disease is one of the most common diseases of brain cell degeneration, one of its symptoms is depression.The aim of this study was the effect of a course of exercise training on the level of depression and oxidative stress factor changes in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of rats with Alzheimer's disease.
Methodology:For this purpose,40 8-week-old male Wistar rats with an average weight of237±33grams were randomly divided into four groups of 10: control,exercise,Alzheimer's,and exercise+Alzheimer's.The exercise protocol included 2 weeks of running on a treadmill at a speed of12 m/min and for 30minutes in each session. At the end of the training period, feeding sensation suppression and tail suspension tests were performed to estimate depression as well as hippocampal and prefrontal malondialdehyde levels using the Bradford method.
Results:The results showed that exercise training significantly reduced the rate of depression in Novelty-suppressed feeding test and suspension test in rats with Alzheimer's disease.Also,exercise training significantly reduced malondialdehyde levels in the hippocampus of rats with Alzheimer's disease while no significant difference was observed in the prefrontal.
Discussion It seems that sports activity can create immunity against Alzheimer's disease and is probably effective in preventing the occurrence of depression in Alzheimer's patients.
 
Dr Malihe Aveseh, Dr Maryam Koushkie Jahromi, Dr Javad Nemati, Dr Saeed Esmaeili Mahani,
Volume 0, Issue 0 (11-2019)
Abstract

Lactate has been recently considered as a signaling factor involved in metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of lactate entrance into the brain on endurance training-induced adaptations in lipid oxidation. 
24 male rats (age: 8 weeks, weight: 197 ± 21 g) were divided into control (C), trained (T), and traind+4-CIN (T+4-CIN, which experienced the inhibition of lactate entrance into the brain during exercise). All animals performed a single session of acute endurance exercise following their 12-weeks training protocol.  Free fatty acids (FFA) and triglyceride content in plasma and adipose tissue and cAMP and Inositol triphosphate (PI3) content in epididymal fat were measured immediately after acute exercise using ELISA and were compared among the groups by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA).
Acute exercise significantly increased lactate concentration in cerebrospinal fluid (SCF) in both T and T+4-CIN compared to the C group. Lactate concentration was slightly lower in T + 4-CIN compared to the T.  Immediately after acute endurance training, a significant decrease of 61 and 31% in plasma triglyceride levels, a significant decrease of 39 and 26% in adipose tissue triglyceride levels, a significant increase of 125 and 56% in plasma FFA levels, a significant increase of 217 and 125% increase in FFA plasma levels, a significant increase of 87 and 41% in adipose tissue cAMP levels, and a significant increase of 90 and 49% in adipose tissue inositol triphosphate levels was observed in the T and T+4-CIN compared to the control group, respectively (all P < 0.01). Plasma triglyceride and adipose tissue levels in the 4-CIN + training group were significantly higher and plasma and adipose tissue FFA levels were significantly lower (all P < 0.05) than the values found in the T group. 
In conclusion, the results of the present study showed that lactate can be effective on endurance training-induced adaptations in lipid oxidation due to its action in the brain.

 
Dr Ali Asghar Ravasi, Dr Mousa Khalafi, Dr Karim Azali Alamdari,
Volume 0, Issue 0 (11-2019)
Abstract

Background and Purpose: Effects of exercise training on metabolic disorders through modifications in fibroblast growth factor -21 (FGF-21) level are controversial. Therefore, the aim of study was to determine the quantitative effect of exercise training protocols on serum FGF-21 level in adults with metabolic disorders. Methods: A systematic search of the published Persian or English-language studies from PubMed and Google Scholar databases up to march 2021 was done and standardized mean differences (SMDs) were calculated using random-effects models. Results: a total of 14 studies (aerobic training=3, resistance training=3, HIIT=4, concurrent training=4) including on 19 interventions conducted on 503 subjects (with overweight, obesity, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and or fatty liver disease) were elegible to include in the meta-analysis. However, because of the heterogeneity, the final quantitative impact of 16 interventions was calculated as a declining serum FGF21 level after training [SMD=-0.44(CI: -0.65 to -0.22) p=0.001] which had no correlation with subjects age(p=0.10) or BMI(p=0.50) level. Conclusion: exercise training protocols are efficient tools for a remarkable decrease in serum FGF-21 in patients with metabolic disorders which seems to lead to more beneficial effects on metabolic disturbances. However, more clinical trials are still warranted in this area considering the role of exercise components such as exercise intensity and type.
Ms. Negar Rostami, Dr. Mohamad Galedari,
Volume 19, Issue 21 (9-2021)
Abstract

Determining the intensity of exercise in children's sports programs has always been very important. The aim of this study was to investigate the rope skipping exercise with three different intensities on the acute response of salivary chromogranin A and alpha-amylase in girl students. 45 fourth grade students were divided into three groups (low, moderate and high intensity). They performed one session of rope skipping with three intensities of 50, 65, and 75% reserve heart rate, according to the metronome rhythm. The reserve heart rate was calculated by the Karvonen method. Samples of salivary immunoglobulin A and cortisol were collected before and immediately after the exercise and measured by the ELISA method. T-test and analysis of variance were used to evaluate the data. Alpha-amylase and chromogranin A increased significantly after all three intensities. It was Also shown that there is no significant difference between intensities in the amount of chromogranin A, While the amount of alpha-amylase in the group with an intensity of 75% of the reserve heart rate was more than 50%. Although more research is needed in this area, according to the present results, it can be said that probably a session of rope skipping with 50% of reserve heart rate has a less increasing effect on salivary alpha-amylase of girl students.
Somaieh Mahdaviyan, Farshad Ghazalian, Khosro Ebrahim,
Volume 19, Issue 21 (9-2021)
Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 8-weeks of resistance training and vitamin D supplementation on some indicators of renal function in male rats with renal failure. Methods: In this experimental study, 16 male rats (7-8 weeks and mean weight: 350 to 370 gr) were divided into four groups (n = 4): training, supplement, training and supplement and control group. After induction of kidney damage through NX 5.6 surgical method and two weeks later, resistance training was performed for 8 weeks. Simultaneously, 1000 unit of vitamin D per week intramuscularly was injected. Finally, glomerular purification (using urea and creatinine levels) and serum levels of vitamin D, calcium and phosphorus were measured. Descriptive statistics, one-way ANOVA test and Tukey post hoc test were used to analyze the data. The results showed that glomerular filtration and vitamin D in the training and supplementation groups showed a significant increase compared to the control and training groups (P<0.05). However, Urea and creatinine and serum calcium and phosphorus significantly was decreased (P<0.05). It seems that the simultaneous use of resistance training and vitamin D supplementation can affect glomerular filtration rate.
Fadideh Alabaf Yousefi, Roghayeh Pouzesh Jadidi, Jabbar Bashiri, , Javad Vakili,
Volume 19, Issue 22 (12-2021)
Abstract

Background and Objective: the aim was to investigate the effects of 12 weeks of High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) and curcumin supplementation on expression levels of FSTL1 and Smad7 and also Type I, III and IV collagens in rat model with myocardial infraction (MI). Methodology: 48 male rats were randomized into five groups of Reference, HIIT, Curcumin, Concomitant (HIIT+ Curcumin) and Control, following isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction. After Reference group execution in order to conform the MI, curcumin was administrated through oral gavage 15 mg/kg.day. HIIT sessions were conducted for five days per week, each session for 60 minutes, consisted of 10 bouts (each for 4 min) of running repetitions at 85-90% of v VO2 peak separated by 2 min active rest intervals between running periods. Left ventricular FSTL1, Smad7 and also type I, III and IV collagens expression level was detected by western blotting. Results: In all three intervention groups of HIIT, Curcumin and Concomitant, the cardiac weight was significantly higher (p=0.001, p=0.018 and p=0.001 respectively), while type IV collagen expression level was significantly lower (p=0.001 in any circumstances) than Control group. However, only in the Concomitant group, a significantly lower type III collagen (p=0.033) expression level as well as higher FSTL1 (P=0.001) and Smad7 (P=0.008) expressions were recorded, compared to the Control group. Conclusion: A diminished cardiac type IV collagen expression level in accompany with a zero mortality rate in all three interventions could likely imply on the safety of HIIT as well as curcumin supplementation to suppress post infraction myocardial fibrosis. However, only concomitant intervention could decrease infracted left ventricular type III collagen expression level, with an elevated FSTL1 and Smad7 expressions, which outlines their synergistic prescription to achieve better results. However, more researches remains to be done because of the lack of evidence and study limitations.

Dr Ali Asghar Ravasi, Dr Mousa Khalafi, Dr Karim Azali Alamdari,
Volume 19, Issue 22 (12-2021)
Abstract

Background and objective: Effects of exercise training on metabolic disorders through modifications in fibroblast growth factor -21 (FGF-21) level are controversial. Therefore, the aim of study was to determine the quantitative effect of exercise training protocols on serum FGF-21 level in adults with metabolic disorders. Methods: A systematic search of the published Persian or English-language studies from PubMed and Google Scholar databases up to march 2021 was done and standardized mean differences (SMDs) were calculated using random-effects models. Results: a total of 14 studies (aerobic training=3, resistance training=3, HIIT=4, concurrent training=4) including on 19 interventions conducted on 503 subjects (with overweight, obesity, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and or fatty liver disease) were eligible to include in the meta-analysis. However, because of the heterogeneity, the final quantitative impact of 16 interventions was calculated as a declining serum FGF21 level after training [SMD=-0.44(CI: -0.65 to -0.22) p=0.001] which had no correlation with subjects age(p=0.10) or BMI(p=0.50) level. Conclusion: exercise training protocols are efficient tools for a remarkable decrease in serum FGF-21 in patients with metabolic disorders which seems to lead to more beneficial effects on metabolic disturbances. However, more clinical trials are still warranted in this area considering the role of exercise components such as exercise intensity and type


Reza Sabzevari Rad, Hekmat Ehsan Bakhsh, Ebrahim Fasihi Ramandi,
Volume 19, Issue 22 (12-2021)
Abstract

Adiponectin plays an important role in many metabolic and heart diseases. Regulation of liver enzymes is also essential for the health of the body's organs. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of a HIIT training period on adiponectin levels and serum concentrations of liver enzymes in obese and overweight boys. 22 obese and overweight boys were selected and randomly divided into two groups of control and experimental. The experimental group performed eight weeks of HIIT pedaling with 80% HR reserve intensity for 3 days a week. The variables of adiponectin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) using kits and laboratory methods as well as aerobic power, body mass index, and fat percentage of tests in the two stages before and after Exercise protocol was also measured and covariance test was used to compare the research variables and Pearson correlation coefficient was used to examine the relationship. The results were analyzed at a significant level (P<0.05) using SPSS software version 24. Performing eight weeks of HIIT exercise using a bicycle resulted in a non-significant reduction in adiponectin (P>0.05), AST(P>0.05)   and ALP(P >0.05) enzymes. This exercise also significantly reduced ALT enzyme (P<0.05) and fat percentage (P<0.05) and increased aerobic capacity (P<0.05)
HIIT exercise strengthens aerobic power and reduces the percentage of fat and reduces the liver enzyme ALT in obese boys. Of course, more research is needed to clarify this issue.

Mohammad Azimnezhad, Pezhman Motamedi, Mohammadreza Dehkhoda, Neda Khaledi,
Volume 20, Issue 23 (9-2022)
Abstract

Apoptosis is a programmed cell death and it’s associated with type 2 diabetes. The aim of present study was to investigate the effect of endurance training on caspase-3, Bcl-2 and Bax gene expression of cardiac tissue in type 2 diabetic male wistar rats.In an experimental trial, 36 male wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups, Diabetic Endurance Training (n=12), Diabetic Control (n=12) and Healthy Control (n=12). Type 2 diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of STZ. The endurance training included 10 weeks, 5 sessions per week running at speed of 27 m/min for 20-30min in 1st week and reached to 27 m/min for 60 min/day in 10th weeks. The animals were sacrificed 24 h after last training session and the samples were taken from cardiac tissue. The gene expression of caspase-3, Bcl-2 and Bax were examined by Real time-PCR. The one-way ANOVA was used to analysis the data. The significant level was set at p<0.05. The gene expression of caspase-3and Bax of diabetic control group showed significant increase comparing with healthy control group (p =0.001) while gene expression of Bcl-2 significantly decreased (p =0.001). The endurance training induced significant reduction in the gene expression of caspase-3and Bax (p =0.001) and significant increase in the Bcl-2 compared to diabetic control group (p =0.001). It appears that gene expression of caspase-3, Bcl-2 and Bax of diabetic cardiac tissue are affected by positive effect of endurance training and the endurance training induces improvement in apoptosis of diabetic cardiac tissue.

Saeed Vahedi, Mareft Siah Koohian, Milad Rahati, Negar Rostami, Elaheh Fallahzadeh, Roghayeh Afrondeh,
Volume 20, Issue 23 (9-2022)
Abstract

Covid 19 disease is associated with a wide range of clinical symptoms and long-term complications. For most sports medicine professionals, it's a new challenge for people to resume their previous activities after recovering from Covid 19 after receiving the exercise prescription and care. The aim of this study was to review the appropriate physical activity for those recovering from Covid 19 infection based on the type of involvement they developed during the illness. For this study, a review study method was selected. This is done in three steps. In the first stage, physical activity in Quid, in the second stage, organ involvement in Quid, and in the third stage, sports prescriptions in organ involvement by searching for appropriate keywords in reputable scientific databases such as Pubmed, ACSM, SID. ir and Science Direct were searched, content related to the purpose of the articles were extracted and collected and analyzed for content. Examination of organs after recovery from Covid 19 infection is essential to return to physical activity. Physical activity prescriptions in those recovering from Corona varies from disease to patient, and organ to organ. Exercising in Covid conditions requires consideration. The cardiovascular, respiratory, blood, gastrointestinal, and musculoskeletal systems are affected by Covid 19 infection. Exercise, on the other hand, has different effects on the immune system depending on its severity, and the immune system undergoes changes in Covid 19 disease. The type, intensity, and duration of exercise or physical activity vary according to the patient and the symptoms or side effects left by Quid, and the readiness of the various organs for physical activity should be assessed.
 
Dr Adel Donyaei, Mustafa Rahimi, Fatemehsadat Nabavi,
Volume 20, Issue 24 (3-2023)
Abstract

vitamin D deficiency is associated with many cardiovascular disorders. Arterial stiffness responses also depend on nutritional and exercise. Therefore, the study aimed to investigate the relationship between arterial stiffness response after glucose uptake and exercise with baseline levels of vitamin D in inactive men and women.
The present study was an analysis correlation study, and the subjects were 88 inactive men and women with an age range of 20 to 45 years. Vitamin D, body composition, and arterial stiffness, were measured. Subjects then ran for 30 minutes at 65% of maximum heart rate. Also, 75g of glucose was given to the subjects after 30 minutes of activity, 60 minutes after the of glucose consumption and arterial stiffness was measured. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation test and analysis of variance with repeated measures at a significant level (P≤0.05).there was a negative and significant relationship between baseline levels of vitamin D and changes in CAVI in women (p=0.001 and r=-0.559) and in men a positive and significant relationship (p=0.005 and r=0.413).It seems that basal levels of vitamin D can be effective in the vascular response; due to little research, more research is need.

Dr Majid Kashef, Dr Maral Ramez, Azam Ahmadi,
Volume 20, Issue 24 (3-2023)
Abstract

It is estimated that by 2035, more than 130 million adults will suffer from various types of cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, it is very important to know the pathogens of cardiac diseases and investigate new treatments. Also, despite continuous progress in diagnosis, patient education, and risk factor management, myocardial infarction (MI) remains one of the most common causes of morbidity, hospitalization, and mortality worldwide. The events associated with MI are highly complex and characterized by rapid metabolic and biochemical changes. Exercise training is an effective cardioprotective strategy that reduces adverse effects of MI and ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Multiple signaling pathways of exercise preconditioning in mitigating MI-induced cardiac damage is one of the topics that has attracted much attention. In this article, some of the contributing factors in exercise-induced cardiac protection, including mitochondrial changes, metabolic changes, vascular adaptations, antioxidant capacity, heat shock proteins, cyclooxygenase levels, ATP-sensitive potassium channels, adenosine, protein kinase C, calcium and klotho homeostasis are discussed.
 

Dr Ali Barzegari, Dr Saeid Naghibi, Samaneh Safayi, Dr Mohammadhasan Dashti Khovidaki, Dr Anahita Salehi,
Volume 20, Issue 24 (3-2023)
Abstract

The purpose of this study was to compare two methods of aerobic exercise on the levels of SOD and TNF-α in the heart tissue of diabetic rats. 40 male Wistar rats aged ten weeks were randomly divided into four groups of 10: healthy control, diabetes, diabetes+MIT and diabetes+HIT. The moderate intensity training group ran 5 sessions per week for 8 weeks on the treadmill for 60 minutes at a speed of 25 meters per minute, and the high intensity training group also 5 sessions per week for 8 weeks with a training time of 60 minutes and at a speed of 34 meters per minute. The heart tissue of rats was examined to determine the amount of changes in SOD and TNF-α using ELISA method. To investigate the difference between groups of variables, one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's post hoc statistical tests were used at the significance level of P≥0.05. The results showed that there was a significant difference in the levels of TNF-α and SOD in the heart tissue of rats among the four research groups (P≤0.001). The levels of TNF-α in the HIT training group also showed a significant decrease compared to the diabetic group (P=0.001), While these changes in the MIT exercise group compared to the diabetes group was a non-significant decrease (P=0.117), the amount of SOD levels between the MIT and HIT exercise groups also showed a significant increase compared to the diabetic group (P=0.001). It seems, aerobic exercise with different intensities can improve SOD and TNF-α levels. Although the intensity of exercise in periodic exercise has been an effective factor in changing the values of both variables.

Mr Behzad Mohamadi Orangi, Dr Rasoul Yaali, Dr Mohammad Taqi Aghdasi,
Volume 20, Issue 24 (3-2023)
Abstract

The aim of this study was to Compare Effectiveness motor proficiency of the nutritional status on men in different age groups ((children, adolescents and young adults)), respectively. Statistical Society study was for children all student ages 10-7 years, for adolescents all student ages 15-12 years and for Youth of all students 20-18 of Tehran University except the student physical education. The sample was 90 people in each of the age groups, the four elementary schools and four high schools in Tehran and Tehran University male students were chosen by cluster sampling. This study was a descriptive survey and comparison measurement was test of instruments anthropometric and Brvnynks- Oseretsky. The results showed that among malnutrition, moderate nutrition and proper nutrition in adolescence and adulthood motor proficiency was not statistically different ages but among children ages motor proficiency were significantly different. In addition, no significant difference between motor proficiency age groups. It seems due to the impact of nutritional status on motor proficiency, and this issue was observed in this study at an early age; therefore, children are the most vulnerable in this context and considering the nutritional status of children is very important.
 
Dr Rasul Eslami, Navab Abnama,
Volume 20, Issue 24 (3-2023)
Abstract

The aim of the present study was to investigate The effect of HMB-FA supplementation on the muscle damage markers after soccer matches. 24 male soccer players (age: 23±3 years, BMI: 22.8±2 kg/m2) were voluntarily selected as the statistical sample of this study and were divided into two Suppplement and Placebo groups (n=12). In this study, subjects participated in a weekly soccer microcycle with two matches. Subjects in the supplement-training group consumed three grams of HMB-FA daily during a weekly soccer cycle. Blood samples were taken in seven times (before supplementation, before the first match, immediately after the first match, 24 hours after the first match, before the second match, immediately after the second match, 24 hours after the second match). Plasma concentrations of creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured by ELISA kits. Data analysis was performed using Friedman, Wilcoxon, Kruskal-Wallis and U Mann-Whitney tests with a significance level of p ≥ 0.05. After supplementation, a significant decrease in plasma levels of lactate dehydrogenase (before and after the first match) and creatine kinase (in the times immediately after the first match and before the second match) was observed (for all, p <0.05). Intaking HMB-FA supplement reduced the markers of muscle damage, which is essential for recovery from injuries caused by training and competition during a two race cycle. In addition, inaking HMB-FA supplement may have other effects, including reducing neuromuscular fatigue, reducing the inflammatory response, and rapid skeletal muscle regeneration, which requires further study.


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