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Showing 40 results for Subject: sport physiology

Mrs Elmira Ahmadi, Dr Shahnaz Shahrbanian, Dr Mohamadreza Kordi, Dr Reza Gharakhanlou, Dr Gregory Pearcey,
Volume 0, Issue 0 (11-2019)
Abstract

Fatigue is one of the most common symptoms among individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS). The imbalance of inflammatory cytokines in the brain causes mental fatigue. It is believed that aerobic exercise may moderate the level of inflammation of cytokines and thus reduce mental fatigue. The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of swimming aerobic training on pro-inflammatory factors (interleukin 6) and anti-inflammatory factors (interleukin 10) to evaluate mental fatigue in the brain of female mice after EAE induction. In this research, 21 mice (8 weeks old, 18 to 20 grams) were divided into 3 groups: healthy control, EAE control, and EAE swimming aerobic exercise. The animals in the training group performed moderate-intensity swimming exercises for 4 weeks, 5 sessions per week, 30 minutes per session. The western blot method was used to analyze the research variables. One-way analysis of variance and Tukey's post hoc test were used for statistical analysis. The results showed that there was no significant difference in the amount of IL-6 between the EAE group and swimming training, but the amount of IL10 in the swimming training group showed a significant increase compared to the EAE group. However, the ratio of IL 10/IL 6 values between the swimming training group with EAE was also not significant. It seems that moderate-intensity swimming aerobic exercises, without change in the pro-inflammatory factor, along with driving towards anti-inflammatory factors, with an increase in IL10, can lead to an improvement in the balance of the inflammatory index and a reduction in fatigue between the EAE group and swimming exercise.
, Dr , Dr , Dr Mohammad Hassaan Dashty Khavidaki,
Volume 0, Issue 0 (11-2019)
Abstract

Introduction and purpose:Alzheimer's disease is one of the most common diseases of brain cell degeneration, one of its symptoms is depression.The aim of this study was the effect of a course of exercise training on the level of depression and oxidative stress factor changes in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of rats with Alzheimer's disease.
Methodology:For this purpose,40 8-week-old male Wistar rats with an average weight of237±33grams were randomly divided into four groups of 10: control,exercise,Alzheimer's,and exercise+Alzheimer's.The exercise protocol included 2 weeks of running on a treadmill at a speed of12 m/min and for 30minutes in each session. At the end of the training period, feeding sensation suppression and tail suspension tests were performed to estimate depression as well as hippocampal and prefrontal malondialdehyde levels using the Bradford method.
Results:The results showed that exercise training significantly reduced the rate of depression in Novelty-suppressed feeding test and suspension test in rats with Alzheimer's disease.Also,exercise training significantly reduced malondialdehyde levels in the hippocampus of rats with Alzheimer's disease while no significant difference was observed in the prefrontal.
Discussion It seems that sports activity can create immunity against Alzheimer's disease and is probably effective in preventing the occurrence of depression in Alzheimer's patients.
 
Danial Timaji, Farshad Ghazalian, Mandana Gholami, Hossein Abednatanzi,
Volume 0, Issue 0 (11-2019)
Abstract

Backgrounds: In order to remain competitive, athletes and coaches are constantly looking for ways to enhance performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of HIFT training and hypoxia mask on maximum oxygen consumption and respiratory efficiency of the players of Iran's men's national ice hockey team.
Method: In this semi-experimental study, 14 players of the Iranian national ice hockey team were divided into two HIFT and HIFT exercise with hypoxia mask groups, then both HIFT groups and HIFT exercise with hypoxia mask, performed HIFT training sessions with 30 seconds repetition and five sets for about an hour, three sessions a week for six weeks. Before and after the training session, anthropometry, body composition, maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max) and respiratory efficiency (vE/VCO2) were measured using in-body device and gas analyzer. The data were analyzed using the analysis of covariance test at the P<0.05.
Results: The results showed that HIFT exercise and HIFT exercise with hypoxia mask have an increasing effect on VO2max in elite ice hockey men, but there was no difference between the effect of HIFT exercise and HIFT exercise with hypoxia mask on VO2max (P=0.390). After the training, vE/VCO2 decreased in both groups, but there was no difference between the effect of HIFT training and hypoxia mask on vE/VCO2 in elite ice hockey men (P<0.05).
Conclusion: According to the results, it seems that HIFT and HIFT exercise with hypoxia mask may be able to help improve the performance of respiratory system in elite ice hockey men.
 
Samira Emadi, Shahnaz Shahrbanian, Mohammadreza Kordi, Mahdieh Molanouri Shamsi,
Volume 0, Issue 0 (11-2019)
Abstract

Disruption of the homeostasis of immune regulatory mediators Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and Ornithine decarboxylase-1(ODC-1) is involved in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). Physical activities play a role in controlling and improving the symptoms of MS. This study was conducted in order to investigate the effect of 4 weeks of physical activity in an enriched environment on the gene expression of AhR and ODC-1 in the cerebellum tissue of an MS mice model. This experimental study was conducted on 30 female C57BL/6 mice. Mice were divided into 3 groups of 10 including 1) healthy control, 2) experimental model of MS and 3) physical activity in enriched environment. After induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the third group lived in the enriched environment for 4 weeks. Body weight and clinical score were recorded daily from induction until 28 days. The gene expression of AhR and ODC-1 in the cerebellum was measured by RT-PCR method. Statistical analysis of the data was performed using one-way analysis of variance at a significance level of less than 0.05. Activity in the enriched environment significantly decreased the gene expression of AhR compared to the EAE group (P=0/02) and also decreased the gene expression of ODC-1, but it was not statistically significant (P=0/28). Also, the clinical score improved significantly after activity in the enriched environment (P= 0/001). Lifestyle change and activity in the enriched environment led to the down regulation of the gene expression of AhR and ODC-1, and it improved the clinical score of animals.
Dr Fatemeh Kazeminasab, Mr Mohammad Hossein Mahboobi, Dr Karim Azali Alamdari,
Volume 0, Issue 0 (11-2019)
Abstract

Exercise training and vegetarian diets have been accepted as suitable and non-pharmacological methods to weight loss, and improve cardiovascular factors such as blood pressure. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of combining aerobic exercise (AE) and vegetarian diet (VD) on blood pressure and body weight in adults with overweight and obesity. The PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and Google scholar databases were searched until February 2023 for English articles, and 1065 articles were found. Meta-analyses were performed to compare the impact of aerobic exercise and vegetarian diet on body weight, blood pressure in adults with overweight and obesity. Data analysis was performed using random effect model and weighted mean differences (WMD). Also, the confidence interval of 95% was considered. Also, the I2 test was used to determine heterogeneity, and the Funnel plot and Egger tests at a significant level of 0.1 were used to determine publication bias. The results of meta-analysis of 25 studies with 10192 adults showed that combined aerobic exercise and vegetarian diet significantly decreased in body weight [WMD=-4.63, (CI: -5.7 to -3.56), p=0.001], systolic blood pressure [WMD=-6.94, (CI: -7.86 to -6.01), p=0.001], and diastolic blood pressure [WMD=-4.5, (CI: -5.04 to -3.96), p=0.001], in adults with overweight and obesity.  The findings of the present meta-analysis suggest aerobic training alongside vegetarian diet as a non-medication approach for weight loss and blood pressure control in adults with overweight and/or obesity. In addition, aerobic exercise and vegetarian diet with both types of duration (less than 12 weeks and more than 12 weeks) cause a significant decrease in blood pressure in adults with obesity and overweight.
 
Masomeh Aghazadeh, ,
Volume 0, Issue 0 (11-2019)
Abstract

Improving the quality of athletes' performance and identifying the ways to optimize the performance of sports activities has always been one of the concerns of sports managers and athletes, especially in the professional and championship dimensions. With the progress of science and the revelation of the benefits of technology for human societies, sports science researchers increased their efforts to find ways to increase the optimal performance of athletes. One of the categories that has affected and transformed not only sports, but also all aspects of human life, is nanotechnology, especially nanoscience. Nanoparticles have significant effects in improving sports performance of athletes, silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles have played a role more than other nanomaterials. Therefore, this research was conducted to investigate the effect of clothes containing silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles on the sports performance of female athletes. The statistical population of the study was all women active in public sports in Maku city. The sample size was selected randomly and included 10 female athletes. The effects of treatments (sports activities with and without nano clothing) on endurance, moisture absorption, bacterial levels, high and low blood pressure, and heart rate in athletes were investigated. To determine the difference between the groups, Duncan's post-test with a probability of 0/05 was used. The results showed that the effect of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles clothing on improving endurance of female athletes is different and increased their endurance. The effect of these clothes on the improvement of bacterial removal from the body of female athletes is different, and it increased the removal of bacteria in them. The effect of these clothes on the improvement of the blood pressure of female athletes was the same in terms of high blood pressure before training, and it did not have much effect on their high blood pressure. There was no significant difference between female athletes in terms of low blood pressure before training, and clothes containing silver and zinc oxides nanoparticles did not have much effect on their low blood pressure. There was a significant difference between female athletes in terms of high blood pressure after exercise, and clothes containing silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles were effective in reducing their high blood pressure. A significant difference was seen between female athletes in terms of low blood pressure after training and these clothes were effective in reducing their low blood pressure. The effect of clothes containing silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles on improving the heart rate of female athletes before training was not different, and it did not have much effect on their heart rate. There was a significant difference between female athletes in terms of heart rate after exercise and these clothes had an effect in reducing their heart rate. The effect of these clothes on improving the absorption of moisture in female athletes was different and it increased the absorption of moisture in them. In general, clothes containing silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles increased the sports performance of female athletes.
 
Student Mina Khantan, Professor Behrouz Abdoli, Professor Alireza Farsi,
Volume 0, Issue 0 (11-2019)
Abstract

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is one of the newest supplementary method in order to improve the athletic performance and mental preparation of professional athletes. In this study, we investigated the effects of 10-session unihemispheric concurrent dual-site anodal-tDCS (a-tDCS) of the primary motor cortex (M1) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), on swimming performance, mental toughness (MT) and perceived exertion. 20 male professional swimmers (Age: 19.00±2.86 yrs) were participated in this randomized, double-blind, and sham-controlled study. 100m free-style swimming test, the sport mental toughness questionnaire (SMTQ) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were evaluated as pre-tests. Then, athletes received 10-session tDCS (2mA for 20 min). 48 hrs following 10th session of tDCS, evaluations were repeated. ANCOVA was used for statistical analysis. After multi sessions of tDCS, swimming performance improved significantly (P=0.03) and total MT score increased significantly (P=0.046) and no significant change was observed in RPE. Based on the results of this study, multi-session tDCS along with routine training are recommended to improve swimmers performance and psychological aspects. Therefore, tDCS might be consider as a brain conditioning method.
 
, ,
Volume 0, Issue 0 (11-2019)
Abstract

Aim: Dust particles, as a new phenomenon caused by drought, are associated with the danger of various diseases. It seems that exercise can play an important role in this area by strengthening the immune system and improving muscle mass. the purpose of this research is to examine the impact of regular physical activity on the amino acid profile of individuals living in the provinces affected by dust particles in Iran. Methods: There were a total of 50 inactive healthy men, with an average age of 31.64±1.5 years and a body mass index of 26.33±5.6, from three provinces in Iran: Khuzestan (n=15), Ilam (n=15), and Kermanshah (n=20) randomly assigned to two control and regular physical activity groups. Regular physical activity was included: 30 sessions, circuit training three times a week include: hanging from the chin up (20 seconds), jumping over obstacles at a distance of one meter for a total of 540 cm, Sit-ups (30 seconds), chest press (70% 1RM -8 repetitions), leg press (70% 1RM -8 repetitions), back extension (15 repetitions), calf raise (70% 1RM -8 repetitions), zigzag jump (20 repetitions), six to ten reputation Illinois Agility Test with a 30 second rest interval. Prior to the study, 48 hours prior to the occurrence of dust particles, and after the study amino acids, fat percentage, maximum oxygen consumption, were measured. Results: It was found that time (pre-test - May 12, 2023) had a significant effect on amino acids, maximum oxygen consumption, body fat percentage in the training group (p<0.05). In the control group, there was no significant difference in the amino acid, maximum oxygen consumption, body fat percentage, (p>0.05). In terms of body fat percentage, there was a significant difference between the control and exercise groups (p=0.01), as well as maximum oxygen consumption (p=0.01). Conclusion: This study has demonstrated that regular exercise training reduce dust particle damage in those exposed to dust particles.
Dr Fatemeh Kazeminasab, Miss Motahareh Mohebinejad, Dr Karim Azali Alamdari,
Volume 0, Issue 0 (11-2019)
Abstract

Background and purpose: Excessive fat deposition is associated with cardiovascular diseases, diabetes as well as hypertension. The aim of this study was to determine the net effect size of high intensity interval training (HIIT) on some factors associated with insulin sensitivity in adults with overweight and obesity.
Materials and methods:  A search for English articles was conducted in Web of Science, Scopus, and PubMed databases without limiting the year of publication until February 2023. To calculate the effect size, WMD and 95% confidence interval were calculated using random effect model. Fixed effect model meta regression was used to determine treatment effects associations with other variables.
Results: In total, 13 studies with 446 adults with overweight and obesity (149 females, and 317 males) with 24.7-57 years old were included in the present meta-analysis. The results showed that HIIT caused a significant decrease in fasting glucose [WMD=-8.65 mg/dL, P=0.002], fasting insulin [WMD=-1.88 U/L P=0.005], and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) [WMD=-3.33 mmHg. Weak correlations were observed in between HIIT’s net effect on DBP and insulin (r=-0.32, p=0.019) as well as with subjects’ age (r=-0.29, p=0.037) respectively in meta-regression assessments.
Conclusion: The rate of DBP reduction is sharper and these changes are also correlated with age. Therefore, HIIT is suggested as a Non-pharmacological Approach to prevent against future cardiometabolic risk factors in this population.
 
, , ,
Volume 0, Issue 0 (11-2019)
Abstract

Background: Despite the relation between nervous system function, fatigue, and co-contraction, it seems that the difference in co-contraction changes due to fatigue induced by sprinting and endurance running probably indicates the dominance of one source of fatigue (central/peripheral) over the other. This study aimed to compare the effect of fatigue induced by endurance running and sprinting on the knee muscle co-contraction in active young women with the approach of identifying the origin of fatigue.
Methodology: Thirteen active young women volunteers (20-30 years, BMI 20-25kg/m2) were randomly selected. Subjects performed fatigue protocols during two sessions with four days of rest in between. The electrical activity of the vastus-medialis and vastus-lateralis muscles was recorded using an electromyography device before and after two stages of running 400-meter (with 100% effort) and 3000-meter (with 50% effort) during the execution of knee extension movement and co-contraction was calculated with the formula. Two-way repeated measure was used to analyze the data.
Results: There was no significant difference between the co-contraction of the selected muscles before and after sprinting (p=0.3) and endurance running (p=0.19) and no significant difference (p=0.85) between the difference in co-contraction rate in the pre-test and post-test of sprinting and endurance running.
Conclusion: Since there was no difference between the effect of fatigue caused by sprinting and endurance running on the co-contraction of the selected muscles, likely, the involvement of central factors in the appearance of fatigue caused by 400-meter sprinting and 3000-meter endurance running is similar and insignificant. The emergence of fatigue after the implementation of both protocols may be more due to environmental factors.
Maliheh Ardakanizadeh, Leila Vesaliakbarpour,
Volume 0, Issue 0 (11-2019)
Abstract

Background: It seems that aerobic exercise in water is more effective in promoting motor fitness factors due to its greater resistance force compared to the dry environment. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to compare the effect of aerobic exercise in water and land on the physical fitness of inactive girls.
Methodology: Thirty non-athletic girls (18-25 years old) were randomly divided into two groups of 15 people: water and drought. The subjects performed aerobic activity for six weeks, 3 sessions per week, and 45 to 60 minutes per session with 60 to 70% of maximum heart rate. Before and after aerobic activity, their explosive power using the vertical jump (Sargent), agility by 4×9 test, reaction by reaction time test, and the balance by static balance test was calculated. For compare pre- and post-test, and to compare post-test results in water and land, One-way ANOVA with p<0.05 was used. Statistical testing was performed by SPSS version 20, and the graph were drawn by Excel 2013.
Results: After six weeks of aerobic activity (in water and land) compared to before the activity, significant improvement was found in the values ​​of explosive power (p=0.001), agility (p=0.001) and static balance (p=0.003), while the comparison of training groups in water and land did not show a significant difference (p>0.05).
Conclusion: It seems that performing six weeks of aerobic activity in water and land can affect Explosive power, agility and static balance, but no effect on reaction, also there is no difference between the two environments.
Phd Kia Ranjbar,
Volume 0, Issue 0 (11-2019)
Abstract

Introduction: The purpose of the present study is to introduce and examine several genes that are related to people's sports performance and can be effective in their selection and selection in their favorite sports field. Various factors of physical fitness and training ability have been investigated along with the risk of sports injury and mental fitness of athletes.
Findings: The sports performance of people and the monitoring of sports exercises have been influenced by the vast genetic map and environmental interventions. In the present study, the performance of the aerobic system with the ACE gene and its different alleles, the strength and power performance of people with the ACTN3 gene, and the risk of injury of people with different genes such as COL1A1, COL5A1, Tenascin (TNC), apolipoprotein E and blood groups were investigated. It is a prediction; also, the trainability and mental preparation of people in the talent search process can be predicted and possibly measured by genetic knowledge. On the other hand, using the knowledge of genetics and genetic profiles of athletes can be useful for detecting genetic and cellular doping and help organizations that work in the prevention of doping, such as WADA.
Conclusion: The combination of genetic knowledge and environmental interventions play an effective role not only in discussing an athlete's talent, but also in monitoring and improving their performance. While genetics can play a significant role, the prediction of sports success based on genetic knowledge has been limited to a specific set of genes. However, developing this knowledge and identifying more genes that can aid in talent identification and exercise monitoring requires further research.

Dr Sajad Karami, Dr Hamid Rajabi, Dr Fereshteh Shahidi, Dr Fereshteh Golab,
Volume 0, Issue 0 (11-2019)
Abstract

Introduction and purpose: Age-related changes in the expression of angiogenesis-stimulating and inhibitory genes are characteristics of aging and endothelial dysfunction. Aerobic exercise can stop or reduce this disorder. Considering the importance of resistance training in the rehabilitation of the elderly, the aim of this study was to investigate the compatibility of the response of the stimulating and inhibiting factors of angiogenesis after resistance exercise intervention in the elderly. Methodology: 24 elderly men with an average age of 67.75 years were selected in an accessible and purposeful manner. Blood samples were taken before and after a resistance activity session before and after 8 weeks of resistance training. Real Time PCR method was used to express HIF-1, VEGF, SDF-1 and VEGI genes in blood tissue. The difference in the values of the variables was evaluated by the method of analysis of variance with repeated measurement of mixed design at the level of P≤0.05 using SPSS software version 25. Findings: HIF-1, VEGF and SDF-1 gene expression levels of the training group increased in the stages of the primary post-test (after one session), secondary pre-test and secondary post-test (after 8 weeks of training) and VEGI had no gene expression. Discussion and conclusion: It can be cautiously said that although one session of resistance training leads to gene expression of angiogenesis factors, long-term resistance training with sufficient intensity and volume can It activates the rate of angiogenesis in a much wider range and should be considered as a supplement to aerobic exercises in old age.

Ms. Negar Rostami, Dr. Mohamad Galedari,
Volume 19, Issue 21 (9-2021)
Abstract

Determining the intensity of exercise in children's sports programs has always been very important. The aim of this study was to investigate the rope skipping exercise with three different intensities on the acute response of salivary chromogranin A and alpha-amylase in girl students. 45 fourth grade students were divided into three groups (low, moderate and high intensity). They performed one session of rope skipping with three intensities of 50, 65, and 75% reserve heart rate, according to the metronome rhythm. The reserve heart rate was calculated by the Karvonen method. Samples of salivary immunoglobulin A and cortisol were collected before and immediately after the exercise and measured by the ELISA method. T-test and analysis of variance were used to evaluate the data. Alpha-amylase and chromogranin A increased significantly after all three intensities. It was Also shown that there is no significant difference between intensities in the amount of chromogranin A, While the amount of alpha-amylase in the group with an intensity of 75% of the reserve heart rate was more than 50%. Although more research is needed in this area, according to the present results, it can be said that probably a session of rope skipping with 50% of reserve heart rate has a less increasing effect on salivary alpha-amylase of girl students.
Somaieh Mahdaviyan, Farshad Ghazalian, Khosro Ebrahim,
Volume 19, Issue 21 (9-2021)
Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 8-weeks of resistance training and vitamin D supplementation on some indicators of renal function in male rats with renal failure. Methods: In this experimental study, 16 male rats (7-8 weeks and mean weight: 350 to 370 gr) were divided into four groups (n = 4): training, supplement, training and supplement and control group. After induction of kidney damage through NX 5.6 surgical method and two weeks later, resistance training was performed for 8 weeks. Simultaneously, 1000 unit of vitamin D per week intramuscularly was injected. Finally, glomerular purification (using urea and creatinine levels) and serum levels of vitamin D, calcium and phosphorus were measured. Descriptive statistics, one-way ANOVA test and Tukey post hoc test were used to analyze the data. The results showed that glomerular filtration and vitamin D in the training and supplementation groups showed a significant increase compared to the control and training groups (P<0.05). However, Urea and creatinine and serum calcium and phosphorus significantly was decreased (P<0.05). It seems that the simultaneous use of resistance training and vitamin D supplementation can affect glomerular filtration rate.
Reza Sabzevari Rad, Hekmat Ehsan Bakhsh, Ebrahim Fasihi Ramandi,
Volume 19, Issue 22 (12-2021)
Abstract

Adiponectin plays an important role in many metabolic and heart diseases. Regulation of liver enzymes is also essential for the health of the body's organs. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of a HIIT training period on adiponectin levels and serum concentrations of liver enzymes in obese and overweight boys. 22 obese and overweight boys were selected and randomly divided into two groups of control and experimental. The experimental group performed eight weeks of HIIT pedaling with 80% HR reserve intensity for 3 days a week. The variables of adiponectin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) using kits and laboratory methods as well as aerobic power, body mass index, and fat percentage of tests in the two stages before and after Exercise protocol was also measured and covariance test was used to compare the research variables and Pearson correlation coefficient was used to examine the relationship. The results were analyzed at a significant level (P<0.05) using SPSS software version 24. Performing eight weeks of HIIT exercise using a bicycle resulted in a non-significant reduction in adiponectin (P>0.05), AST(P>0.05)   and ALP(P >0.05) enzymes. This exercise also significantly reduced ALT enzyme (P<0.05) and fat percentage (P<0.05) and increased aerobic capacity (P<0.05)
HIIT exercise strengthens aerobic power and reduces the percentage of fat and reduces the liver enzyme ALT in obese boys. Of course, more research is needed to clarify this issue.

Fadideh Alabaf Yousefi, Roghayeh Pouzesh Jadidi, Jabbar Bashiri, , Javad Vakili,
Volume 19, Issue 22 (12-2021)
Abstract

Background and Objective: the aim was to investigate the effects of 12 weeks of High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) and curcumin supplementation on expression levels of FSTL1 and Smad7 and also Type I, III and IV collagens in rat model with myocardial infraction (MI). Methodology: 48 male rats were randomized into five groups of Reference, HIIT, Curcumin, Concomitant (HIIT+ Curcumin) and Control, following isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction. After Reference group execution in order to conform the MI, curcumin was administrated through oral gavage 15 mg/kg.day. HIIT sessions were conducted for five days per week, each session for 60 minutes, consisted of 10 bouts (each for 4 min) of running repetitions at 85-90% of v VO2 peak separated by 2 min active rest intervals between running periods. Left ventricular FSTL1, Smad7 and also type I, III and IV collagens expression level was detected by western blotting. Results: In all three intervention groups of HIIT, Curcumin and Concomitant, the cardiac weight was significantly higher (p=0.001, p=0.018 and p=0.001 respectively), while type IV collagen expression level was significantly lower (p=0.001 in any circumstances) than Control group. However, only in the Concomitant group, a significantly lower type III collagen (p=0.033) expression level as well as higher FSTL1 (P=0.001) and Smad7 (P=0.008) expressions were recorded, compared to the Control group. Conclusion: A diminished cardiac type IV collagen expression level in accompany with a zero mortality rate in all three interventions could likely imply on the safety of HIIT as well as curcumin supplementation to suppress post infraction myocardial fibrosis. However, only concomitant intervention could decrease infracted left ventricular type III collagen expression level, with an elevated FSTL1 and Smad7 expressions, which outlines their synergistic prescription to achieve better results. However, more researches remains to be done because of the lack of evidence and study limitations.

Dr Ali Asghar Ravasi, Dr Mousa Khalafi, Dr Karim Azali Alamdari,
Volume 19, Issue 22 (12-2021)
Abstract

Background and objective: Effects of exercise training on metabolic disorders through modifications in fibroblast growth factor -21 (FGF-21) level are controversial. Therefore, the aim of study was to determine the quantitative effect of exercise training protocols on serum FGF-21 level in adults with metabolic disorders. Methods: A systematic search of the published Persian or English-language studies from PubMed and Google Scholar databases up to march 2021 was done and standardized mean differences (SMDs) were calculated using random-effects models. Results: a total of 14 studies (aerobic training=3, resistance training=3, HIIT=4, concurrent training=4) including on 19 interventions conducted on 503 subjects (with overweight, obesity, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and or fatty liver disease) were eligible to include in the meta-analysis. However, because of the heterogeneity, the final quantitative impact of 16 interventions was calculated as a declining serum FGF21 level after training [SMD=-0.44(CI: -0.65 to -0.22) p=0.001] which had no correlation with subjects age(p=0.10) or BMI(p=0.50) level. Conclusion: exercise training protocols are efficient tools for a remarkable decrease in serum FGF-21 in patients with metabolic disorders which seems to lead to more beneficial effects on metabolic disturbances. However, more clinical trials are still warranted in this area considering the role of exercise components such as exercise intensity and type


Mohammad Azimnezhad, Pezhman Motamedi, Mohammadreza Dehkhoda, Neda Khaledi,
Volume 20, Issue 23 (9-2022)
Abstract

Apoptosis is a programmed cell death and it’s associated with type 2 diabetes. The aim of present study was to investigate the effect of endurance training on caspase-3, Bcl-2 and Bax gene expression of cardiac tissue in type 2 diabetic male wistar rats.In an experimental trial, 36 male wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups, Diabetic Endurance Training (n=12), Diabetic Control (n=12) and Healthy Control (n=12). Type 2 diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of STZ. The endurance training included 10 weeks, 5 sessions per week running at speed of 27 m/min for 20-30min in 1st week and reached to 27 m/min for 60 min/day in 10th weeks. The animals were sacrificed 24 h after last training session and the samples were taken from cardiac tissue. The gene expression of caspase-3, Bcl-2 and Bax were examined by Real time-PCR. The one-way ANOVA was used to analysis the data. The significant level was set at p<0.05. The gene expression of caspase-3and Bax of diabetic control group showed significant increase comparing with healthy control group (p =0.001) while gene expression of Bcl-2 significantly decreased (p =0.001). The endurance training induced significant reduction in the gene expression of caspase-3and Bax (p =0.001) and significant increase in the Bcl-2 compared to diabetic control group (p =0.001). It appears that gene expression of caspase-3, Bcl-2 and Bax of diabetic cardiac tissue are affected by positive effect of endurance training and the endurance training induces improvement in apoptosis of diabetic cardiac tissue.


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