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Showing 23 results for Balance

Mr Ehsan Ebrahimipour, Ms Fereshteh Sabet, Mr Shayan Hajebrahimi, Dr Mohammadreza Seyfaddini,
Volume 0, Issue 0 (11-2019)

Circadian rhythms play a crucial role in regulating various physiological functions of the human body and can impact the ability to perform motor tasks. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of time of day on static and dynamic balance using a cognitive task approach. We recruited 24 elderly men aged between 60-70 years who performed both static (standing on the foot scanner) and dynamic (timed up and go) balance tests with and without cognitive dual tasks. Our statistical analysis, using a significance level of 0.05, revealed significant differences in the parameters of the 95% confidence ellipse (fluctuation range), length of path, and average velocity of the center of pressure when performing the dual task compared to normal walking. However, these variables did not significantly differ at different times of the day. Interestingly, our results showed that the center of pressure fluctuations in closed eyes and different times of the day did not have a significant difference. Overall, our findings suggest that healthy elderly individuals are at similar risk of falling or tripping during different hours of the day. Nonetheless, the simultaneous execution of dual cognitive tasks leads to balance disruption in both eyes-arm closed positions.

Mrs Faeze Nemati, Dr Mostafa Zareei, Mr Morteza Barzegar Bafrouei,
Volume 0, Issue 0 (11-2019)

Introduction: Studies have shown that anterior cruciate ligament injury causes long-term periods of disability and long-term effects; Therefore, it is necessary to adopt preventive measures as well as to have studies that determine the effect of injury prevention programs in improving the performance level of players. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of eight weeks of the anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention program on the function of elite female kabaddi athletes.
Materials and Methods: This research is semi-experimental based on the application of the intervention variable. 27 female kabaddi athletes with an age range of 18-24 years were randomly divided into two intervention and control groups. The intervention group performed prevention injury and enhance performance program exercises for 8 weeks. The tests were taken before and after eight weeks of the PEP program. These evaluations included T-test, 20-meter sprint test, Y-balance test, sitting and reaching flexibility test, hopping test and functional movement screening test. leven's statistical test was used to check the homogeneity of variances and ANCOVA test was used to evaluate and compare the data.
Findings: The results of the covariance analysis test showed that the intervention group had significantly better scores compared to the control group in the Y-balance tests of the right (p=0.002) and left leg (p=0.001), single leg hopping with right leg (p=0.004) and left leg (p=0.000), crossover hopping with right leg (p=0.023) and sit and reach flexibility test (p=0.003) after eight weeks of exercises In addition, in the tests of sprinting (p=0.649), agility (p=0.073), triple hopping with left leg (p=0.784) and right leg (p=0.204), crossover hopping with left leg (p=0.540) and functional movement screening test (p=0.943) did not show any significant difference between the two groups.
Results: The results of this research showed that the eight-week prevention injury and enhance performance program  has a significant effect on the dynamic balance of the right and left legs, hopping (single leg hopping and crossover hopping of the right leg), and the flexibility of the hamstrings and lower back of elite female kabaddi athletes; But hopping (triple hopping and left leg crossover hopping), speed, agility and FMS test scores have no significant effect.
Ehsan Abshenas, Mohammad Hossein Alizadeh, Mohsen Naderi,
Volume 0, Issue 0 (11-2019)

Introduction and aim: One of the serious challenges in sports is injury prediction methods that can help prevent and reduce injuries. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to answer the question, of Do functional movement screen, Y balance, and landing error scoring system tests have the power to predict sports injuries in female student athletes? Methodology: This study was a prospective cohort study. The population of the current research was university female athletes, and the research sample was 124 female student athletes participating in the 15th Iranian Student Sports Olympiad who were evaluated in an available manner. The Y balance test, landing error scoring system, and functional movement screening test were taken from the subjects before the Olympiad, and the injuries of the athletes during the competitions were recorded by the data collection form. In order to statistically analyze the data, the logistic regression test and Pearson correlation coefficient were used. Results: The results of the research showed that a total of 26 injuries were registered during the competition in 124 subjects. None of the predictor variables had the ability to predict the criterion variable (p>0.05). Conclusion: In general conclusion based on the results of this research, it is not possible to predict general injury using functional tests.
Saeed Arsham,
Volume 0, Issue 0 (11-2019)

Introduction and purpose: The ability to control different positions of the body in space results from the complex interaction of nervous, sensory, and skeletal-muscular systems, which is generally defined as posture control. Therefore, it is important to study how new interactions occur through sensory inputs and create different motor responses to restore balance disturbances. The purpose of this study was to investigate the underlying mechanisms of age-related differences in postural control of 7-18-year-old girls by determining the differences between different age groups and adults in their sensory preferences for compensatory responses. Methodology: 118 non-athlete girls aged 7 to 18 years were selected using the available sampling method from schools in the 3rd district of Tehran and divided into four age groups: 7-9 (n=31), 10-12 (n=32), 13-15 (n=28) and 16-18 (n=27) were divided. Also, a reference group of adults (n=28 with an average age of 27.9 years) were investigated for comparison (total = 146). A sensory organization test (SOT) with Computerized Dynamic Posturography was used to manipulate different sensory inputs. Findings: The results of the one-way analysis of variance with a post hoc test showed that there is a significant difference between all age groups in 6 conditions of the test (P<0.05). The use of bodily and vestibular sensory inputs to maintain balance was almost the same in different age groups, but significant differences were observed in the use of visual inputs. Discussion and conclusion: From the age of 13, the postural control performance of girls becomes similar to that of adults, which can be due to the delayed development of the visual system. In general, it seems that for optimum control, the maturation of the somatosensory system occurs before the maturation of the vestibular and visual systems. After that, vestibular and visual systems are matured respectively.

M Anbarian, H Khodavisi,
Volume 9, Issue 1 (3-2011)

The foot represents a small base of support as an important biomechanical parameter that the body maintains balance. It is assumed that postural stability performance could be affected by even minor alteration in the support surface in upright standing position. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if individuals with different foot types would demonstrate differences in static postural stability performance. Sixty adolescent girls were categorized into three groups depending on their bilateral foot types namely, pronated, supinated and rectus feet. Foot types defined by Navicular-drop measures. We measured static stability performance with the Balance Error Scoring System once firm and once on a foam surface. ANOVA with repeated measures was employed for statistical analyses (p<0.05). Results showed no significant differences between individuals with pronated and rectus feet were revealed for static stability scores while standing on the firm surface. Pronated group showed a poor balance performance while tested on the foam surface in comparison with rectus group. Subjects with supinated feet had a poorer static stability performance on both firm and foam surfaces than others groups. These results demonstrated that static stability performance could be affected by foot type

B Behaeen, H Sadeghi, H Same, S Mashhudi,
Volume 9, Issue 1 (3-2011)

MS is a lifelong disease that could involve the person in different forms. Knowing balance characteristics of different types of this chronic disease helps the specialists for controlling their complications. The purpose of this study was to recognize static and dynamic balance of different type of MS and to compare MS patients with healthy individual. 54 MS women in three groups (27- Relapsing-Remitting, 16 secondary progressive, 11 primary progressive), 20 randomly healthful women have been elected. Static and dynamic balance test (dynamics with 8 degree), overall, lateral and anterior/posterior have been done by Biodex machinery from four groups. Kolmogorov-Smirnov inferential statistic test used to assess the normality of the data distribution and the chi-square test was used to examine the relationship within and between types of MS disease with normal. The parametric statistics tests including independent t-test applied at threshold 0.05. According to results, there are meaningful difference between overall balance index in static balance in different types of diseased women affected by MS (p<0.05). The Primary Progressive groups have weak, and Relapsing-Remitting MS group have strong static balance in comparison with other groups. Furthermore, meaningful difference shown through overall balance index in static mood in different type of disease women affected by MS (p<0.05). Difference between static balance index and dynamic was meaningful between control group and MS disease. Considering the findings of the study, women affected by relapsing-remitting type have better dynamic & static balance rather than progressive types. Static & dynamic balance in affected women was weaker than healthy women.

, , ,
Volume 9, Issue 2 (10-2011)

The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of knee extensor and ankle
plantar flexor fatigue on dynamic balance among active elderly males. Fifteen
healthy individuals having age of 72±6.57 years, height of 168.4±4.8 cm and
weight of 70.5±7.4 kg without history of injuries at lower extremity, participated
in this study. Knee extensor and ankle plantar flexor muscles fatigued with free
sets of fifty repeated of knee extension and ankle plantar flexion loading with
50% of one repetition maximum (1RM), while four minutes rest applied between
every set. Fatigue protocol applied for each muscle group after 72 hours rest at
same environment condition. Star excursion balance test (SEBT) used to
measure dynamic balance before and after applying fatigue protocol.
Dependent and independent t-test used for data analysis in significant level
0.05. Significant differences shown between pre and post reaching distance
using SEBT. The results also showed significant differences between decrease
of reaching distance in SEBT after applying muscle fatigue protocols in knee
extensor and ankle plantar flexor. Due to results, increasing lower limb muscle
endurance, especially at knee, recommended for training program designitation
for elderly subjects to achieve dynamic balance improvement.

, , ,
Volume 10, Issue 3 (6-2012)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of 6 weeks of core stability training on the balance of mentally retarded. Our subjects included 31 male mentally retarded students in two groups (control, 14 patients with a mean age of 11/07±3/02years, height 152±7/86cm) and (17experimental group with a mean age 11/23 ± 1/95years, height 147±7/07cm) and were A group of healthy students (15 subject with mean age 11/53±./516years,high 155± 4/77cm) of the random pare selected. The training program of experimental group that includes core stability exercises for 6 weeks, 3 times a week in the first two weeks experimental group performed exercise the 2 sets with 5 repetitions and two the second week of 2 sets with 10 repetitions and for evaluate used the dynamic balance Y test (r= 91%).From independent T-test was used to compare pre and post-test and one-way ANOVA test was used in order to compare inter-group differences.)p≤0.05(.Results showed that dynamic balance was significant in poster medial and on the whole, there was a significant difference between groups in posterior lateral and posterior medial directions. On base of the results of this research the core stability exercises can be performed for mental retarded and healthy people by coaches and teachers.

, , ,
Volume 11, Issue 6 (10-2013)

Balance and strength are important abilities that athletes should have them. This study was designed to investigate the relationship between maximum leg press (non-weight bearing closed kinetic chain) and squat (weight bearing closed kinetic chain) strength with statistic and dynamic balance. Thirty (15 men and 15 women) physically active participants (age, 22.13 ± 1.54 years; height, 171.26 ± 6.92 cm; weight, 66.02 ± 8.27 kg) completed the study. The Biodex Balance System was used to evaluate balance performance. Subjects completed two, 40 seconds trials attempting to maintain their statistic and dynamic balance and Overall Stability Index, Anterior/Posterior Index and Medial/Lateral Index were obtained. Maximum strength also was measured with a 1RM squat and leg press. Significant correlations were found between the measurements of 1RM squat with static anterior-posterior indices (r, 0.019; P=-0.541) and dynamic medial-lateral indices (r, 0.021, P=-0.532) in men and with static anterior-posterior indices (r, 0.016, P=-0.552) and dynamic anterior-posterior indices (r, 0.032; P=-0.491) in women. No significant correlations were found between the measures of 1RM leg press and balance indices in both groups. The results of this study indicate that maximum squat strength has more relation with some indices of static and dynamic balance than maximum leg press.

Volume 12, Issue 8 (10-2014)

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of functional fatigue on the dynamic and static balance of male students aged 15 to 18 with different plantar arch. To measure the subjects' foot arch, the Navicular Drop Test was used. The subjects were then randomly divided into three groups of 22 members with different foot arches. Later on, SEBT test, Modified Stork Balance, Fatigue Protocol and Borg (RPE) scale were run. Using SPSS (version 18), the data were analyzed (p< .05); in particular, dependent t-tests, One-way ANOVA and Scheffe's post hoc test were run. The results showed a significant difference between pre-test and post-test scores of dynamic and static balance in all three groups. Scheffe's post hoc test revealed that there was a significant difference between the mean difference of pre-test and post-test scores of the dynamic and static balance group of normal foot arch, the flat foot arch group and the cavus foot arch group. Meanwhile, the difference between flat and cavus foot group was not statistically significant. Due to the significant reduction in the balance of subjects with abnormal arch, the correction of the abnormality of the foot arch as well as the use of appropriate training courses are recommended to improve their physical fitness.

Dr Heidar Sadeghi, Mrs Shiva Noori,
Volume 13, Issue 10 (10-2015)

Introduction and Purpose: Due to the importance of functional balance tests assessment with emphasis on
parameters influencing the balance including somatotype, this study undertaken to determine the reliability of
functional balance tests (static, semi-dynamic and dynamic) in endomorphe healthy women within 24-34 years
old. Methodology: 25 female endomorphe with the average and standard deviation age of 27.32±2.13 yrs,
height of 161.13±6.37 cm and weight of 58.28±8.46 kg, participated in this study. Functional balance tests
were assessed while Heath-Carter approach applied to determine the participant somatotype. All the functional
balance tests are used for each individual three times within 72 hours. Data distribution normalization are
evaluated by means of Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, while ICC was used for assessing the reliability at a
significance level of P<0.05. Results:The reliability of all static, semi-dynamic and dynamic balance tests used
in this study was confirmed with an endomorphe type body. Assessing static balance, the Stork and Angel
tests; semi-dynamic balance, Star Excursion Balance Test test; and dynamic balance, the Timed to Get Up
and Go and Tandem Walking tests got very good reliability level (ICC>0.80

Mr Mohammad Ali Naseri Rouhani, Dr Mohammad Taghi Amiri Khorasani, Dr Mohammad Reza Amir Seifaldini,
Volume 14, Issue 11 (4-2016)

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of non- stability surface of support leg on the instep kicking kinematics in soccer players. Materials and Methods: 30 male soccer players participated in this study. After the measurement of static and dynamic balance tests by the Biodex System, 20 players were selected who were at a desired level of the balance. Data were recorded using the three- dimensional motion analysis system with 6 optoelectronic cameras (200 HZ). The kinematic parameters in three critical moments of kicking (Forward swing of hip, Contact to ball, Follow through) were compared by using repeated measures of variance and independent t- test (0/05). Results: The results showed that the values of maximum angular velocity and displacement of hip and velocity of ball at the kicking over stability surface was significantly higher from the kicking over non- stability surface. Conclusion: These results indicate that the kicking over non- stability surface causes the lower of kinematic parameters in the more of the kicking skill phases and the movement prime velocity of ball

Kamran Johari, Mohammad Hosein Alizadeh, Amir Hosein Barati,
Volume 15, Issue 14 (10-2017)

The present study aimed to examine the effects of FIFA 11+ comprehensive warm-up program for referees on dynamic balance among male Iranian football referees and assistant referees. Fifty-two football referees and assistant referees who had no previous injury voluntarily participated in the present study. They were randomly assigned into an intervention group and a control one (26 participants each group). The intervention participants took part in a 17-week FIFA 11+ comprehensive warm-up program for referees while the control group performed their usual warm-up trainings during a half season. In order to estimate the dynamic balance of the referees in the pre-test and post-test, Y Balance Test was used. The collected data were analyzed using Descriptive statistics and ANOVA. The results of the present study indicated that the intervention and the control groups were significantly different in terms of dynamic balance in anterior and posteromedial directions and also the referees’ overall balance score before and after the study. However, no significant between them was observed in posteriolateral direction. According to the findings of the present study, it can be concluded that the FIFA 11+ comprehensive warm-up program for referees could improve the referees’ and the assistant referees’ dynamic balance.
Elaheh Peymani, Gholam Ali Ghasemi, Mehdi Ghaderiyan,
Volume 16, Issue 16 (12-2018)

Meningomyelocele after cerebral palsy is the most common congenital defects of the nervous system that impairs the functioning of many body’s structures. This study aimed to assess the effect of six weeks selected physical training on balance, postural control and lower limb function in children with Meningomyelocele. In this quasi-experimental study, 10 boys aged 10-11 years with Meningomyelocele in L4-L5 levels that independently able to stand and take at least 5 steps were selected and after obtaining written consent from the parents, placed in an experimental group. Before and after 6 weeks (four 60-minute sessions per week) participation in a researcher-designed exercise protocol, Static and dynamic balance (Balance Scale PBS), postural sway (foot pressure device), neck craniovertebral angle and knee and hip range of motion (goniometer), thoracic arch angle (flexible ruler) and trunk and knee extensors strength (dynamometer) were measured. Data by t-test in SPSS 22 software was analyzed (p≤0/05). The results were showed significant difference between pre-test and post-test in all variables except the total index of postural control and trunk extensors strength (P≥0/05). Due to the effectiveness of the used exercise protocol, this protocol can be used to improve the postural control, balance and lower extremity function in rehabilitation of patients with Meningomyelocele and similar to those.

H Arazzadeh, A.a Norasteh,
Volume 17, Issue 17 (4-2019)

Although to improve balance and grasp the proprioception, recommended balance exercises, but there is not clear mechanism for the effectiveness of equilibrium training on healthy subjects. Suitable interaction of varios system of body and environment are necessary to maintain of the balance. Balance exercise is prescribed to improve balance and proprioception. There is not clear mechanism about the effectiveness of these exercise on healthy subjects. So The purpose of this study was to the Effect of 8 weeks of ankle-specific balance training on the balance and knee and ankle proprioception of adolescent volleyball players. the statistical sample of this study was 30 adolescent volleyball players in the league Golestan Which were selected as accessible and were randomly assigned into experimental and control groups. The experimental group performed 8 weeks and 3 sessions per week of ankle-specific balance. The results showed that there was a significant difference in the mean of balance and errors in reconstructing the angles of knee and ankle after exercise in the experimental group, while in the control group it was not significant. Results of this study showed that Balance Training can improve balance and proprioception in the knee and the ankle.

Sh Lenjannejadian, J Reisi,
Volume 17, Issue 17 (4-2019)

Balance is a complex concept, especially when one wants to do complex motor skills. Therefore, the balance during activity is more important than the static and dynamic balance that is performed without the skill. The aim of this study was to introduce a new activity-based balance index of elite soccer players. 27 young soccer players (12-14 years) whom participated in Iranian premier league were selected. To assess their balance, activity and skill, four functional tests consisting one leg stance, dynamic Y balance, running and dribbling tests were administered. During these tests, besides their relative scores, the acceleration of body center was also recorded using an accelerometer and a new activity-based balance index (ABI) were calculated from these available data. The Results showed a significant positive correlation between ABI and both static and dynamic balance scores(r=0.6, p=0.002). Also, a significant negative correlation was found between ABI and dribbling scores(r=-0.45, p=0.026), which could be interpreted as the necessity of agility of the players. It could be concluded that this new activity-based balance index was found to be successful for evaluating both the balance and the skill level of soccer players.

M Termeh, A Ghanbarzadeh, M.h Honarvar, K Heidari Shirazi,
Volume 18, Issue 19 (7-2020)

In a walking cycle design, maximizing the upright balance should be considered in addition to the kinematic constraints, energy consumption rate must be considered. The purpose of this study is to find the optimal step length obtained for each person according to the physical features. In this research, in order to minimize energy consumption rate by considering maximum balance two cost function were defined. the fall cost function was designed based on the concept of MOS and balance index. To investigate the upright balance and to reconstruct the movement pattern, Data from normal walking gait of healthy subjects was taken and seven links model was defined. In this study, the optimal step length was obtained for the person with height, weight and gait cycle characteristics. it is shown that for a person of 92kg mass and 1.87 meters height, the best step length in walking would be 0.54 meters. In this study, the kinematic and kinetic characteristics of human motion were identified by the analysis of gait patterns on a treadmill. Through the calculation of the balance index, individuals are helped to find the optimal step length for which the maximum balance is achieved. The results of the study can provide the optimal step length to correct the gait pattern.

Vahideh Teimouri Gholeh Zo, Fatemeh Alirezaei Noghondar, Hamid Reza Taheri,
Volume 18, Issue 20 (11-2020)

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of dual task training including balance sit-to-stand and cognitive exercises on postural control of sit to stand of elderly women with a history of falling. 15 elderly women were randomly divided into control (n=7) and experimental (n=8) groups. Participants implemented training protocol for four weeks in both experimental (balance and cognitive exercises) and control groups (balance sit-to-stand exercises). Before and after the training protocol, Berg Balance Scale and time of up and go tests were applied. Besides, in order to measure amplitude and speed of postural sway in the anteroposterior and medio-lateral direction in different stages of sit to stand movement in dual task condition, a force plate with a frequency of 100 Hz was used in pre-test and post-test. For data analysis, paired and independent t-test, nonparametric Wilcoxon and Mann Whitney u-tests were used with a significance level of P≤0.05. The results showed that there was a significant difference in the BERG test and significant reduction of the amplitude and speed of center of pressure in the antero-posterior and medio-lateral directions in the experimental group compared to the control group from pre-test to post-test (P≤0.05). Due to results, balance exercises by dual task method improved control functional balance and reduced postural sway and consequently improved sit to stand postural control in dual task condition and therefore can reduce more effectively the risk of falling in elder people.

Karar Khajeh Nemat, Heydar Sadeghi, Ismaeil Ebrahimi Takamjani, Raghad Memar,
Volume 18, Issue 20 (11-2020)

Proprioception is essential for joint function and through which individual can detect body parts movement in space. Aim of present study is to investigate effect of balance training on unstable platform with tilting, translation and combined motion on knee joint position sense in active young males. 39 healthy active male divided in to three training and control (n=9) groups. Training on unstable platform with tilting motion group (n=10), Training on unstable platform with translating motion group (n=10) and combined training group (n=10) performed exercises program for 8 weeks, three times a week. Errors in repositioning of knee joint in 30, 45 and 60⁰ angles (active and passive) was measured by Biodex system 3, before and after training period. Data was analysed by using one-way ANOVA test (P≤0/05). Although after 8 weeks, active and passive errors in repositioning of knee joint in mentioned angles decreased in training groups but this difference was not significant (P≤0/05). Balance training on unstable platform alone cannot have a big effect on knee joint position sense in active young male.

Alireza Hosseini, Dr Mostafa Zareei, Fariborz Hovanloo,
Volume 19, Issue 22 (12-2021)

Wrestling is a high contact sport with a significant risk of injuries. Identifying risk factors can help preventing wrestler’s injuries. little is known about the contribution of balance and proprioception to sport injuries. The purpose of this study was to find out the relationship between dynamic balance and knee proprioception and the injuries in young wrestler.72 young wrestlers from Tehran primer league participated in this study. Before the start of season, proprioception was measured at 30°, 60° and 90° knee flexion using the Biodex Isokinetic pro 4 system. Dynamic balance was measured by Biodex balance system. Injuries were recorded by the team's medical staff. Logistic regression modeling indicated that there is no significant relation between Dynamic balance and proprioception of knee at 30 and 60 and at 90 degree and musculoskeletal injuries. Balance and proprioception testing, as performed in the present study, cannot be recommended as a screening test to predict injuries in young male wrestler.

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