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Showing 18 results for Strength

Javid Shah Hosseini, Arezoo Eskandari, Mohamad Fashi,
Volume 0, Issue 0 (11-2019)

Aim: Using standard tests to assess maximum strength is very important where resistance training planning is based individually. This study aimed to estimate the 1 repetition maximum of active women based on the Rating of Perceived and to provide a special predictive equation. Methods: 30 active women (20-35 years; BMI: 26.32 ± 3.34 kg/m2) performed one repetition of chest press with eyes closed and then chose a number to determine the intensity by Rating of Perceived Exertion scale of 6-20. In order to evaluate the validity of the designed equation, one repetition of the maximum number of subjects was calculated by the Brzycki equation, and correlation was determined by Pearson's correlation method. Results: There was a high correlation between the present study equation and the Brzycki method (r=0.89) and also after cross-validations (r=0.91). No significant difference was observed between the results of the present equation and the results of Berzyski's equation. Conclusion: It seems that the equation of the present study can provide a reliable estimate for 1 repetition maximum of chest press in healthy women.
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Volume 10, Issue 3 (6-2012)

The purpose of this study was to consider the effect of eight weeks aerobic
and strength training on serum PTH, calcium, albumin and alkaline
phosphatase in postmenopausal women.35 post menopause women, (55-70
years), of Jahandidegan center of Tehran were selected and randomly divided
to three groups as aerobic (n=12), strength (n=13) and control (n=10) groups.
Aerobic training program include jogging and aerobic movements, with 60-
70% MHR intensity(8 weeks, 3 times per week, 40minute per session), And
Strength training program with emphasize on main muscle groups (8 weeks, 3
times per week, 1 hour per session),with30-40%1RM,8-10rep,1set to 60-
80%1RM,8-10rep,1set . One way analysis of variance (ANOVA) used to
compare differences between groups. The results showed that PTH and
alkaline phosphatase significantly increase after aerobic and strength training
in comparison with control group (P≤0.05). But the significant difference was
not observed between these two groups. No significant difference was
observed in serum calcium between two trained and control groups (p≥0.05).
However a significant decrease was observed in strength group (P≤0.05).
Furthermore, the significant change was not observed in albomin after training
program. Increase in PTH and alkaline phosphatase concentrations in normal
range seem to promote anabolism procedure of bone formation. The result of
this study shows that both two type of training have same effects on bone
markers and hormonal factors.

, , , ,
Volume 10, Issue 3 (6-2012)

Background: In sports such as handball, tennis and volleyball the player need to involve the great loads over his shoulders. In these sports, players are predisposed to overuse injuries. Infraspinatus syndrome’s meaning is the painless weakness and atrophy of this muscle that observe following Suprascapularis nerve neuropathy. In this investigation we want to survey the effects of a short term of progressive endurance-strengthening training and electrical stimulation on strength and electromyography in infraspinatus muscle. Method: 12 volleyball players with Infraspinatus syndrome were randomly divided to two groups: progressive endurance-strengthening training (6 persons, age 24/8±3/8, height 189/3±2/6, weight 83/8±7/9, sport background 9/4±2/5 and national team’s background 3/24±1/7) and electrical stimulation (6 persons, age 24/2±4/5, height 192/5±1/5, weight 86/2±6/4, sport background 8/5±4 and national team’s background 4/3±2/8). 20 persons of healthy players were considered to be as a control group (age 25/1±4/2, height 187/7±3/9, weight 75/6±7/1, sport history 9±3/8 and national team history 3/9±2/3), too. Therapeutic interventions performed for 8 weeks. Surface electromyography of infraspinatus and tress minor muscles and maximal isometric strength of external rotator muscles were measured before and after interventions. Data analyzing performed by SPSS.12 and we used of Paired sample T test and one-way ANOVA. Confidence level considered to be 95% (P<0.05). Results: After eight weeks, maximal isometric strength of external rotators in both experimental groups was increased significantly, but there were observed no significant changes in IEMG and RMSEMG. Conclusion: Progressive endurance-strengthening training and electrical stimulation can result in increase of maximal isometric strength of shoulder external rotator muscles. But both therapeutic methods have no effect onelectromyograghic parameters in infraspinatus and tress minor muscles. It seems that we can't use of surface electromyography for detecting the effect of these protocols on above muscles (P<0/05).

, , , ,
Volume 11, Issue 5 (3-2013)

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 12 weeks of "Tai Chi"
exercise on some of physiological and psychological factors in elderly living in
Nursing Home. In this experimental study, 58 elderly male and female age
69.15±5.3 yr, height 154 ± 0.1 cm and weight 58.13 ±4.4 kg, lived in Sadeghie
Nursing Home were selected and objectively divided in experimental (n=27) and
control groups (n=30). The experimental group trained for 3 month, three
session per/week, and 30 minute in each session. Heart rate, blood pressure,
hands grip strength, flexibility, Berg balance scale, depression and quality of
sleep were measured before and after the exercise program. Data were
analyzed for group differences using covariance test. There was no significant
group difference in heart rate, blood pressure and flexibility. Hands grip
strength, quality of sleep and balance scales were significantly improved and
depression significantly decreased in experimental compared with control
group. So, it seems that using Tai Chi exercise can improve some of
physiological factors, depression and quality of sleep in elderly

, , , ,
Volume 11, Issue 5 (3-2013)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of eight weeks strength and
plyometric trainings on knee joint position sense. In this study, 45 male students
(21.7±2.17years, weight 69.7±7.89 kg, and height 177.2±5.83cm) volunteered
and selected as subjects to participate in this semi-empirical study. Subjects
divided in three groups include strength (n=15), plyometric (n=15) and control
(n=15). Strength group trained squat, leg flexion and leg extension and
plyometric group trained depth jump, Split squat jump, rim jump and box to box
depth jump. Joint position sense measured at three angles 30, 45 and 60
degrees in knee joint by Biodex Isokenitic system 3. One-way ANOVA was
used for analysis of data. Results of study showed that trainings significantly
improve the joint position sense in initial angel (30degree) on active
reproduction and in initial and final angels (30 and 60 degrees) on passive
reproduction. In addition, comparison of trainings revealed that strength training
in 30 degrees and plyometric training in 30 and 60 degrees significantly improve
the joint position sense. Between two methods of training only on passive
reproduction at 60 degree, significantly difference was observed (p≤0.05).
These protocols can use in rehabilitation to improve proprioception and
neuromuscular coordination.

, , ,
Volume 11, Issue 6 (10-2013)

Balance and strength are important abilities that athletes should have them. This study was designed to investigate the relationship between maximum leg press (non-weight bearing closed kinetic chain) and squat (weight bearing closed kinetic chain) strength with statistic and dynamic balance. Thirty (15 men and 15 women) physically active participants (age, 22.13 ± 1.54 years; height, 171.26 ± 6.92 cm; weight, 66.02 ± 8.27 kg) completed the study. The Biodex Balance System was used to evaluate balance performance. Subjects completed two, 40 seconds trials attempting to maintain their statistic and dynamic balance and Overall Stability Index, Anterior/Posterior Index and Medial/Lateral Index were obtained. Maximum strength also was measured with a 1RM squat and leg press. Significant correlations were found between the measurements of 1RM squat with static anterior-posterior indices (r, 0.019; P=-0.541) and dynamic medial-lateral indices (r, 0.021, P=-0.532) in men and with static anterior-posterior indices (r, 0.016, P=-0.552) and dynamic anterior-posterior indices (r, 0.032; P=-0.491) in women. No significant correlations were found between the measures of 1RM leg press and balance indices in both groups. The results of this study indicate that maximum squat strength has more relation with some indices of static and dynamic balance than maximum leg press.

Jalil Ataei, Dr Mohammad Reza Dehkhoda, Dr Hamid Rajabi, Dr Naeima Khajavi, Sara Zarea Karizak,
Volume 12, Issue 8 (10-2014)

The purpose of this study was to compare effect of 4 weeks of strength training in two ways of accommodation and constant resistant methods on maximum strength and power of trained athletes. Sixteen Wushu athletes and wrestlers chosen from Tehran’s clubs with a mean age of 20.50 ±2.00years, height 174.34 ± 6.53cm, weight 70.22 ± 10.50 Kg, and body fat percent, 12.87 ±. 4. 23 participated in this study. After the initial testing of the variables of maximum strength (1RM), upper body power (medicine ball to throw, cm) lower body power (vertical jump, watt) Body fat percent (Skin Fold three point), limb circumference (cm) and Weight (kg), divided in two equal groups. Each group has done resistance strength training program for 4 weeks, three sessions per week, with 85% of their 1RM, with three sets and 5 repetitions with Squat and bench press exercises. But in case of accommodation group, 20% of their 1RM was used by chain through the full range of motion. At the end of the training, re-test of dependent variables were performed under similar conditions. Covariance analysis was used to compare the progressof power and strength between the two groups. This study showed that weight (p=0.391), limb circumferences (P=143), fat (P=0.413), the upper body power (P=0.267), lower body power (P=0.252) and the maximum upper body strength (P=0. 803) there was no significant difference between groups, but in case of maximum strength of lower body (P=0.04) there was significant difference between the two groups. In analyzing the results, although most variables did not show significant difference, but the effects sizeanalyzing of groups showed that in upper body power (ES=0.62), lower body power (ES= 0.64),upper body strength (ES=0.13)and lower body strength (ES=1.84), the results were in favor of accommodation group. This difference in the maximal strength in accommodation group were (62.15% in the upper body, 68.38% lower body) and in constant strength group (86.14% in the upper body, 84.21% in the lower body) respectively. Also the effect size of power for accommodation group were (97.6% upper body, 61.6% lower body) and in constant group (16.4% upper body, 67.4% lower body), respectively. This study showed that in order to increase maximal strength and power, accommodation training method is more effective than traditional constant training.

Abbas Keyhanian, Dr Khosro Ebrahim, Dr Hamid Rajabi, Dr Seyed Mohammad Marandi,
Volume 13, Issue 9 (4-2015)

The aim of this study was to Compare the effect of resistance training with active and passive rest on aerobic
and anaerobic fitness in soccer players. For this purpose 16 players of Foolad Mobarakeh Sepahan club,
accidentally were divided into rest and active group (Height 177.78±6.68 cm, Weight 64.88±7.97 kg, age
18.22±0.83 years ,and percent fat 20.47±1.8) and rest passive group(Height 178.57±6.99 cm, Weight 64±
6.6kg, age 18±0.81 years ,and percent fat 20.05±1.7). The tests were performed in this order: maximal oxygen
consumption, maximal strength, Tmax, muscular endurance, Hoff and RAST test in the pre and post test. The
exercises were done for 8 weeks and twice week with 10 exercises of 30 to 50 percent of maximal strength
with this difference that the active rest group performed 3 sets of 20 repetitions exercise in 30 seconds that rest
interval between 30 seconds was completed with 2 sets of 10 repetitions exercise in 30 second. The passive
group performed 4 sets of 20 repetitions exercise in 30 seconds that rest interval between 30 seconds was
completed with 3 sets passive rest. After determining the normality by Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and
homogenous variance test, independent and dependent t-tests with a significant level of α ≥ 0.05 were used.
The results indicate that after the training period, a significant difference was found in all variables exceptfatigue index in active rest group. But in passive rest group there were a significant difference in variables AT,
vVo2max, Tmax, performance of Hoff test, bench press muscular endurance and leg press strength from pre
test to post test. The results between groups indicated that there was a significant difference between two
groups in Vo2max, Tmax, AT, vVo2max, leg press muscular endurance, and mean power in benefits of active
rest group. Finally, the results showed that the resistance training with active rest causes improvements in
aerobic and anaerobic fitness of soccer players in comparison to resistance training with passive.

Mr Mahmood Khodabakhshi, Dr Ahmad Ebrahimi Atri, Dr Seyed Ali Akbar Hashemi Javaheri, Mr Hosein Ashoori, Mr Naser Farokh Roo, Mr Vahi Khodabandeh Loo,
Volume 13, Issue 10 (10-2015)

One of the most important success factors in most athletic competitions, receiving aerobic power (speed,
agility and jumping) high. Basketball is a great combination of short and long term activities that depend on
aerobic fitness. Anaerobic fitness of many players during the match determines tactical the performance.
The purpose of the present study to investigate the effects of strength exercises on anaerobic power and
some the variables related Traband it. The subjects consisted of 30 basketball players Young, randomly into
two equal groups of 15 subjects (experimental and control) were randomly assigned to 6 weeks and 3
sessions the Exercises were done in a week. To analyze the data, independent samples T-test and paired
sample T-test used at a significance level p ≤ 0/05. Later for six weeks of exercises, significant differences
between the records obtained from the anaerobic power the variables (speed, agility, vertical jump) were
observed between the two groups. The present study showed that the strength exercises with the variables
Traband improve anaerobic power in young basketball players and And according to the results of seem to
exercises Traband useful method for improving performance of the anaerobic the athletes.

Mr Mojtaba Ashrostaghi, Dr Elham Shirzad,
Volume 13, Issue 10 (10-2015)

Take-off is the critical phase of the long jump event. The aim of this study was to explore the relationships
between different variables and success in take-off. 37 trials performed by 8 long jumper, participants in
fourth indoor Asian senior athletics championships held in Tehran, with personal best average of 7.68±0.28
meter were recorded at 300 Hz. Five speed-related, five technical and four strength-related variables as well
as an anthropometric variable were measured using motion analysis software. More gain in vertical velocity
and less loss of horizontal velocity are considered as two criteria of take-off success and their relationships
with other variables were determined through correlation and regression analysis. Significant level of 0.05
was set. Some variables of all four groups were significantly correlated with success criteria. These variables
along with some others were entered in regression equations. The results emphasized on dominant role of
the technique and approach velocity and represented the effect of anthropometric characteristics on success
in takeoff. Furthermore eccentric strength of knee extensors was shown as the main strength factor in this

S Nezami, M.a Samavati Sharif, A Chezani Sharahi,
Volume 15, Issue 13 (9-2017)

The purpose of the current study was the effect of 8-week high intensity resistance training (the Split training method), on Testosterone, Cortisol and Testosterone/Cortisol serum level and its influence on muscle mass and development of muscle strength. 20 persons beginner in bodybuilding (body mass index: 23.80±2.25 kg/m2; age: 24.65±2.55 year) participated in this study. The subjects divided randomly into strength training (10 persons) and control groups (10 persons). Training program was designed according to the Split method with 85%-100% of 1RM for six times per weeks. The same strength and duration was applied for the control group based on the traditional training. Before and after training the thickness of Triceps muscle was measured with ultrasound in both groups. Resting blood samples were collected before and after training. The results showed, compared with traditional training, training with Split method increased muscle strength (p=0.01), muscle mass (p=0.001) and the Testosterone to Cortisol (T/C) ratio (p=0.02). Moreover, there were significant correlation between the maximum strength and hypertrophy(r=0/55, p=0/001) and between (T/C) and maximum strength (r=0/74, p=0/03). The results of this study shows that resistance training with high intensity (the Split Training Method) causes increase in anabolic stimulation and muscle mass which subsequently increases maximum strength.

Mrs Safoora Heidari, Dr Ali Shamsi Majlan, Dr Hasan Daneshmandi, Dr Nahid Khoshraftar Yazdi,
Volume 15, Issue 14 (10-2017)

Background and Purpose: Frequent throwing Movements can change its muscular strength and range of motion balance shoulder athletes compared to non-athletes. The purpose of this study was to the comparison of strength ratio between agonist and antagonist muscles and range of motion of the shoulder in volleyball players and non-athletes. Research Method: Thirty female volleyball players (mean age±SD; 21±2.58 year) and thirty non-athletes individuals (mean age ± SD; 22±1.13 years) participated in this study. Manual muscle test (MMT) and Leighton Flexometer was respectively used for measuring the strength and ROM of the participants. Demographic information was collected through questionnaires. After determining the normal data distribution independent and paired samples T-test was used to analyze them. Results: In Compare ratio of agonist to antagonist muscle strength in the dominant and non-dominant hand volleyball players (p≤0.001, p=0.002) As well as dominant hand in both groups (volleyball and control) (p≤0.001, p=0.003) in the ratio of internal to external rotation and abduction to adduction strength was significant difference (P≤0.05). A significant decrease in range of motion in internal rotation and extension movements of the dominant hand (p≤0.001, p=0.005) and a significant increase in external rotation volleyball players in dominant hand was observed (p=0.026).Conclusion: Repeated pattern of movements in the volleyball sports for a long time causes muscle imbalance in strength and range of motion shoulder joint that in case of inadequate attention and lack of proper stretching and strengthening exercises to use, this asymmetry can make athletes prone to injury his performance will decrease

L Ghanbari, M.h Alizadeh, H Minoonejad, S.h Hosseini,
Volume 17, Issue 17 (4-2019)

Considering the important role of the scapula in the glenohumeral joint movements, its position on the thorax can affect the function of the joint. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the predictive relationship of the strength and glenohumeral rotation range of motion (ROM) with scapular dyskinesis (SD) in female athletes with overhead-throwing pattern. The present study was a descriptive-correlational research on 60 athletic female in volleyball, handball, basketball and badminton. The Lateral scapular slide test was used to examine SD. the dynamometer and goniometer were used to measure the strength and glenohumeral rotation ROM respectively. Data were analyzed using Spearman correlation and multiple regression tests. The correlation coefficients between SD and the glenohumeral internal rotation ROM (r=-0.734; p=0.000), the glenohumeral external rotation ROM (r=0.693; p=0.001), the glenohumeral internal rotation strength (r=0.674; p=0.005) and the glenohumeral external rotation strength (r=-0.719; p=0.001) were significant. Analysis of the research model showed that about one-third (30.1%) of total changes in SD were dependent on the independent variables mentioned in this regression model. therefore, screening of  athletes with overhead-throwing pattern must be taken into consideration in order to recognize SD, and participate in corrective exercises to increase the glenohumeral internal rotation ROM and the glenohumeral external rotator muscles strength.
P Zalbeik, A Letafatkar, Sh Rezvan Nobahar,
Volume 18, Issue 19 (7-2020)

Feedback instruction is a proven modality for the alteration of motion patterns. There are no existing data on the contribution of strength training, when combined with feedback instruction, to the altering of lower extremity biomechanics. Thus the purpose of the current study was comparison of strength training  program with external and internal focus of attention strategies on kinetic and functional factors in athletes with plyometric pattern. 36 athlete females (handball, Basketball and vollyball) voluntarily with avarage age 22.3±2.27 years were randomly assigned to strength training with external focus, strength training with internal focus and strength training groups. Participants completed these training for 8 weeks. Kinetic factors were measured using force plate during landing, as well as functional movement and movement pattern respectively were measured by single leg triple hop test (SLTH) and landing error scoring system. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that the effect of strength training with external focus group training significantly was better than two others groups in Peak vertical ground reaction  (p=0.039), posterior ground reaction force (p=0.046), mediolateral time to stability (p=0.032), single leg triple hop test (p=0.041) and landing error scoring system  scores (p=0.030). But there was no significant between-group difference in anteroposterior time to stability (p=0.312). Subjects in strength training with external focus group showed significantly within-group changes in all variables except anteroposterior time to stability from posttest to pretest. Programs that include both strength training and movement education through external focus of attention may be necessary in order to prevent ACL injuries and increase athletic performance.


Azadeh Doroodgar, Khalil Khayambashi, Shahram Lenjannejadian, Ghasem Yadegarfar,
Volume 19, Issue 21 (9-2021)

Hamstrings (Hams) to Quadriceps (Quadr) strength ratio is known as a risk factor for Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) injury and affects by knee and hip flexion angles. Gluteus Maximus (Gmax) muscle acts as a synergist for Hams in hip extension in a closed kinetic chain. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Gmax strengthening exercises on the kinetic and kinematic risk factors of ACL injury when single-leg landing from a jump. 25 volunteer women aged 18-30 years were assigned into control (n =13) and experimental (n =12) groups. Maximum isometric strength of Gmax, hip and knee joint angles and ground reaction force (GRF) was measured at landing, by dynamometer, 2D imaging and foot scan respectively,. After 8 weeks of 3 sessions of Gmax resistance training, Following the significant within-subject difference for GRF (F=5.245, P=0.032) by using Two-way mixed model ANOVA, Pre and post-test Differences were significant with 16.63% decrease (P= 0.038, t=2.354). Differences between pre and post-test peak force, time to peak, mean joint angles, impact and load rate were not significant (α = 0.05). According to a 4.55% and 3.47% increase in Gmax strength and time to peak force, and considering the fact that at the beginning of landing, the mechanical advantage of Hams is lower than that of Gmax, the risk of ACL injury could be reduced by reducing GRF following an increase in the Gmax strength.

Ms Sepideh Samavati Sharif, Phd Abbas Ferjad Pezeshk, Phd Mohammad Yousefi,
Volume 19, Issue 22 (12-2021)

This study aimed to determine the role of strength, expulsive power and range of motion of lower limb muscle on the fencing performance of elite florists. In this study, eight elite fencers’ participated. Kinetic variables measured using force plate and kinematic variable measured using motion analysis system. The squat jump test used to measure the compulsive power of the lower extremity muscles of the fencers. The Drop-jump test used to measure the lower strength of the muscles of the lower extremity muscles. Descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation) used to describe the data and Pearson correlation coefficient used for determine the relationship between data (P≤0.05). The results of this study showed there is a significant relationship between squat jump power and mechanical energy and drop jump height with lunge speed and also between ankle range of motion with peak force and impulse in the anterior direction (P<0.05). Given the results of this study, coaches should have a special attention on the strength and explosive power of plantar flexor muscles.

Mr Mojtaba Iranmanesh, Dr Mansour Sahebozamani, Dr Mohammadreza Amir Seifadini,
Volume 21, Issue 25 (9-2023)

The shoulder complex as one of the most moving joints of the body frequently was used by overhead sports athletes. Thus, musculoskeletal screening such as assessment of the range of motion (ROM), and strength variables can be useful to injury prevention strategies and further the development of conditioning and rehabilitation programs. The purpose of this study is to compare selected variables and the ratio of ROM and strength in volleyball, handball, and badminton players. A total of 36 athletes with similar physical characteristics (volleyball: age=26.65±4.56 y, weight=91.07±7.91 kg, height=185.14±12.25 cm; handball: age=27.29±3.12 y, weight=90.11±6.38 kg, height=183.52±9.67 cm, and badminton: age=26.01±4.29 y, weight=87.85±4.59 kg, height=182.38±10.74 cm) were selected to participate in the current study. A Leighton flex meter and hand-held dynamometer were used respectively to measure the ratio of ROM and strength.The results showed that the mean ratio of external(ER) strength to internal (IR) strength and ER ROM to IR ROM were significantly different between the three groups. The post hoc test revealed that badminton athletes had significant differences in all of the measured variables to both volleyball and handball athletes. But there were no differences between volleyball and handball athletes.In conclusion, preseason screening is vital in achieving optimal values on these measures and may reduce future shoulder injuries in overhead athletes.

Dr Ramin Balochi, Dr Farideh Babakhani, Dr Mohamadreza Hatefi, Mr Hossien Hassanpor,
Volume 21, Issue 25 (9-2023)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of eight weeks of core stability exercises on upper limb performance based on Y balance test, strength and range of motion of shoulder rotation in badminton athletes. 30 male badminton players were randomly assigned to two control (n=15) and experimental (n=15) groups. The experimental group performed the core stability training program for eight weeks, three sessions a week for 40 minutes, while the control group did not receive any intervention. Measurement of upper limb function was done by Y balance test, and also shoulder strength and internal and external rotation range of motion were measured by handheld dynamometer and goniometer respectively, before and after the intervention. The analysis of the data obtained from the research based on the ANCOVA statistical test showed that there is a significant difference in the average of the Y upper limb balance test between the two control and experimental groups in both dominant and non-dominant hands. which indicates the positive effect of core stability exercises on people's performance in performing the Y balance test (p<0.05); however, no statistical difference was observed in muscle strength and range of motion of external and internal rotation of the shoulder after the intervention. (p < 0.05). It seems that the provision of core stability training programs can be considered with the approach of increasing the performance of the upper limbs and, of course, preventing injuries in badminton players.

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