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, , ,
Volume 0, Issue 0 (11-2019)

Introduction: Balance and proprioception have been introduced as two of the most important internal factors related to the occurrence of injuries in the lower limbs. The purpose of this research is to investigate the changes in static and dynamic balance and proprioceptive accuracy of knee and ankle joints of young taekwondo athletes before and after applying the fatigue protocol.
Methodology: The current research is semi-experimental. The subjects of the research were 20 teenage male taekwondo players from the statistical population. Static and dynamic balance variables were measured respectively by Stork's static balance test and Y dynamic balance test, as well as the proprioception of the ankle and knee joints at 10 degrees of ankle dorsiflexion and 30 degrees of knee flexion, by the photographic method. Then the functional fatigue protocol was applied. After finishing the fatigue protocol, all the variables that were measured before applying the fatigue protocol were evaluated again. In order to examine the intra-group changes of the research variables in the pre- and post-test stages, the paired t-test was used.
Results: The results of the paired t-test showed that after applying the fatigue protocol, there is a significant difference between the average of all the investigated variables in the post-test stage compared to the pre-test.
Conclusion: The results of the present research showed that fatigue can reduce the static and dynamic balance as well as the proprioceptive accuracy of teenage taekwondo athletes. Therefore, it is recommended to all coaches and athletes of this sport, in order to delay the appearance of fatigue and the possibility of injury, to perform specialized training exercises in the field of taekwondo and according to the age of teenagers.
, , ,
Volume 12, Issue 7 (4-2014)

Introduction: Taekwondo is one of the most popular martial arts in the world and Iran. Taekwondo is a contact
sport which contains a high rate of injuries. Thus, the more travelling through the time, the more protective
equipments is provided to prevent injuries. The present study purposed to compare the sport injuries of premier
leagues in 2 season and study the effectiveness of protective equipments such as protective gums, particular gloves
and socks, and electronic Hugo in the Iranian taekwondo athletes.
Method: For this prospective study, 197 athletes(with the mean age and body mass of 23.2 year-old and 70.52
kg, respectively) were studied for injuries incurred in 2011-2012 league. Afterward, the collected results were
compared with the results of the same league in 2006-2007, descriptively.
Results: As shown, the injury rate was declined from 69.5 injury per 1000 AE in 2006-2007 league to 19.09 injury
per 1000 AE in 2011-2012 league. All injury types were decreased except epistaxis. Likewise, number of injuries in
upper extremity, lower extremity, head and neck and trunk were decreased.
Discussion: The injury reduction may be due to the application of protective equipments like electronic Hugo which
was a main factor in reducing strikes’ power, and the usage of particular socks and gloves for more coverage and
protection. Additionally protective gums could protect tooth and mandible from injury. Of course the effect of getting
more professional and performing scientific conditioning trainings should not be ignored.

Dr Abbas Saremi, Dr Masood Golpayegani, Mrs Zeinab Moradi,
Volume 13, Issue 10 (10-2015)

Introdiction and Aim: Nowadays, due to the epidemic of sports supplements, the effects of these
supplements on athletic performance require analysis and evaluation.The aim of the present study was to
investigate the effect of arginine supplementation for one week on oxygen uptake kinetics and time to
exhaustion in female taekwondo athletes.
Method: In this semi-experimental study with pretest – posttest design, eighty female taekwondo athletes
(age: 19.88±2.33 y, height: 167.53±6.04 cm, weight: 60.98±2.4 kg) were randomly assigned to argenine
supplementation (n=9) or placebo (n=9) groups. Subjects performed the incremental test (initially, the work
load 50 watts and 30 watts increase in workload every minutes, as long as subjects will be able to maintain
the highest pedal rate and the failure to reach). To simulate a taekwondo match day test session consisted
of three maximal incremental test intervals (1 to 2 hours). The experimental group was supplemented with
6g arginine powder and placebo group received 6g microcrystalline cellulose each day for one week.
Seven days after, post test accordingly pretest was used by all subjects. Pulmonary gas exchange was
measured by gas analyzer to breath-by breath method. Oxygen uptake kinetics variables (oxygen deficit,
time constant 1, time constant 2) were evaluated by gas analyzer with breath-by breath method. Data was
analyzed using two ways ANOVA.
Results: The time to exhaustion was extended following consumption of arginine (p<0.05). Also the
findings showed that arginine supplementation resulted in a speeding of the oxygen uptake kinetic (oxygen
deficit, time constant 1, time constant 2) (p<0.05).
Conclusion: It seems that arginine supplementation improves oxygen kinetics factors and time to
exhaustion in female taekwondo athletes.

Mrs Mahsa Hakimipour, Mrs Roshanak Irandoost, Dr Hooman Minoo Nezhad, Dr Reza Rajabi,
Volume 14, Issue 12 (10-2016)

Specificity of physical exercises is one of the main factors which could affect musculoskeletal system. The purpose of this research is to make a comparison about postural abnormalities of the spine and lower limbs between female taekwondo athletes and non-athletes. Samples of current research were 50 female black-belt taekwondo athletes and 50 non-athletes. To measure kyphosis and lordosis, flexible ruler was used; also to determine the angle of forward head posture and scoliosis, photogrammetry was used, and to determine knee and foot deformities caliper and navicular drop methods were used respectively. To compare two groups, independent t test was used. The results of independent t test showed that amount of lumbar lordosis (47.90°) in taekwondo athletes is significantly higher than that of non-athletes (44.04°). Also amount of scoliosis (3.52°) in taekwondo athletes was significantly higher than that of non-athletes. Also distance of internal condyle )3/26 CM) of taekwondo athletes was significantly higher than that of non-athletes)1/91 CM)(P0.05). But no significant difference was observed between two groups in terms of forward head posture, kyphosis, distance of internal malleolus, and navicular drop. Based on the results of this research it is possible to express that taekwondo due to type of its common exercises and could have impact on posture of its athletes.

S Entezari, R Memar, M Kakavand,
Volume 15, Issue 13 (9-2017)

The aim of this study was the comparison of plantar pressure distribution, vertical ground reaction force and contact area between dominant and none-dominant limb in top-flight females taekwondo.10 healthy young top-flight females taekwondo were selected. plantar pressure ,vertical ground reaction force and contact area were evaluated by emed system .The obtained data were analyzed by paired -t test and Symmetry index significance difference in toes 3-5 contact area between dominant and none dominant limb In addition Symmetry index for each parameter indicate asymmetry between limbs. The most ground reaction force and plantar pressure applied on heel region and metatarsal 3-5 and the least ground reaction force and plantar pressure applied on toe 2and toes3-5 in both limb.

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