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Mrs Faeze Nemati, Dr Mostafa Zareei, Mr Morteza Barzegar Bafrouei,
Volume 0, Issue 0 (11-2019)

Introduction: Studies have shown that anterior cruciate ligament injury causes long-term periods of disability and long-term effects; Therefore, it is necessary to adopt preventive measures as well as to have studies that determine the effect of injury prevention programs in improving the performance level of players. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of eight weeks of the anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention program on the function of elite female kabaddi athletes.
Materials and Methods: This research is semi-experimental based on the application of the intervention variable. 27 female kabaddi athletes with an age range of 18-24 years were randomly divided into two intervention and control groups. The intervention group performed prevention injury and enhance performance program exercises for 8 weeks. The tests were taken before and after eight weeks of the PEP program. These evaluations included T-test, 20-meter sprint test, Y-balance test, sitting and reaching flexibility test, hopping test and functional movement screening test. leven's statistical test was used to check the homogeneity of variances and ANCOVA test was used to evaluate and compare the data.
Findings: The results of the covariance analysis test showed that the intervention group had significantly better scores compared to the control group in the Y-balance tests of the right (p=0.002) and left leg (p=0.001), single leg hopping with right leg (p=0.004) and left leg (p=0.000), crossover hopping with right leg (p=0.023) and sit and reach flexibility test (p=0.003) after eight weeks of exercises In addition, in the tests of sprinting (p=0.649), agility (p=0.073), triple hopping with left leg (p=0.784) and right leg (p=0.204), crossover hopping with left leg (p=0.540) and functional movement screening test (p=0.943) did not show any significant difference between the two groups.
Results: The results of this research showed that the eight-week prevention injury and enhance performance program  has a significant effect on the dynamic balance of the right and left legs, hopping (single leg hopping and crossover hopping of the right leg), and the flexibility of the hamstrings and lower back of elite female kabaddi athletes; But hopping (triple hopping and left leg crossover hopping), speed, agility and FMS test scores have no significant effect.
Saeed Arsham,
Volume 0, Issue 0 (11-2019)

Introduction and purpose: The ability to control different positions of the body in space results from the complex interaction of nervous, sensory, and skeletal-muscular systems, which is generally defined as posture control. Therefore, it is important to study how new interactions occur through sensory inputs and create different motor responses to restore balance disturbances. The purpose of this study was to investigate the underlying mechanisms of age-related differences in postural control of 7-18-year-old girls by determining the differences between different age groups and adults in their sensory preferences for compensatory responses. Methodology: 118 non-athlete girls aged 7 to 18 years were selected using the available sampling method from schools in the 3rd district of Tehran and divided into four age groups: 7-9 (n=31), 10-12 (n=32), 13-15 (n=28) and 16-18 (n=27) were divided. Also, a reference group of adults (n=28 with an average age of 27.9 years) were investigated for comparison (total = 146). A sensory organization test (SOT) with Computerized Dynamic Posturography was used to manipulate different sensory inputs. Findings: The results of the one-way analysis of variance with a post hoc test showed that there is a significant difference between all age groups in 6 conditions of the test (P<0.05). The use of bodily and vestibular sensory inputs to maintain balance was almost the same in different age groups, but significant differences were observed in the use of visual inputs. Discussion and conclusion: From the age of 13, the postural control performance of girls becomes similar to that of adults, which can be due to the delayed development of the visual system. In general, it seems that for optimum control, the maturation of the somatosensory system occurs before the maturation of the vestibular and visual systems. After that, vestibular and visual systems are matured respectively.

, , , , ,
Volume 10, Issue 3 (6-2012)

Pull-up and modified pull-up tests are frequently used for shoulder muscles
endurance evaluation by physical educators. Despite of using these tests, the
difference of muscle activation pattern in pull-up and modified pull-up tests has
not been documented clearly. However, the role of some important muscles
such as anterior deltoid, posterior deltoid, trapezius and latissimus dorsi have
not yet examined during these tests. This study aimed to determine effects of
pull-up and modified pull-up tests on the EMGs recordings from selected
muscles including anterior deltoid, posterior deltoid, biceps, triceps, pectoralis
major, trapezius and latissimus dorsi. Ten able-bodied males (age: 25.32 ±
3.95 yrs; weight: 72.31 ± 7.24 kg) who were able to do at least 5 pull-ups were
selected to participate in the study. Surface electromyographic data were
recorded from selected muscles using De Luca and Basmajian’s method.
ANOVA with repeated measures was employed for comparison of
electromyographic activity in the selected muscles during pull-up and modified
pull-up tests (p  0.05). The results revealed that in modified pull-up test
anterior deltoid, posterior deltoid and trapezius muscles activation were
significantly higher in comparison with pull-up test, while the EMG activity of
biceps, triceps and pectoralis major was significantly higher in pull-up test.

, , ,
Volume 10, Issue 3 (6-2012)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of 6 weeks of core stability training on the balance of mentally retarded. Our subjects included 31 male mentally retarded students in two groups (control, 14 patients with a mean age of 11/07±3/02years, height 152±7/86cm) and (17experimental group with a mean age 11/23 ± 1/95years, height 147±7/07cm) and were A group of healthy students (15 subject with mean age 11/53±./516years,high 155± 4/77cm) of the random pare selected. The training program of experimental group that includes core stability exercises for 6 weeks, 3 times a week in the first two weeks experimental group performed exercise the 2 sets with 5 repetitions and two the second week of 2 sets with 10 repetitions and for evaluate used the dynamic balance Y test (r= 91%).From independent T-test was used to compare pre and post-test and one-way ANOVA test was used in order to compare inter-group differences.)p≤0.05(.Results showed that dynamic balance was significant in poster medial and on the whole, there was a significant difference between groups in posterior lateral and posterior medial directions. On base of the results of this research the core stability exercises can be performed for mental retarded and healthy people by coaches and teachers.

Rasol Rezaei, , , ,
Volume 11, Issue 6 (10-2013)

The aim of this study was designing a specific upper body anaerobic power test for wrestlers and determining validity, reliability and objectivity of the designed test. In order to assess the anaerobic power of wrestlers on the basis of upper body Wingate test, Twenty two wrestlers (age=23/40±3/20 year, height=173/13±6/97 cm, weight=74/55±3/88 kg) of Tehran wrestling team (most of them were Asian champion) were participated in this study. Mean, maximum and minimum of anaerobic power and fatigue indices assessed by both tests. In order to analysis the correlation between power indices and physiological indices (blood lactate and heart rate), Pearson correlation has been used, and the differences between blood lactate after 2 min in both tests assessed. The result indicated that there was significant correlation between maximum (p=0/001 r=0/739), mean (p=0/001 r=0/670) and minimum (p=0/01 r=0/650) of power and fatigue indices (p=0/003 r=0/610) obtained by designed test and Wingate test. The result showed that there was significant correlation between heart rate immediately after doing both tests (p=0/001, r=0/705) and also the result show that there was not significant correlation between blood lactate after 2 min. of doing both tests (p=0/07 r=0/353). Statistical analyses also showed no difference between the blood lactate after 2 min of doing both tests. Analyzing the validity of designed test, revealed that there was significant correlation between max (p=0/000 r=0/840), mean (p=0/000 r=0/861) and minimum (p=0/000 r=0/830) power and fatigue indices (p=0/000 r=772) after performing twice of designed test. In analysis objectively of the designed test, the result revealed that there was significant correlation between max (p=0/000 r=0/832), mean (p=0/000 r=0/858) and minimum (p=0/000 r=0/805) power and fatigue indices (p=0/000 r=0/832) which was done by two different tester. It can be concluded that in respect to Wingate upper body test, the designed test in this study is valid and reliable test to measure the anaerobic power of wrestlers.

Abbas Keyhanian, Dr Khosro Ebrahim, Dr Hamid Rajabi, Dr Seyed Mohammad Marandi,
Volume 13, Issue 9 (4-2015)

The aim of this study was to Compare the effect of resistance training with active and passive rest on aerobic
and anaerobic fitness in soccer players. For this purpose 16 players of Foolad Mobarakeh Sepahan club,
accidentally were divided into rest and active group (Height 177.78±6.68 cm, Weight 64.88±7.97 kg, age
18.22±0.83 years ,and percent fat 20.47±1.8) and rest passive group(Height 178.57±6.99 cm, Weight 64±
6.6kg, age 18±0.81 years ,and percent fat 20.05±1.7). The tests were performed in this order: maximal oxygen
consumption, maximal strength, Tmax, muscular endurance, Hoff and RAST test in the pre and post test. The
exercises were done for 8 weeks and twice week with 10 exercises of 30 to 50 percent of maximal strength
with this difference that the active rest group performed 3 sets of 20 repetitions exercise in 30 seconds that rest
interval between 30 seconds was completed with 2 sets of 10 repetitions exercise in 30 second. The passive
group performed 4 sets of 20 repetitions exercise in 30 seconds that rest interval between 30 seconds was
completed with 3 sets passive rest. After determining the normality by Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and
homogenous variance test, independent and dependent t-tests with a significant level of α ≥ 0.05 were used.
The results indicate that after the training period, a significant difference was found in all variables exceptfatigue index in active rest group. But in passive rest group there were a significant difference in variables AT,
vVo2max, Tmax, performance of Hoff test, bench press muscular endurance and leg press strength from pre
test to post test. The results between groups indicated that there was a significant difference between two
groups in Vo2max, Tmax, AT, vVo2max, leg press muscular endurance, and mean power in benefits of active
rest group. Finally, the results showed that the resistance training with active rest causes improvements in
aerobic and anaerobic fitness of soccer players in comparison to resistance training with passive.

S Nezami, M.a Samavati Sharif, A Chezani Sharahi,
Volume 15, Issue 13 (9-2017)

The purpose of the current study was the effect of 8-week high intensity resistance training (the Split training method), on Testosterone, Cortisol and Testosterone/Cortisol serum level and its influence on muscle mass and development of muscle strength. 20 persons beginner in bodybuilding (body mass index: 23.80±2.25 kg/m2; age: 24.65±2.55 year) participated in this study. The subjects divided randomly into strength training (10 persons) and control groups (10 persons). Training program was designed according to the Split method with 85%-100% of 1RM for six times per weeks. The same strength and duration was applied for the control group based on the traditional training. Before and after training the thickness of Triceps muscle was measured with ultrasound in both groups. Resting blood samples were collected before and after training. The results showed, compared with traditional training, training with Split method increased muscle strength (p=0.01), muscle mass (p=0.001) and the Testosterone to Cortisol (T/C) ratio (p=0.02). Moreover, there were significant correlation between the maximum strength and hypertrophy(r=0/55, p=0/001) and between (T/C) and maximum strength (r=0/74, p=0/03). The results of this study shows that resistance training with high intensity (the Split Training Method) causes increase in anabolic stimulation and muscle mass which subsequently increases maximum strength.

Mr Nemat Allah Behboodian, Mr Jamal Khajeh Ali, Dr Amir Letafat Kar,
Volume 15, Issue 14 (10-2017)

Due to the necessity of screening injury the aim of this study was to screen the scores of Functional movement screening tests in active and inactive subject . The study population consisted of University Students aged 18 to 25 years out of which 50 students (25 active and 25 inactive) were selected. Functional Movement Screen by Cook were used for functional screening. After the normality of the overall scores for FMS, Independed-Samples T-Test was used in SPSS (version 16) to analyze the data at significant level of 0/05. According to the findings, overall scores of FMS was significantly different between active and inactive subjects (P=0/001). Cut-off point of 17 was obtained for all subjects. There was no significant difference in shoulder mobility and straight leg raise test scores in the active and inactive people but there was significant difference among the scores of other five tests This prospective study shows that due to the overall score FMS inactive people than in active people are more prone to injury.
Majid Jalili, Farzad Nazem, Akbar Sazvar,
Volume 16, Issue 16 (12-2018)

Aerobic power (VO2max) is an important indicator of the health and physical fitness. Executive problems in direct VO2max measurement has led to developing sub-maximal aerobic power prediction equations. The purpose of present study was to develop native aerobic power prediction equation based on 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT) and body composition indices in children. In 192 healthy children (8 to 12 years) VO2max was objectively measured by Bruce treadmill protocol with gas analysis. The 6MWT was performed according to ATS guidelines. Also, anthropometric measurements were measured according to standard methods. Multiple regression analysis was used to design aerobic power (ml/kg/min) prediction equation. Accuracy of native VO2max prediction equation was assessed by Pearson correlation and Bland-Altman approach between measured and predicted VO2max. Significant correlation was observed between direct VO2max and independent variables (r=0.25-0.734). Aerobic power of the boys could be predicted by weight and 6MWT according to the following equation: VO2max(ml/kg/min)= 5.359 + (0.067 × 6MWD m) – (0.286 × Weight kg) (r2=0.743, SEE=2.74 ml/kg/min, p≤0.001). Strong correlation was observed between measured and predicted VO2max (r=0.861, P≤0.001). In addition, Bland and Altman plots demonstrated a high degree of consistency between measured and predicted VO2max. Exercise and fitness coaches by utilization of native aerobic prediction equation based on the 6MWT and weight could be able to assess the aerobic power of the boys and to evaluation of the effects of exercise training on cardio-respiratory fitness.

Dr Ramin Balochi, Dr Farideh Babakhani, Dr Mohamadreza Hatefi, Mr Hossien Hassanpor,
Volume 21, Issue 25 (9-2023)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of eight weeks of core stability exercises on upper limb performance based on Y balance test, strength and range of motion of shoulder rotation in badminton athletes. 30 male badminton players were randomly assigned to two control (n=15) and experimental (n=15) groups. The experimental group performed the core stability training program for eight weeks, three sessions a week for 40 minutes, while the control group did not receive any intervention. Measurement of upper limb function was done by Y balance test, and also shoulder strength and internal and external rotation range of motion were measured by handheld dynamometer and goniometer respectively, before and after the intervention. The analysis of the data obtained from the research based on the ANCOVA statistical test showed that there is a significant difference in the average of the Y upper limb balance test between the two control and experimental groups in both dominant and non-dominant hands. which indicates the positive effect of core stability exercises on people's performance in performing the Y balance test (p<0.05); however, no statistical difference was observed in muscle strength and range of motion of external and internal rotation of the shoulder after the intervention. (p < 0.05). It seems that the provision of core stability training programs can be considered with the approach of increasing the performance of the upper limbs and, of course, preventing injuries in badminton players.

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