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Mr. Amirali Jafarnezhadgero, Ms. Arezoo Madahi, Mr. Milad Piran Hamlabadi,
Volume 0, Issue 0 (11-2019)

Background and Aims: The surface quality and type are an important factor that may influence the risk of sustaining injuries during running. The aim of the present study was to compare forces excreted on the foot while running on the ground and artificial turf in people with pronated and supinated feet.
Materials and Methods: The statistical population of the present study consisted of healthy men with pronated and supinated feet in Ardabil province. A statistical sample of 30 people aged 20-25 years was selected by available sampling and participated in the present study. Statistical samples were divided into three groups. There were 10 patients in the pronated foot group, 10 people in the supinated foot group and the third group of 10 people as the control group. The navicular drop test was used to measure foot type. A Bertec force plate was used to record ground reaction forces while running on ground and artificial turf at constant speed (about 3.2 m/s). The ground reaction forces in the vertical (Fz), anterior-posterior (Fy) and medio-lateral (Fx) directions were recorded during running.
Results: The results revealed greater medio-lateral ground reaction force at the heel contact in males with pronated feet while running on the ground than that artificial grass. In addition, the time to reach the peak of the vertical component at heel contact during running on grass was greater compared to the ground.
Conclusion: The results showed that the use of artificial turf can improve the risk factors for injury in people with pronated and supinated feet.
Mr. Milad Piran Hamlabadi, Dr. Amirali Jafarnezhadgero, Hamed Naghizadeh,
Volume 0, Issue 0 (11-2019)

Background and Aims: Running is one of the most important activities for soldiers, and boots play an effective role in this activity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of three types of military boots mileage on ground reaction force variables during running.
Materials and Methods: The current research was a clinical trial. 15 healthy male students (20-25 years old) used three different types of used and new boots. Using Bartec force plate with dimensions (60 x 40 cm2), ground reaction forces were measured in vertical (Fz), anterior-posterior (Fy) and medio-lateral (Fx) directions while running at constant speed. Two-way ANOVA was used for statistical analysis at a significance level of 0.05.
Results: Results demonstrated significant main effects of "Time" for FXHC (P=0.001, d=0.407), FXPO (P=0.001, d=0.674), TTPFXPO (P=0.001, d=0.394) and TTPFYPO (P=0.031, d=0.226). Findings showed significant main effect of group for FZHC (P=0.027, d=0.163) and TTPFYHC (p=0.035, d=0.150). Furthermore, significant group-by-time interactions was found for FZHC (P=0.001, d=0.404) and FXPO (P=0.014, d=0.272).
Conclusion: The results of this research showed that using military boots, the vertical ground reaction force, the medio-lateral force at heel contact and the peak medio-lateral force were increased. The increase of this value can be related to fracture injuries caused by pressure and patella femoral pain. The results of this study showed that the type of boots can be effective in preventing lower limb injuries. Therefore, using new operational boots is suggested for the military application.
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Volume 0, Issue 0 (11-2019)

Background: Despite the relation between nervous system function, fatigue, and co-contraction, it seems that the difference in co-contraction changes due to fatigue induced by sprinting and endurance running probably indicates the dominance of one source of fatigue (central/peripheral) over the other. This study aimed to compare the effect of fatigue induced by endurance running and sprinting on the knee muscle co-contraction in active young women with the approach of identifying the origin of fatigue.
Methodology: Thirteen active young women volunteers (20-30 years, BMI 20-25kg/m2) were randomly selected. Subjects performed fatigue protocols during two sessions with four days of rest in between. The electrical activity of the vastus-medialis and vastus-lateralis muscles was recorded using an electromyography device before and after two stages of running 400-meter (with 100% effort) and 3000-meter (with 50% effort) during the execution of knee extension movement and co-contraction was calculated with the formula. Two-way repeated measure was used to analyze the data.
Results: There was no significant difference between the co-contraction of the selected muscles before and after sprinting (p=0.3) and endurance running (p=0.19) and no significant difference (p=0.85) between the difference in co-contraction rate in the pre-test and post-test of sprinting and endurance running.
Conclusion: Since there was no difference between the effect of fatigue caused by sprinting and endurance running on the co-contraction of the selected muscles, likely, the involvement of central factors in the appearance of fatigue caused by 400-meter sprinting and 3000-meter endurance running is similar and insignificant. The emergence of fatigue after the implementation of both protocols may be more due to environmental factors.
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Volume 11, Issue 6 (10-2013)

Introduction: 24-67% of recreational runners suffer from running-related injuries. The purpose of this study was to test the effect of unstable shoes on selected ground reaction force (GRF) parameters during stance phase of running.
Method: 20 healthy men (age of 21±2.27 years, height of 176.93±5.39 cm, and mass of 72.30±8.84 kg) ran on the force plate placed in the middle of 15 m runway in barefoot, with unstable and control shoe conditions. Peak vertical GRF, posterior force, loading rate and impulsive passive force variables were calculated in the three conditions. A repeated measure of ANOVA and Duncan post-hoc tests applied to test the hypothesis (p<0.05).
Results: vertical loading rate and vertical peak passive force variables were significantly increased in unstable shoe condition compared to control shoes. In addition, peak posterior force and impulsive passive force variables were significantly increased in unstable shoe compared to control shoe.
Conclusion: unstable shoe could increase ground reaction force parameters on foot during running. This finding suggests that unstable shoes could possibly increase risk of running related to injuries.

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Volume 12, Issue 8 (10-2014)

Purpose: The aim of this study was to test the effect of 50 gr changes in sport shoes' weight on Vo2max and running economy during 15 minutes running protocol. Method: 15 active males (age of 24.60 ± 2.06; height of 178 ± 5.83 cm) were selected in this study. Subjects ittrcicitrap in a 15 minutes running protocol in three running speeds of 4, 6 and 8 km/h. Total time for each running speed was 5 minutes. Vo2max was measured using Metamax gas analyzer and running economy was determined by calculating the slope of vo2max changes during 15 minutes running. One way repeated measure ANOVA was used to test hypotheses (p<0.05). Results: Vo2 max increased significantly during 15 minutes running, however, no significant changes was observed in slope of Vo2 max when we increased 50 gr shoes' weight. Conclusion: 50 gr increases in sport shoes' weight could increase mean Vo2max but may not affect running economy in a 15 minutes running protocol.

Dr Amir Ali Jafarnezhadgero, Mrs Elham Sorkheh, Mr Goodarz Ghiasvand,
Volume 15, Issue 14 (10-2017)

Introduction and aim: Taping is a common method used by athletes to improve muscular function. The aim was to assess the immediate effect of femoral external rotational and abductoral taping on three-dimensional ground reaction force characteristics, their time to peak, impulse, displacement of center of pressure, vertical loading rate, and free moment during stance phase of running. Method: 24 healthy men (age: 24.6±2.5 years; mass: 74.8±6.2 kg; 177.1±7.9 cm) were included in the study. Ground reaction force data was recorded by a Kistler force platform (sampling rate: 1000 Hz). Paired sample t-test was used for statistical analysis. Results: Compared to without taping condition, taping significantly reduced the peak impact and peak active vertical ground reaction forces during stance phase of running (P0.05; low to moderate effect size). Taping application increased and decreased the vertical loading rate (19%, P=0.047, moderate effect size) and the peak free moment values (P0.001), respectively. The values of the anterior-posterior and vertical impulses during taping condition were greater than that of without taping condition (P0.001; low effect size). Conclusion: Femoral external rotational and abductoral taping could improve the values of free moment, but this is not the case in vertical loading rate during the stance phase of running.
Mansour Eslami, Mohsen Nazari,
Volume 16, Issue 15 (9-2018)

All sustained physical activities subject the body to various levels of fatigue. This is especially evident when running, which is one of the most popular forms of exercise and may be described as a reduction in maximum force production  and power output . the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of running in an exerted state on knee muscles power absorption and work during the stance phase of running. Sixteen healthy physical education male students with an average age 22 and SD 2.27 years and height 177 and SD 5.47 cm and mass 72.6 and SD 8.4 kg participated in this study voluntary. Kinetic and kinematic data recorded by using of video camera and force plate. The negative and positive power and work of muscles operating on knee has calculated using inverse dynamic equations in MATLAB2010 Software. Paired sample T test was done to statistical analysis in SPSS 2010 software (p≤0.05). The results of this study indicated that negative peak power and work significantly decreased 33.78% and 22.6% respectively. Although the positive peak power significantly decreased (p≤0.05), positive work didn’t change significantly (p=0.644). The results of this research indicated that the absorbing function of the muscles is decreased following fatigue and may be led to increase the injury risk of running.

Mr Amir Reza Sedighi, Dr Mehrdad Anbarian,
Volume 18, Issue 20 (11-2020)

 The purpose of this study was to determine the immediate effect of three types of shoe insoles, on electromyography activity of selected lower extremity muscles during running on treadmill. The electromyography activity of the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, biceps femoris, tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius lateralis muscles of 14 male athletes were recorded in non-insole, wearing soft, semi-rigid and rigid insoles conditions during running on treadmill. Electromyography activity of the rectus femoris muscle in the loading phase was lower in soft insole condition than other conditions. In the pre-swing/early swing phase, there was difference of the rectus femoris muscle activity in the soft/non-insole and soft/semi-rigid conditions. In this phase, the biceps femoris muscle had different activity in the semi-stiff/non-insole and semi-rigid/rigid conditions. In the mid-swing phase, there was a difference in the activity of the rectus femoris and the tibialis anterior muscles in the non-insole/semi-rigid condition, and the gastrocnemius lateralis muscle in the non-insole condition with other conditions. There was difference also for biceps femoris muscle activity in the semi-rigid/non-insole condition in the pre-activation phase. The vastus lateralis and gastrocnemius lateralis muscles activity in the soft insole condition was lower than that of the semi-rigid condition. It seems that the intensity and contraction pattern of the muscles change while using different shoe insoles with different variety of stiffness during running. It could be useful in choosing a shoe insole with a suitable stiffness material level for clinical and training purposes.

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