Volume 3, Issue 9 (11-2014)                   2014, 3(9): 131-148 | Back to browse issues page

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Adeli B, Moradi H R, Keshavarz M, Amirnejad H. Draught and its economic consequences in rural area Case: Dodangeh district Behbahan. SPACE ECONOMY & RURAL DEVELOPMENT 2014; 3 (9) :131-148
URL: http://serd.khu.ac.ir/article-1-2154-en.html
1- Ph.D. student of watershed management Sciences and engineering, Hormozgan University, Iran
2- Associate Prof. of watershed management department, Tarbiat Modares University, Iran , hrmoradi@modares.ac.ir
3- Assistant Prof. of agriculture, Payame Noor University, Iran
4- Assistant Prof. of agriculture economic, Sari Science and Natural Resources University, Iran
Abstract:   (9797 Views)
Draught is being considered as a climatic reality in arid and semi-arid regions such as Iran. Drought is capable of generating drastic impacts over water and soil resources, vegetation, animals and human beings. Water is a prominent factor as far as agricultural product is concerned specially in arid zones. Draught and its impact on water resources will bear unpleasant consequences namely for rural settlers whose livelihood depend on agricultural pursuit.it is argued that draught will lead to set of complicated environmental, economic and social impacts. Taking into account the frequency of its occurrence, extent and complexity it demands more attention regarding the identification of its impacts. There is not a rigid agreement regarding the definition of this phenomenon. This in turn will lead to some complexities with respect to the assessment of draught. There exist different measures for simulation of rainfalls, water surface run offs as well as other water resources. This helps to come up with clear images of climatic and hydrological draught. There exist different indices for measuring rainfall deviation from average including SPI and SDI. Lack of sufficient knowledge’s and understanding with respect to impacts is being considered as other complexity regarding the inter partition of draught. In spite of high occurrence and the great magnitude of draught, little attention paid to explanation of its impacts. According to the relevant statistics 22 % of economic damages resulted from natural hazard is associated with draught. 33 % of people are being affected by draught. In the countries based on agriculture economy, impact of draught could be evidenced by low surface water supply and underground waters. This in turn, is responsible for reduction in water supply as well as water quality, low level of crops production, productivity, and crisis regarding food an increase in livestock death. On the other hand, drought impacts could exemplify it in economic, social and environmental impacts including decrease in household incomes, reduction in substitute income resources, and increase in both hours and volume work, conflict regarding water utilization, food deficiencies, malnutrition, low level of health, and accessibility to sanitation services, low education possibilities, unequal access to financial supports. Moreover, increase in rural migration, lack of power, low life quality, destruction of natural habitats, low productivity of forests and pastures, increase in temperature as well as evaporation, low soil productivity, reduction in water resources, pollution, increase in fire incidence are among other impacts. Variation in spatial and temporal scale of its draught turns it into a very unique phenomenon. It is argued that draught impacts are result of natural interaction (low rainfall) and the way respondents respond. Most of draught studies predominantly are concentrated at national level. However, well documented information regarding draught impacts is nonexistence. This study aims to investigate draught impacts and its influential responsible factors at rural household level.
The research method is based on descriptive-analytical method. Needed data were obtained through survey in Dodangeh Behbahan. It is located in north-western part of Behbahan. Statistical society includes all of peasant households reside in village with 20 and over households (2865). Cochran formula was used in order to determine the sample size. This led to extraction of 339 peasants which were interviewed. Its viability was determined using relevant expert’s viewpoints. This study further demands application of standard rainfall indices in order to determine the magnitude and continuity of climatic and hydrologic draughts.
Current wide spread and server drought exerted considerable damage in Dodangeh rural economy. Efforts toward mitigation of economic impacts of draught require the identification of characteristics of this phenomenon. This study suggests that the assessment and evaluation of intensity and continuity of draught would well be done through application of standard rainfall and surface run offs. It further indicates that drought as a complex phenomenon is capable of increasing the vulnerability of the rural households. Certain economic impacts of draught are unexpected. Contrary to other draught studies results, agricultural lands have not been shirked. This has something to do with lack of due information regarding moisture status. The identification of draught risk is prerequisite for mitigation of farmer’s vulnerabilities. This in turn demands the application of sound and influential drought management based on information and relevant knowledge. In as much as agriculture is the most prominent livelihood in the region thus providing non-agricultural occupations help to reduce the level of vulnerability. Therefore, policies and measures for generating non-agricultural jobs in regions with high subjectivity to draught are highly recommended. According to the finding of this study, selling livestock’s and agricultural land are among some strategies for combating against draught taken by farmers. It is recommended that vulnerability of farmers, long run impacts and management issue all need to be considered. Moreover, improvement in extension services through provision of computable mechanism suited with draught condition assists mitigation of draught unpleasant impacts based on regression analysis, the amount of farmers debts, financial ability, age and households expenditure are the major variables as far as households vulnerability to draught is concerned. Furthermore, provision of financial and social support system is highly suggested.
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Received: 1970/01/1 | Accepted: 2016/11/30

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