Volume 10, Issue 36 (summer 2021 2021)                   serd 2021, 10(36): 183-212 | Back to browse issues page

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Savari Mombeni A, Savari M. Adaptation to climate change among rural farmers in Baghmalek County. serd 2021; 10 (36) :183-212
URL: http://serd.khu.ac.ir/article-1-3702-en.html
1- Ph. D. Student in Agricultural Extension and Education, Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University of Khuzestan, Khuzestan Ahvaz, Iran
2- Associate Professor of Agricultural Extension and Education, Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University of Khuzestan, Khuzestan, Ahvaz, Iran
Abstract:   (2272 Views)
Climate change is one of the most important economic, social and environmental threats to human life and to sustainable development. Although climate change affects the living conditions of all people, the poor and marginalized groups, especially rural women, are at greater risk. There is undeniable evidence around the world that women are particularly vulnerable during and after sever weather events. Although women are more vulnerable to climate change, they are seen as active actors in mitigating and adapting to the effects of climate change. Therefore, gender can be an important component for understanding the effects of climate change and responding to it, so there is a need to examine the perceived risks and adaptation to climate change from a gender perspective. This study examines perceptions and adaptation to climate change among male and female farmers through a qualitative approach. While protection motivation theory known as accepted framework for guiding campaigns on climate change, as well as an effective model for explaining and understanding the factors influencing climate change adaptation behavior. Therefore, in this study, the protection motivation theory applied as a framework for examining perceptions and adaptive responses. protection motivation theory involves two main evaluation processes. Threat assessment and response assessment. Threat assessment includes perceived vulnerability and perceived severity, and coping assessment consists of response effectiveness, self-efficacy, and perceived cost.

This qualitative study (case study) was conducted to better and more deeply understand the perception and behavior of farmers through in-depth interviews with farmers (male and female). The study population in this study were farmers in the central part of Baghmalek county and the samples included 33 farmers including 18 male farmers and 15 female farmers. Sampling was purposeful. Therefore, informant farmers were purposefully selected and interviewed. This process continued until the data was saturated and no new data was available. Data were collected using semi-structured questions. People's conversations were recorded on an audio file and then transcribed on paper. Data analysis started from the time of the first interview and in parallel with the interviews (simultaneous analysis). In this study, in order to analyze farmers' perception on climate change and adaptation, all interviews were translated into text and after reviewing the interviews line by line, key concepts were extracted from it.

Discussion and Conclusion
The results showed that all farmers confirmed the occurrence of climate change in the region. Male and female farmers did not differ significantly in their knowledge and perception of climate change, but there was a gender difference in their acceptance of adaptation measures to climate change. The main measures for adaptation of farmers included changing the type of crop and cultivation and using green and animal fertilizers, which were done by both male and female farmers, but behaviors such as using modern irrigation were done only by male farmers. Therefore, male farmers are more likely to adopt new technologies to protect water and increase investment in agricultural infrastructure. They also had the opportunity to work on other owners' farms or have other nonfarm jobs when their land fell. The main challenges for women seem to be limited access to credit and lack of access to technical knowledge. Comparing the two groups, the results showed that women were subjected to high costs such as stress to themselves and their families, and men spent more material costs on adaptation activities. Women are often the ones who have the least investment in supporting agricultural products. As a result, they require more money, time and effort than men to recover from natural disaster losses. It is suggested that the necessary training be provided to increase knowledge and empower women to change their position in society as a key to reducing harm and vulnerability to climate change. To increase women's influence in climate change policy and gender awareness, gender-sensitive education on climate change and climate change policy at the local, regional and national levels is also recommended. The information obtained from this study can applied as an important step in developing policies and formulating appropriate interventions to adapt to climate change in the agricultural sector.
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Type of Study: Research | Subject: Special
Received: 2021/08/21 | Accepted: 2021/08/1

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