Volume 10, Issue 38 (winter 2022 2022)                   2022, 10(38): 185-208 | Back to browse issues page

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Haghpanah H, Sadeghloo T. Analyzing the role of local markets in empowering rural women Case: Ghaen County. SPACE ECONOMY & RURAL DEVELOPMENT 2022; 10 (38) :185-208
URL: http://serd.khu.ac.ir/article-1-3773-en.html
1- Master student of Geography and Rural Planning, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
2- Assistant Professor of Geography and Rural Planning, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran , tsadeghloo@um.ac.ir
Abstract:   (1799 Views)
Introduction
One of the ways to empowering rural women is to provide them with the opportunity to participate in economic activities, especially the sale of agricultural products and handicrafts, which requires the provision of favorable conditions, including the creation of suitable markets for these products. Women's empowerment is a way to increase women's individual and social capacity through their political, social, educational or economic power, and a way to promote the status of women is one of the most neglected conditions in society. One of the ways to improve the level of empowerment of rural women is to provide the conditions for their presence in economic activities and the sale of agricultural products and handicrafts. It is necessary to create suitable markets for these products. In recent years, structural changes in societies and changes in the lives of individuals and communities have led housewives to show great interest in working outside the home. Increasing income through job creation has positive effects on their material life, promoting self-esteem, improving basic and essential needs and creating independence among them.
So that having job opportunities increases their role in economic, family and social decisions. In this regard, local markets play an important role in local economic and social developments and fundamental changes in the physical situation, production, employment and economic activity of villages. Local markets are places where, in addition to selling goods, villages will be exchanged with cities. Many small-scale producers (especially rural women) bring very few products to these markets during the month, and by offering these products at a price, they generate income for the household, which is very important for the rural household economy. The present study seeks to examine the conditions of these local markets and their role in empowering rural seller women in these markets.

Methodology
The present research is of applied type with descriptive and analytical methodology. Library and field methods based on the researcher-made questionnaire were used to collect information. The sample size of this study includes 80 rural women from 21 villages of Ghaen Township who were present in the local markets as a seller during the field studies.
After determining the samples, data were collected in the field through a researcher-made questionnaire. To evaluate the validity of the research variables, two methods were used using the study background as well as the specialized panel of university professors and experts. Cronbach's alpha test was also used to evaluate the reliability of the data, which the results indicate a high level of data reliability for the study. To analyze data from descriptive and inferential statistics (one-sample t-test, multivariate regression and one-way analysis of variance) in SPSS software and to rank villages in terms of market role variables in women's empowerment, from the multi-criteria decision model of Cocoso (Weighting used is entropy) and GIS software was used to display the obtained rank.
Ghaen Township is one of the areas where the villagers sell their products during the week in the form of weekly markets that are temporarily or permanently formed in Ghaen city and the villages of Afriz, Tighab, Chahak and Mousavieh. These markets, regardless of size (small and large), have a significant impact on the economic situation of the family, especially rural families. Some rural female vendors in these markets, which have more than 600 mobile units, have a good opportunity to supply their products, which are mainly agricultural products and vegetables and dried vegetables. In the present study, the role of the weekly markets of this city on the empowerment of women active in these markets has been investigated.

Discussions and Results
The present study examines and analyzes the role of local markets in empowering rural women in economic, social, personal and psychological dimensions (at the level of indicators such as income and savings, finance, employment, product supply, participation and cooperation, improving welfare and awareness, trust Self and voluntary decision making).
The highest average in assessing the market impact on women's empowerment belongs to the employment index with an average of 3.41 and the lowest average belongs to the optional decision index with an average of 2.90. The independent variable in this study is market conditions, which is measured by three indicators: infrastructure-space conditions, supply and demand, competition and social market conditions. Among the market conditions indices, the highest average belongs to the market social conditions index with an average of 3.44 and the lowest average belongs to the infrastructure-spatial index with an average of 2.96. The results show that in the studied villages, the situation of supply and demand and competition and the social conditions of the market and infrastructure-space are in a good situation, which has caused the market to play a positive role in changing and improving empowerment indicators.
The case study women, have received the most impact from market conditions from the individual dimension. Local markets also had the greatest impact on the empowerment of women living in the villages of Qomanjan, Tightar and Rome.
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Type of Study: Research | Subject: Special
Received: 2022/03/7 | Accepted: 2022/03/1

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