Volume 11, Issue 42 (winter 2023 2023)                   2023, 11(42): 77-106 | Back to browse issues page

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Taghipour A A, Motalebi Nejad F, Ahmadi Dehrashid P. Gender analysis of factors affecting the success of rural entrepreneurship with an emphasis on women's perspective (case study: villages of Amirabad districts of Damghan county). SPACE ECONOMY & RURAL DEVELOPMENT 2023; 11 (42) :77-106
URL: http://serd.khu.ac.ir/article-1-3881-en.html
1- Assistant Professor, Department of Geography, Faculty of Earth Sciences, Damghan University, Damghan, Iran. , a.taghipour@du.ac.ir
2- Master student of Geography and Rural Planning, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.
3- Master student of geography and urban planning, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
Abstract:   (1684 Views)
Introduction
Nowadays, systems of society, including social and economic systems, change so fast that they require appropriate actions and strategies to satisfy their needs. Entrepreneurship is one of the strategies proposed in response to new needs. Rural settlements play an essential role in all aspects of society. These settlements contain a significant percentage of the population and are essential to national development. However, these places are known to have problems such as unemployment, low income, and lack of diversity in occupation. According to many researchers, entrepreneurship is an essential tool for rural development and can be a suitable stimulus for the stagnant situation of three sectors of agriculture, services and industry. However, the fact that entrepreneurship programs are male-oriented is a big problem that has caused human resources and society's capacity not to be used properly. As half of the society's population, women have a prominent role in various elements of society, but the existing policies and plans prevent their presence and development. Gender analysis is a way to achieve gender balance in all aspects of society, and it examines and compares the attitudes and views of men and women on various issues. In the present research, an attempt is made to evaluate the views of women and men of Amirabad District of Damghan County regarding the effect of five components: individual, family, economic, cultural-social and institutional infrastructure in the success of entrepreneurship.

Methodology
The current research is an applied study, which in terms of its nature, is in the category of descriptive-analytical research. The method of collecting documentary information is a survey; In the first step, with library studies, an effort was made to extract the components needed for the questionnaire while developing the theoretical framework of the research. The questionnaire was prepared in 17 indicators and 41 items among 379 residents of Ghahab Rastaq, Ghahab Sarsar and Toyeh Darwar districts in Amirabad District of Damghan County, which was calculated using the Cochran method with a confidence coefficient of 95%. It was distributed in the spring of 1401. After completing the questionnaires, they were collected and analyzed using SPSS software; Pearson's correlation test and independent T-test are two statistical tests that were used to measure the correlation between variables and gender analysis of entrepreneurship development indicators, respectively.

Discussion and conclusion
Using the Pearson correlation test to measure the degree of correlation between the variables indicates a significant relationship between the indicators of entrepreneurship development and the success resulting from it, based on the respondents' opinions. However, the low weighted average of them causes the significance of the relationship to be moderate. The obtained results show that the highest correlation rate among men is the individual index, with a correlation rate of 0.552, and the family indices (r=0.519), cultural-social (r=0.495), and economic indices (r=0.476), respectively. Moreover, infrastructural-institutional (r=0.471) is in the following ranks. Among women, the highest correlation value, like men, is related to the "individual" index with a value of 0.473, and infrastructure-institutional (r= 0.469), economic (r= 0.453), family (r= 0.440), and social indicators. - Cultural (r= 0.393) is in the next rank. Therefore, according to the obtained results, the first hypothesis of the research is rejected; In the first hypothesis, it was stated that "it seems that among the effective factors in the development of entrepreneurship, economic factors have more influence from the point of view of women", the results of the Pearson test indicated that the economic index with the value of r=0.453 It is in the third place of indicators in terms of women. On the other hand, according to the above results, the second hypothesis of the research is confirmed because the factors of the five indicators of the research do not have the same priority from the point of view of men and women, and each of the gender groups has a different point of view towards Indicators are essential.
The results of the independent T-test indicate that in the "individual" index, the most important item for women's success in entrepreneurship is "having commitment" and for men, "risk tolerance". In the "family" index, women's "family attitude" and men's "having freedom of action on behalf of the family" were evaluated as the most critical items. In the "economic" index, in terms of both sex groups, "income from entrepreneurship"; In the "social-cultural" index, from the point of view of women, "the type of culture in the place of residence" and from the point of view of men, "women's participation"; In the institutional-infrastructural index, "giving land to entrepreneurs" was evaluated as the most important issue for both sex groups.
This research attempted to measure the difference between men's and women's views on success factors in entrepreneurship. The obtained results indicated that women and men have completely different views on success factors in entrepreneurship; Although men and women considered the "individual" factor to be the most important factor, there was no consensus among them regarding the order of the components of this factor. According to women, "having a commitment" is the most important feature that must exist in the personality of an entrepreneur in order to provide the basis for his success; On the other hand, men consider "risk-taking" to be the most important characteristic of a successful entrepreneur. In general, women believed that individual, infrastructural-institutional, economic, family, and socio-cultural factors have the greatest impact on entrepreneurial success; Men also considered individual, family, cultural-social, economic, infrastructural-institutional as important. The research results indicate a significant difference between the attitudes of women and men; This requires that this difference be taken into account in relevant decisions and planning so that proper improvement and development in entrepreneurship can occur among all social groups.
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Type of Study: Research | Subject: Special
Received: 2022/03/29 | Accepted: 2022/10/19

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