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Showing 7 results for Afrakhteh

Hassan Afrakhteh,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (12-2012)

Despite all initiatives and endeavors, Iran’s rural communities are encountering with challenges regarding the achievement of comprehensive development. Space economy is associated with location distribution of economic activities as well as movement and flow of population, goods, services, and capital. These in turn, would have great impact upon the development level of different settlement including towns and countries and their interrelations. The major objective of this study is to investigate the impact of space economy upon rural development. The study area is Shaft district located in Gilan providence. Data gathering technique is tied to direct observation, interview with local folks as well as filling questionnaire .This is further supported by application of inferential statistics including regression correlation techniques and top SIS model. This study suggests that concentrated social-economic system is associated with imbalanced location of economic activities. It is argued that spatial arrangement of economic activities is major determinant of flow of population, goods, services, and capital and further influence regional development of rural as well as urban nodes. This in turn, would question the qualification of rural
Mohammad Soleimani, Hasan Afrakhteh, Ahmad Saeednia, Robab Chegini,
Volume 2, Issue 3 (6-2013)

The rural centers integrations in the city which in some countries have been named as “urban villages” are the consequence of rapid urbanization and accelerated growth of our city. Since the rural centers integration in the city has been often without any plan, it has had various consequences on the environmental, physical, economical and social aspects. The present study has paid attention to the analysis of spatial-physical consequences of the rural centers integration in region one of Tehran within system approach toward the interaction of the both urban and rural settlements systems. In conducting the present research the statistical and spatial analyses have been utilized. In this regard, the data that were collected were related to the indicators used both in the rural residential and urban modernized areas. The conducted statistical-spatial analysis includes; T-test, multiple regression, overlapping layers and coefficient regression model in the geographic database. According to the results of the research, the physical-spatial consequences of rural centers integration in region one of Tehran have been manifested in two levels; the effects of rural centers and field and horticultural crops morphology of rural areason the invasive urban fabric and the interaction of the rural centers physical fabric and its exhaustive urban fabric. In addition to the effects on the identification of invasive urban fabric, the rural centers because of the unscheduled and any plan urban growth and organic shaping of the urban fabric under the influence of division and spatial structure of the field and horticultural crops morphology, has become erratic and sometimes impermeable. Regarding the rate of population and the high building density in the area, the impermeability of urban fabric in the integration areas, in addition to creating traffic problems, can create many problems in relieving the mentioned fabrics of the city when confronts with probable crisis. Also, the interaction of urban fabrics and rural centers has caused the shaping of unequal centers and physical-spatial inequality and disparity in the area. According to the results of the multi-variable regression analysis among physical-spatial indicators of the rural centers and their exhaustive urban fabric, the villages such as Valanjak, Gheitarieh and Asadabad have had the most inequality and disparity in their exhaustive urban fabric.

Mohammad Hajipour, Hasan Afrakhteh,
Volume 2, Issue 5 (12-2013)

Rural areas as an organism are encountered with many changes and transformations in rural ownership are associated with rural development system. Reconsideration of urban dwellers toward rural area is among one of the factors in this regard. Taking into consideration spatial system approach from one hand, and the achievement of rural sustainable development on the other hand, require special attention regarding the cases and consequences of changes of rural ownership. This paper aims to deal with the causes of devolution of peasants resources (land & water) to urban new comers as well as the investigation of spatial consequences. The study area is Taghab and Masoumabad in Khusf. The research methods are composed of both qualitative and quantitate technique. Household sample were drawn using snowball technique. Sample size is amounted to be 18 rural households and 4 more rural counsels’ is lamia which intended to sell their water right as well as their holdings. The data were analyzed using statistics, cost – benefit ration and granted theory methods. This study suggests that income of between city and rural area, lack of appropriate planning and rural social and economic bottle necks because some changes in rural ownership system. This new spatial relation causes the capital flow from town to villages and as a result some spatial – physical disorders in rural area.

Farhad Azizpuor, Hassan Afrakhteh, Maryam Shamaniyan,
Volume 3, Issue 7 (6-2014)

Quality of life is multifaceted and relative concept. It is being affected by spatial and temporal variation as well as social – individual values. This bears different meaning for different groups. This study tries to measure quality of life based on subjective indices. It further identifies and analyses the major spatial factors responsible for life quality of the rural people. This study is based on descriptive-analytical approach. The study area is Ghorogh district located in Gorgan Province. The statistical societies are corresponding to rural settlers of ٥ villages. Sample size based on Cochran formula turned out to be ٣٤٠ rural households using stratified sampling technique. Data gathering demand application of documentary and more specifically questionnaire. Analysis of data requires ANOVA technique. This study suggests that the rural quality of life with regard environmental and physical aspect from rural settlers’ standpoint is suitable. The quality of life is well associated with distance from major roads, distance from Gorgan as well as ethnic diversity.

Hasan Afrakhteh, Mohammad Hajipour,
Volume 3, Issue 10 (3-2015)

The accumulation of capital is being considered as a major driving force as far as the development is concerned. The mechanism of this accumulation implemented during three processes. Capital accumulation within different historical and geographical setting results in special locational forms known as space economy. Historical experiences with respect to capital accumulation in Iran indicate that the first phase of this accumulation has been occurred in Iran. However, this cycle did not follow second and third phases. In other word, productive investment did not happen in the country .This paper aims to investigate the trend of capital accumulation as well as its relevant spatial analysis.
This study predominantly deals with documentation gathered via statistical center. It further demands application of Pearson regression correlation for analysis purpose. More specifically, it demands Moran statistic, standard deviation in order to measure spatial auto correlation GIS and SPSS software were used as well.
This study suggests that the first phase of capital accumulation did not occur in the country. The nature of capital accumulation did not lead to productive investment. There exists a prominent gap from wealth generation potential and accumulation of capital standpoint. The existed spatial organization, lack of economic network system, and the existence of service economy and high real state dependency all restricted the achievement of this possibility. This in turn is associated with the situation of the country within global economy. Prominent global economy dominance with high potential regarding security and guaranteed investment turn over, act as magnet. It is argued that informative investment and knowledge based understanding exclusively act within global context in which many countries are unable to compete with multi-national corporations.

Hassan Afrakhteh , Mohammad Hajipour,
Volume 4, Issue 14 (2-2016)

Countries with a rentier economy are usually dependent on the export of raw materials. Such countries have a centralized political system and inefficient bureaucracy that incorporate a broader administrative division in one or two cities. Dependence on the global economy (Endogenous Development), and the lack of a democratic political system, provides good conditions of centralization in different aspects.
In the rentier political economy, market speculation has overcome on the redistribution of wealth in society and private sectors are mostly activating in non-manufacturing areas (rent). Economic and social imbalances in these countries made the political economy of space reveal a structural model of unbalanced regional and spatial patterns through the improvement of national economy.
The mechanism of this system and the process of capital accumulation in cities and their surrounding regions is going on in a way that as Harvey (1985) believes: "Unlike the capitalist competition in which all social actors are into the rational production of appropriate physical and social prospects for the accumulation of capital", in our country, public and quasi-public economy which is based on brokerage cannot make conditions for instructive competitions. Of course, it is acting in a way that everything done for the capital accumulation and surplus value may lead into unpleasant Physical- Spatial changes.
It seems that despite all the efforts made after the revolution in Iran to remove deprivation and establish regional balance, there are still examples of regional imbalances. Finding an appropriate answer to this fundamental question of "How big and effective has been the political economic model governing our country?" we have tried to present a spatial analysis of Iran's approach to the political economy of the last decade to explain the role of political economy of space on regional imbalance as assessing regional balance of the country.
The survey done to get applied for observing planning and accounting systems of political economy in Iran, using descriptive-analytical and correlation methods.
In order to complete research database, the preliminary data collected by examining statistics and other statistical documents in the Statistical Center of Iran and Islamic parliament research center. The data have been sorted in the form of 28 indicators and variables. GEO DaTM software was used for drawing maps exhibiting Percentage distribution of wealth and power in different parts of the country. To determine rating and index score of the political economy of space a combined method of TOPSIS and Entropy has been used. The spatial autocorrelation of political economy and regional imbalance was calculated by Local Moran statistics in GIS 10. Estimating composite index of equilibrium level and regional inequality we have used COPRAS, a multiple criteria decision making model. This model was offered because of the presence of some positive and negative variables. Finally, in order to investigate the presence of any relation between political economy of space and regional inequalities ruling Iran and for the identification of the types of relations, linear regression in SPSS19 has been used.
Discussion and conclusion
Planning and decision- making are considered as systematic cause and effect of the political economy governing the implementation of space projects and programs. A question to which every restored geographical environment may confront is that "due to the time, how can the pattern and operation of political economy of space affect the structure of different areas to make them balanced or imbalanced? How much is the range of its effectiveness? And how can it change the direction?" In this way, Iran has been tested and analyzed to find a reasonable answer to this question.
Results from the analysis proved that despite the negative effects of lack of wealth on the structure of Iran geographical space, there is a limited span of attention and importance given to the more rational distributions. So far, wealth distribution and financing have been following a polar pattern.
Evaluating political and bargaining power in the aforementioned space among different areas, Tehran province, as one of the 31 divisions of the country, is dedicated to the highest rank of political weight in most indicators of territory and settlement (including villages and towns). In competition with other regions this priority of Tehran in the national space and its principal role in Iranian governments during different periods led to "Tehran's hegemonic political power centered in Tehran". Those patterns ruling the distribution of power and wealth between regions caused a tendency to the unipolar construction of the political economy of space. Consequently, polaroriented approach prevailed on space led to the formation of a regional space enjoying socioeconomic benefits in the range of areas of Tehran, Alborz and Isfahan. Because of these conditions, only a few developed areas can be seen in the whole area of the country which are increasingly and strongly affected by the devastating consequences of failures of so many backward areas.

Hassan Afrakhteh,
Volume 11, Issue 41 (Fall 2022 2022)

The purpose of the article is to understand the relationship between the institutional system and knowledge creation, and this question is answered as to how and under what conditions the institutional system can strengthen innovation and knowledge creation. In this regard, first, knowledge and innovation have been introduced from the perspective of a relational paradigm, then the relationship between institutions and the development of knowledge and innovation, its conditions and factors have been analyzed. Relying on Gidden's structural theory, it is argued that the institution, on the one hand, shapes the processes of economic interaction, and on the other hand, it is formed by the processes of economic interaction. As a result, a paradoxical problem arises, and that, on the one hand, institutions are structures that shape human actions, and on the other hand, to create innovation and knowledge, institutional changes must be made and institutions that encourage innovation and knowledge creation must be created, that is, the actions of actors are formed by institutions. So, how can actors change the same institutions? In other words, how can people change an institution whose rationality and actions are bound to the same institution?
But under what conditions do emergent institutional changes take place? To study the necessary conditions for emerging institutional changes, the role of structure versus agency is discussed. Using the structural theory of Giddens (1984), a concept of institutions is presented that enables the analysis of how institutions simultaneously shape economic interaction processes and are shaped by them. This framework opens new opportunities for integrating micro and macro phenomena in the analysis of economic action and technological changes in the spatial landscape.

In this article, related articles have been collected using the key words institution, knowledge creation, and relational paradigm. Then, the collected articles have been analyzed using a narrative review method, and finally, a conclusion has been drawn.

Discussion and Conclusion
Understanding innovation requires interdisciplinary research and the application of different methods at different levels. Institutions are understood from the point of view of social science and it is different from the view that considers institutions as "black boxes". In this view, institutions are not defined as simple regulations, laws or organizations, but are seen as relatively stable and closed social interaction between economic enterprises, based on which laws and regulations are expanded in conditional ways. Although the institutions may represent the inherent purposes of the laws, in practice it is found that they may not conform to the laws to some extent. Therefore, laws are fundamentally different from institutions. Laws are the only possible conditions for the emergence and transformation of socio-economic institutions from a spatial perspective. Because of such fundamental contingency, the effects of laws on economic outcomes can be unintended, unpredictable, and even counterproductive.
There are three arguments about the relationship between institutional change and technological change:
A, institutional hysteresis;
b. Perpetuation of inefficient institutions; and
C. Establishment of inefficient institutions.
Regarding the relationship between institutions and economic results, the basic question is, at what level do institutions contribute to economic development and innovation, and under what conditions may the institutional system cause problems in the process of economic development and innovation. Van Warden's (2001) study on the relationship between legal institutions and the innovation of national economies shows that institutions are an important tool for reducing uncertainty. Hence, when institutional domains reduce uncertainty, citizens are more likely to accept the risk of innovation.
However, it is acknowledged that the empirical state of knowledge about institutions, institutional changes and their interrelationships with economic, social and technological phenomena is still in its early stages.
 The article has shown that when actors want to change existing institutions and create new institutions, they must change the existing institutional environment. Since, existing institutions contain benefits for many actors, institutional entrepreneurs have to mobilize resources and develop specific capabilities in order to promote legitimacy and righteousness for change and to convince others to adopt new practices. As a result, an initial institution is formed, which becomes established over time and becomes an accepted institution, which is explained in the article with examples.

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