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Musa Kamanroudi Kajvari, Farhad Azizpour, Ali Janbazi,
Volume 3, Issue 9 (11-2014)

Urban sprawl is one kind of urban expansion or its characteristics, which has a negative general view. Based on given definitions, the most important characteristics of urban sprawl can be thought as low-density, strip like, diffuse, non-continues and land use segregation expansion. However, density is the most common criteria of urban sprawl that is derive by the comparison of percentage of built-up area to urban population growth. This phenomenon, regardless of its causes and characteristics, can be defined as growing less density residential area outwards from a central dense no-attractive with environmentally unstable urban core. In the middle of 20th century, the base for socioeconomic and spatial development in developing countries is generally based on renovation theory, industrial growth approach (strategy), polar development strategy. During 1960 decade, in many countries, this approach considered as a tool for policy making in local and global land use planning and implemented by the financial support of government and international institutions. In opposite to developed countries, this orientation in developing countries causes concentration of resources and infrastructure of development in national and regional growth centers, a need for industrial labor, unexpected migration of rural-urban population, a need for new spaces urban expansionmin its neighborhoods. During this trend, in spite of being agricultural and productive places, villages are gradually becoming centers of consumption. Such an orientation has been implemented in Iran from the beginning of this century and continued with more accelerated form from 1335. Polar growth strategy during 1347 to 1356 in the framework of forth (1347-51) and fifth (1352-56) development plan has been used as base for national and regional planning. These orientations caused concentration of resources and infrastructure of development in national and regional growth centers, a gap in the levels of regional and built-up development, a vast and comprehensive urban sprawl and structural-physical changes( i.e. land use changes). For instant, the rate of rural population has been reduced from 68.58 percent in 1335 to 62.02, 52.97, 45.71, 38.69, 31.45 in 1345, 1355, 1365, 1375 and 1385 respectively. Shiraz city is one of the county’s developmental centers in the southern Zagros. Its expansion trend from 1330 decade onwards has been in such a way that during different period extended continuous or non-continuous towards fringe especially in the direction of its main axe and followed topography. This trend caused a change in economic functionality of residential areas (Shiraz) from agricultural tasks to multi-tasks (with more service sector activity), annexation and merging of some villages and vast changes in its social, structural, spatial and political aspects. Goyom village (the center of Darak County) located in the 20 km North West of Shiraz and near Shiraz-Ardekan transportation network has severely affected by Shiraz urban sprawl and has undertaken dramatic structural-functional changes. This research has attempted to answer to this question that what are the structural-functional changes in Goyom village during 1380 to 1390 due to Shiraz urban sprawl. The aim of this paper is to define and describe the structural-functional change trend of Goyom village as a fringe shelter of Shiraz urban area.
This work with respect to its aim is fundamental-applied research and essentially is a descriptive- analytical research. Research approach is structural-functional which is done in global and strategy levels. Statistical coverage of this research is Shiraz city, township, and Goyom village. Information needed for this this study has been obtained though library and field work. In this research, geographical information systems use to analyze rate, direction, pattern, shape of Shiraz urban sprawl during 1335-1385 and Goyom village during 1380-1390. Three parameters economy, society, space, and their 24 indices used as base for this work.
Goyom village has affected by Shiraz urban sprawl during 1380- 1390 and extensively faced by structural-functional changes. In this decade, this village has become most attractive migrant neighborhood around Shiraz city and its area has increased by 3.3. Additionally, 59.3 percent of Goyom populations are employed in the service sector and32.2 percent of Goyom populations are employed in industrial sector.

Farhad Azizpour, Fatemeh Razaghi Borkhani, Maryam Mokhtari,
Volume 10, Issue 35 (Spring 2021 2021)

By expanding markets and diversifying products from the desired local product, "One Village, One Product" strategy, taking advantage of the region's potential in the competitive market.  Utilizing the "One Village, One Product" brand, as a global product, demonstrates pride in local culture as well as an effective economic strategy, which is intended for the development of rural areas. The present study aims to investigate the strategy of "One Village, One Product” in the development of local economy seeks to answer the question that what are the characteristics of the initial level of the strategy in Nahrmian Shazand village? What is the status of the factors affecting the strategy of"One Village, One Product” in the studied rural area?
The statistical population of the study includes 5550 villagers and local officials of Nahrmian Rural District in the Zalian District of Shazand County. By multi-stage random sampling with proportional assignment of 160 people as the sample size were examined. 23 experts and officials of Omid Entrepreneurship Fund Organization in the study area were selected by purposeful and available sampling method to assess the importance of each feature of the study strategy. The research tool was a questionnaire whose validity (face and content) was confirmed by Omid Organization experts, rural development experts and faculty members in the field of geography and rural planning Kharazmi University its reliability was based on Cronbach's alpha statistics. Findings were reviewed at two levels of villagers and experts.
Discussion and conclusion
According to the results, the successful implementation of the initial level of "One Village, One Product” community participation, creativity, competitiveness, poverty reduction, reducing the economic gap and selling goods are effective. According to the villagers, the components of creativity, competitiveness and reducing the economic gap are in a better situation. Furthermore, the existence of small industries and workshops with an average of 23%, the use of new methods in production with 22.95%, investment in agriculture and rural industries with 22%, variety of jobs In the village with 21.6% and individual and group business with 20.95% are among the drivers of strategy in the village. Also, the components of selling goods, reducing poverty and community participation are inadequate conditions and processing and packaging of products with an average of 13.53%, cooperation with the government with 14.33%, self-confidence with 15.47%, people's efforts to reduce poverty with 15.71%, product brand with 15.91 %, Integration of land and support funds with 16.14% and rural markets and bazaars with 16.96%, according to the villagers in the implementation of the strategy of a village, a product and economic development of the studied rural area has the lowest importance and priority.  Also, using the Mann-Whitney U test and experts' opinion, the study village is only in terms of women's participation, use of new methods in product production, income status of villagers, support funds, government purchases, product sales to nearby markets. The existence of diverse occupations and reverse migration is a relatively favorable situation.  According to experts and executive officials of the strategy in the study area, the components of product creativity, product impact in reducing economic gap and competitiveness of the product are more important. Moreover, small rural workshops with an average of 26.65%, creativity with 24%, product quality with 23.8% Income of 23.78%, self-confidence with 22.66%, individual and group business with 22%, small industries and workshops with 21.73% and collective participation of villagers with 21.09% are necessary and important factors to advance the strategy.  
Therefore, along with research in the initial stage of the strategy, it is important to pay attention to nurturing people with a creativity. In terms of rural participation, there is a need for change in order to provide a basis for local participation, especially of educated, creative and entrepreneurial youth in order to implement "One Village, One Product”.  It is the locals who decide what to choose as their specialty and enhance it with original ideas and creativity. In terms of competitiveness structure, according to quality indicators, investment in rural and agricultural industries, the competitive advantage of the desired product brand should be developed locally and globally. It is suggested that in the strategy of "One Village, One Product” along with the support of regional development and the establishment of local entrepreneurship need to pay attention to economic development and economic justification of the product combined with social participation and local risk-taking, responsibility and accountability of the local people. In this regard, noticing micro-credit funds to facilitate access to rural resources has an important role in empowering villagers.

Akram Ghanbari, Abdul Reza Rahmani Fazli, Farhad Azizpour,
Volume 11, Issue 39 (Spring 2022 2022)

Today, in order to achieve sustainable rural development as well as optimization of local advantages, identifying the factors affecting the utilization of geographical advantages are essential. The villages of the country today are more than ever influenced by the political, economic, social and cultural conditions of their systems as external factors influencing the development of rural settlements. These are factors such as inappropriate government policies at all levels of planning, legislation, management and implementation, bias towards urban areas and large industries, lack of independent civil society organizations, fostering the transformation of villages into cities and so on. Moreover, the internal obstacles of rural communities are such as: low level of awareness of rural stakeholders on their internal and socio-economic capacities, restrictive norms, low power of transformation, and low the power of risk, overcoming traditional approaches to harnessing the potential of rural areas, and the uncertainty and trust between rural communities towards new perspectives and patterns, etc. Both factors are the reasons for neglecting rural areas and lack of  proper operation of the capacity and potential in this area. Rural settlements in Khorramabad county have not seen much growth and are facing instability of rural settlements, despite their high potentials and capacities in the agricultural and non-agricultural sectors. In this regard, the present study seeks to answer the following question: What are the factors influencing the role of geographical advantages in achieving sustainable development of rural settlements?

The purpose of this study was to identify the factors affecting the role of geographical advantages in achieving sustainable development in rural settlements of Khorramabad. In this regard, it is a combination (quantitative-qualitative) research method with sequential strategy and exploratory - descriptive research design. Based on this orientation and evaluation, the Q model was selected for problem recognition and analysis. The statistical population of the study is the villages of Khorramabad. The qualitative participants were expert villagers who selected 30 theoretically saturated subjects and data were collected using semi-structured interviews and semi-structured interview card tools. In the quantitative section, we chose village experts. 150 villages out of 647 villages, were selected by simple stratified sampling. Next, one rural mayor or council was selected from each village. In the Q model, Q cards were used to collect data.

Discussion and conclusion
According to rural experts, the lack of role of geographical advantages in the feasibility of sustainable rural development in the study areas is influenced by the following factors: low level of skill and familiarity with modern knowledge, dominance of conservative mindset, lack of creativity and innovation, aging population, dominance of closed cultural beliefs, low income, inflation and uneven distribution of credit resources, market system instability, poor attention to infrastructure and welfare services, rural education and promotion system failure, weak legal-institutional arrangements, lack of system Integrated program for agricultural activities commensurate with domestic and foreign markets, service weakness Production support, low level of security and weakness of processing companies.
Rural experts' perceptions of the inability of geographical advantages to achieve sustainable rural development fall into five categories: economic factors, managerial-institutional factors, socio-cultural factors, human factors, and physical factors, which are economic factors with  25%, managerial-institutional factors with 23.66%, socio-cultural factors with 23.66%, human factors with 20.23% and physical factors with 8.70% had the most influence on the lack of role of geographical advantages in the feasibility of sustainable rural development.
According to the results, meticulous planning in organizing economic, social, political, organizational and managerial and cultural constructions, utilizing the geographical advantages of rural areas is one of the most important prerequisites for achieving sustainable rural development. As a result, planners need to identify and analyze the forces and relationships that make the most of these advantages by influencing shaping forces and processes, help improve the conditions in the geographic advantage process.


Majid Saeidirad, Farhad Azizpour,
Volume 11, Issue 41 (Fall 2022 2022)

The occurrence of the Covid-19 epidemic and the strains caused by it will definitely affect different parts of human life, including; cultural, social, economic and environmental, as well as human interactions. In the meantime, various human activities in space, including the processes and system of economic activities, will also be affected by this epidemic. Therefore, the activity system of rural regions is also affected by the harmful effects of this epidemic and will see changes in the future. According to the official data of the Planning and Budget Organization in 2019, after the start of the pandemic in Iran, about 250 thousand people in the agricultural sector (25 percent), 17 thousand people in the industry sector (2 percent) and 743 thousand people in the service sector (75 percent), have lost their jobs. According to the data of the Statistical Centre of Iran, economic activities in the central district of Ray County have the highest percentage of activities in the service sector (43%), followed by the industry sector (42%) constitutes the dominant activities of the villagers, in addition to the agricultural sector with 15%. Due to the complexity, many uncertainties and the multi-functional role of the villages in the Central District of Ray County in production activities, rural development policies in the Post Covid-19 should focus on sustainable development goals and livelihood. Also, in order to achieve the goals of sustainable rural development and economic resilience in this area, the process of exploring and examining the future is necessary to determine the trends, key drivers and uncertainties affecting the activities system of the villagers and form the basis for strategic decision-making.

This research, using the mixed research method and Delphi technique (34 people) and the MICMAC software, has determined the "key drivers effective on the reconstruction of the activity system of rural regions in the Post Covid-19". In this research, the "Purposive sampling" method was used, and an attempt was made to select 10 to 15 people from each category or homogenous group as a sample and panel members to achieve a consensus. Finally, using environmental survey, documentary studies and experts' points of view, 48 key factors affecting the development of the activity system of the villages in the central district of Ray County in the Post Covid-19 era have been identified at three local, regional, national and international levels.

Discussion and Conclusion
In this research, 48 factors were identified as the primary factors affecting the reconstruction of the activity system of rural areas in the post-corona era. First, they were analyzed by the structural analysis method in Micmac software (the opinion of the elites with the interaction questionnaire). Then, ten influential vital factors in reconstructing the activity system of the villagers of the central district of Ray County were selected in the Post Covid-19 era. Based on the obtained results, the most important key drivers affecting the villagers' activity system in the study area in order of importance; Marginalization, commoditization of land, destruction of agricultural lands, reduction of investment in the agricultural sector, diversification of economic activities, increasing urban sprawl, change of cultivation pattern, increasing inflation, reduction of labor force and reduction of product insurance. Finally, the distribution of the variables affecting the reconstruction of the activity system of the rural settlements in the Central District of Ray County in the post Covid-19 era shows the system's instability. This instability in the studied area represents the transition from a production-based economy to a consumption-based economy in the post-Covid-19 era. If the current trend continues, this type of reconstruction of the activity system will continue.


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