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Hamid Barghi, Yousef Ghanbari, Mohammad Saeedi,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (9-2013)

Nowadays, rural councils are performing prominent role on rural development. It is argued that the creation of these bodies is among the major measures for organization of community participation regarding rural development. This study aims to investigate the role of rural Islamic council’s as well as the level of community participation upon rural development of Hossainabad in Najafabad. The research method is based on field work as well as questionnaire. It possesses descriptive-analytical nature. Statistical community is composed of two groups including households and member of rural councils. The sample size turns out to be 255 which were extracted by random sampling technique. As such 15 council members were interviewed. This study followed by application of Kolmogorov–Smirnov test in order to assure the normality of average score distribution. This is followed by application of T test in order to evaluate the council function. Comparison between the view points of the households and council members demands application of Mean Whitney U and non-dependent T. This study suggests that there is not a significant variation in rural council performance from economic aspect. However, social rural council performance is more appropriate comparing with their economic status. With respect to cultural aspect, the significance level is less than average. Moreover, the degree of rural community participation is amounted to be little over than average.

Mojtba Ghadiri Masoum, Mohammad Salmani, Seyed Ali Badri, Hassan Ali Faraji Sabokbar, Ali Ghanbari Nasab,
Volume 3, Issue 9 (11-2014)

Rural regions have experienced varied changes and social and economic reconstruction during last three decades. There exists great tendency toward functional integration between villages and cities due to increase in mobility, improvement in communication information as well as rural services. This in turn, resulted in the expansion of urban function including construction mass housing units, production, services, recreations and tourism activities in these regions. These functional changes case conversion in the nature of rural areas based on agricultural production, into consumption-orientation center. This new entities are non-homogeneous. This situation is influenced by many factors including physical conditions such as geographic location, isolation, and characteristics, climatic and sometimes human differences responsible for rural economic and social variations. Taking into account these variations and nonhomogeneities in rural area, efficient and optimum development plans are nonexistence. Increase in urban-ruralization around Tehran metropolitan has led to major physical, economic, social and cultural consequences. Lack of identification of the major relevant roots and sources has led to expansion of these negative consequences to other identical places. This in turn, demands the identification of the responsible factors and its change processes and mechanisms. Thus, the identification, explanations, exploration of those laws and frame works pertaining to urban ruralization as a major topical-spatial phenomenon is highly recommended. The first step in this regard is the determination, definition and assessment of ruralization and more specifically urbanruralization. The study area is Roobat Karim located in the vicinity of Tehran metropolitan. It is followed by determination of degree of ruralization as well as majorresponsible relevant factors.
Taking into account the nature and the objective of the study, descriptive-analytical method was chosen. Based on theoretical foundation of the study, there exist different methods and indices regarding the identification and classification of ruralization. This study concentrates on two dimensions including village’s functions and population and its growth during 1976-2011. It is followed by application of PROMETHEE multi indices decision making method in order to determine village’s functional status through emphasis on agricultural activities. This study further demands hierarchical clustering technique for classification of the villages. Finally, Clack ruralization indices as well as field survey were applied for determination of the village type in this regard. Furthermore, with respect to those villages which urban ruralization occurred, qualitative method of base theory that is Grounded theory was applied in order to identify the responsible factors. At first step interview with rural key official persons and with those with long history of residency (31) was implemented in order to find the casual conditions pertaining to formation and expansion of urban ruralization phenomena. In the second step, taking into account the methodology of the base theory, open coding was done. Regarding this step those relevant raw data were both labeled and conceptualized. Following, the second and third steps sub-classes are divided into broad concepts and those were divided into nodal concepts.
This study concludes that based on application of base theory in 8 villages, many factors including life desirability comparing with place of birth and adjacent settlements, lack of special costs, inexpensive business, lack of cultural barriers, variation in job opportunities, existence of different rents, economic and political structures are among some of the influential factors regarding urban-ruralization phenomena. It is furtherargued that income and saving level, the nature of center-periphery theory, capital accumulation system, discrimination with respect to poverty issue, imbalanced distribution of power, wealth, income and access to job opportunities are other determinant factors as well. Incapacity with respect to attraction of external capitals for creation of job opportunities, shortage of complementary jobs to combat seasoned unemployment, lack of potential for absorbing educated and well equipped social capital, lack of technical and vocational training related to appropriate agricultural technology, shortages of ample suitable agricultural lands and lack of knowledge of environmental conservation are among other responsible variables in this regard. Moreover, lack of appropriate and efficient agricultural market systems as well as cooperation’s and ware houses, need for government and other institutions supports, incapability in formation of industrial clusters, lack of tendency regarding economic background good for villages, management, the formation of two different construction types, land price and its relevant speculation, property rent, lack of effective control upon rural physical development, economic household participation and lack of social responsibility and self-reliance and easy accessibility to Tehran metropolitan all are responsible regarding degree of ruralization of Roobat Karim.

Abolfazl Ghanbari, Mohammad Valaei,
Volume 10, Issue 38 (winter 2022 2022)

One of the emerging infectious diseases in recent years is Coronavirus 2019. For the first time in late December 2019, cases of pneumonia or pneumonia were reported to the World Health Organization in Wuhan, China (the primary source of the disease). The cause of the disease was unknown and the available treatments were not very effective. The disease spread rapidly and affected all the people of the world, and the coronavirus epidemic caused the greatest shock to the world economy and led to the implementation of control policies to control it by governments such as; Social distancing, temporary closures of businesses, quarantine, etc., whose negative effects are greater in rural areas for various reasons and has become an influential factor in the transformation of rural poverty. As in all parts of the world, the rural settlements of East Azerbaijan Province are grappling with the widespread outbreak of the coronavirus, and the number of cases and deaths in this province is increasing every day, and some health experts, not observing social distancing. And non-observance of hygienic protocols is considered as the reason for this increase in patients, but some people consider the use of masks to be more important than distance, and the lack of disinfection of hands and hand washing are other factors that start the upward trend of patients. Therefore, due to the spread of coronavirus and the increase in the number of infected people, many businesses in the province, especially in rural areas, were closed and people who did not have employment insurance, access to health services and care systems, people in They work in the informal sector, or work as workers in private, semi-private, etc. companies, and are more at risk of poverty and deprivation. Therefore, the present study aims to analyze the factors affecting rural poverty developments during the outbreak of coronavirus in rural areas of East Azerbaijan province and tries to provide an appropriate answer to the research question: Factors and driving forces affecting rural poverty changes What are the corona times in East Azerbaijan province?

Research Methods
The purpose of this study is to analyze the factors affecting rural poverty developments in East Azerbaijan province during the corona outbreak and therefore in terms of purpose of exploratory type and in terms of nature and descriptive-analytical method and its philosophical basis is a combination that in the study The Q (Q) forum has a qualitative approach and a quantitative aspect in the Q-factor analysis phase. The research area is the rural settlements of East Azerbaijan province. The discourse community also includes; There are 24 managers and experts (governorate, health, government departments, districts, villages, etc.), local experts and experts in the field of poverty and rural areas. To select the statistical sample, the snowball method and the theoretical sequence were used. Exploratory factor analysis (Stanfson) was used to analyze the data of Q matrices.

Discussion and conclusion
The results of this study using Q research showed that the most important factors and driving forces affecting the development of rural poverty during the outbreak of Corona virus in rural areas of East Azerbaijan province are; 1) Failure to comply with legal restrictions, reduced literacy and access to communication services (first factor). 2) Business closures, rising costs and economic and psychological pressures (second factor). 3) Decreased income, production capital and inefficient management (third factor). 4) Increasing financial problems and reducing spatial flows (fourth factor). 5) Decreased public trust and poor health services (fifth factor). 6) The problem of marketing, access to services and communication channels (factor six). 7) Uncertainty of macro-plans and policies, reduction of production and increase of social anomalies (seventh factor). 8) Political and the application of transportation restrictions (factor eight). Among these, the first factor (non-compliance with legal restrictions, reduced literacy and access to communication services) with a specific value of 3.13 and a percentage of variance of 13.04 has the greatest impact on rural poverty developments during the outbreak of coronavirus in the study area had. In addition, the results of the present study with the results of Sadr Mousavi et al. (1399), Tajeri Moghadam et al. (1399), Taherinia and Hassanvand (1399), Rahnama and Bazargan (1399), Adjunun et al. (2021), Vas and Katino ( 2020), Arno et al. (2021), Vivad et al. (2021), Barjin and Aminguno (2021), Liu et al. (2020), Flipson et al. (2020), etc. on the factors affecting poverty and the effects of prevalence The corona virus is in the same direction in rural areas and its developments.

Akram Ghanbari, Abdul Reza Rahmani Fazli, Farhad Azizpour,
Volume 11, Issue 39 (Spring 2022 2022)

Today, in order to achieve sustainable rural development as well as optimization of local advantages, identifying the factors affecting the utilization of geographical advantages are essential. The villages of the country today are more than ever influenced by the political, economic, social and cultural conditions of their systems as external factors influencing the development of rural settlements. These are factors such as inappropriate government policies at all levels of planning, legislation, management and implementation, bias towards urban areas and large industries, lack of independent civil society organizations, fostering the transformation of villages into cities and so on. Moreover, the internal obstacles of rural communities are such as: low level of awareness of rural stakeholders on their internal and socio-economic capacities, restrictive norms, low power of transformation, and low the power of risk, overcoming traditional approaches to harnessing the potential of rural areas, and the uncertainty and trust between rural communities towards new perspectives and patterns, etc. Both factors are the reasons for neglecting rural areas and lack of  proper operation of the capacity and potential in this area. Rural settlements in Khorramabad county have not seen much growth and are facing instability of rural settlements, despite their high potentials and capacities in the agricultural and non-agricultural sectors. In this regard, the present study seeks to answer the following question: What are the factors influencing the role of geographical advantages in achieving sustainable development of rural settlements?

The purpose of this study was to identify the factors affecting the role of geographical advantages in achieving sustainable development in rural settlements of Khorramabad. In this regard, it is a combination (quantitative-qualitative) research method with sequential strategy and exploratory - descriptive research design. Based on this orientation and evaluation, the Q model was selected for problem recognition and analysis. The statistical population of the study is the villages of Khorramabad. The qualitative participants were expert villagers who selected 30 theoretically saturated subjects and data were collected using semi-structured interviews and semi-structured interview card tools. In the quantitative section, we chose village experts. 150 villages out of 647 villages, were selected by simple stratified sampling. Next, one rural mayor or council was selected from each village. In the Q model, Q cards were used to collect data.

Discussion and conclusion
According to rural experts, the lack of role of geographical advantages in the feasibility of sustainable rural development in the study areas is influenced by the following factors: low level of skill and familiarity with modern knowledge, dominance of conservative mindset, lack of creativity and innovation, aging population, dominance of closed cultural beliefs, low income, inflation and uneven distribution of credit resources, market system instability, poor attention to infrastructure and welfare services, rural education and promotion system failure, weak legal-institutional arrangements, lack of system Integrated program for agricultural activities commensurate with domestic and foreign markets, service weakness Production support, low level of security and weakness of processing companies.
Rural experts' perceptions of the inability of geographical advantages to achieve sustainable rural development fall into five categories: economic factors, managerial-institutional factors, socio-cultural factors, human factors, and physical factors, which are economic factors with  25%, managerial-institutional factors with 23.66%, socio-cultural factors with 23.66%, human factors with 20.23% and physical factors with 8.70% had the most influence on the lack of role of geographical advantages in the feasibility of sustainable rural development.
According to the results, meticulous planning in organizing economic, social, political, organizational and managerial and cultural constructions, utilizing the geographical advantages of rural areas is one of the most important prerequisites for achieving sustainable rural development. As a result, planners need to identify and analyze the forces and relationships that make the most of these advantages by influencing shaping forces and processes, help improve the conditions in the geographic advantage process.


Aliakbar Anabestani, Sirous Ghanbari, Habib Lotfi,
Volume 12, Issue 43 (Spring 2023 2023)

Iran has successfully leveraged knowledge and technology with the Islamic economic system to cultivate a prosperous rural economy. This economy encompasses a wide range of activities at the village level, all aimed at supporting rural residents' livelihoods and material well-being. It encompasses both individual and social activities within the rural environment and has yielded impressive results. The rural economy is interdependent with agriculture and is a component of the national economy. Any changes in the national economy will affect the rural economy. This economy level depends on environmental and economic resources, which aligns with the principles of resilient economic policies.
In this regard, Jiroft Plain, located in the western region of Jazmourian, with Halil-Rood passing through its center, encompasses more than 1400 villages. The rural economy in Jiroft and Anbarabad counties primarily relies on livestock farming and agriculture. Economic reconstruction and transformation are taking place in all sectors of the world, and the villages of Jiroft Plain also need to manage and update their economic activities to keep up with global and national developments. Traditional activities are not sufficient to meet the needs of the younger generation. Therefore, the present research aims to analyze the economic situation of villages in terms of resilient economic indicators within the study area and seeks to answer the following question: How is the economic situation of villages in Jiroft Plain in terms of resilient economic indicators? Moreover, what effects do resilient economic indicators have on the rural economy?

The present study employed a descriptive-analytical method to provide a concrete, realistic, and systematic description of the characteristics and features of the studied villages in the Halil-Rud geographical-cultural area and Jiroft plain. Both library research methods and field research methods were utilized to gather information. The geographical scope of this research includes the cities of Jiroft and Anbarabad in Kerman Province. Considering the large number of villages in these two cities, as recognized by experts and professionals in this field, the sample villages were selected as the centers of rural districts. Therefore, the statistical population consists of household heads in the central villages of the rural districts, which according to the 2016 census conducted by the Statistical Center of Iran, have a population of approximately 41,289 individuals and 12,165 households, encompassing around 21 villages. Based on Cochran's formula, a sample size of 314 households was selected for the research and used for data collection. A systematic sampling method was employed to select households in each village.
Furthermore, a questionnaire was developed to examine the rural economy in detail from the perspective of resilience indicators, covering 11 different indicators and components. This questionnaire was administered to the sample population, and after completing 30 questionnaires, the reliability of the questionnaire was determined with a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.780, indicating high reliability. Additionally, data analysis was conducted using Kruskal-Wallis, one-sample t-test, and regression analysis.

Discussion and conclusion
The research results regarding the status of resilience indicators with a rural economic approach revealed that the economic mobility and dynamism indicators scored 12.01, while social justice scored 3.31, indicating a moderate to high level. Other resilience indicators in the study area were estimated to be below the desirable numerical value of 3, indicating a moderate to low status. Furthermore, among the sample villages, Aliabad ranked first with an average rank of 253, followed by Dovlatabad with an average rank of 210, Hossainabad Dehdar with an average rank of 205, and Ismaili Sofla with an average rank of 179. This finding indicates that villages with a larger population and diverse economies tend to have higher resilience indicators. Based on this, over 52% of the villages in the study area do not have a desirable status in terms of the examined indicators, while only over 16% are in a desirable state.
The rural community's ability to withstand and recover from challenges has been achieved through various means. These include economic growth, increased production in agriculture, industry, and services, ensuring fair distribution of services to rural residents, creating more job opportunities, controlling inflation, improving welfare, supporting a knowledge-based economy, paying attention to scientific aspects of rural economics, engaging educated individuals in rural affairs, encouraging participation in village-related matters and meetings, providing a platform for criticism and suggestions to Islamic councils, cooperating with officials, improving access to basic services for all residents, increasing migration rates, and more. All these measures contribute to the sustainability of the rural economy, including employment, investment, productivity, income, and other production factors in the study area.

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