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Kumars Zar-Afshani, Lida Sharafi, Shahpar Garavandi, Parastoo Ghobadi,
Volume 2, Issue 5 (12-2013)

It is being argued that rural tourism is considered as a prominent activity with respect to rural development. This industry is known as invisible export by economists. Tourism as a broad activity is associated with some major economic, social and environmental. It further argues that tourism planning demands identification of these impacts as far as the host community is concerned. This in turn accentuates sustainable tourism development. This study aims to investigate the impact of tourism upon Rijab resort of Kermanshah as a host community. Sample siege amounted to be 270. As such 200 questionnaires were gathered using random sampling technique. Principle component results indicate the tourism development bears four major consequences including income generation, environmental problems, cultural development, and reduction of social capital. The result of this study provides some recommendation for tourism bodies. These related organizations could strengthen positive impacts and mitigate negative consequences.

Hojat Allah Sadeghi, Skandar Seidaiy, Shadi Ghobadi, Maryam Salehi Kakhki,
Volume 5, Issue 16 (summer 2016 2016)

One of the necessary principles of rural development is its management. A special approach of development is needed to be planned for every particular area. On the other hand, it is not useful to apply an integrated approach of development by new managing systems. At this point we can clearly understand the important role of institutions and organizations related to the structuralfunctional development of villages. These institutions and organizations have critical roles in different economic, social, cultural, and eco-environmental aspects of a society. Those tasks defined for some of these institutions and organizations are a combination of different aspects or a single task oriented which can affect rural planning and its development. Management aspects of institutions and organizations related to rural development are among the most important factors here. Although, compared to previous years, considerable changes have occurred in rural management systems but they couldn’t cause rural sustainability. In this regard, structuralfunctioning performance of organizations and institutions related to the current status of villages was highly decisive. So, regarding rural position with the great impact of its development on local national progress, it seems necessary to investigate the performance of the institutions and organizations in different economic, social, cultural, eco-environmental, and structural aspects of villages. This research aims at evaluating the performance of institutions and organizations related to rural sustainability to find ways to the regional development of Dehdez district in the County of Izeh.
This is an applied research conducted by descriptive-analytical approach. Required data was collected through document-library and field studies. Data required for field studies were collected through questionnaires. Among all the residential villages of the area which are over 101, a number of 30 villages (25% of all villages) have been randomly selected as questioning samples. Based on Cochran formula 315 households were selected as statistical samples. Sample population has been distributed among 30 villages using the ratio method proportional to population. Finally, data have been collected and analyzed in SPSS and AMOS software. One- sample t test and correlation analysis methods were used in inferential statistics.
Discussion and conclusion
Regional and integrated developments are the consequences of good programming of acceptable performances of rural institutions and organizations. People believe that, compared to the past 30 years, these institutions and organizations have been acted successfully in terms of economic, social, structural, and eco-environmental aspects. Additionally, they have caused positive changes in programming and fighting against poverty. The most remarkable thing in terms of changes happened is the matter of time requirements and factors affecting this field of study. In other words, in every period of time the existing factors and facilities have influenced on the performance of related organizations and institutions. Another important point is that in spite of spatial inequalities in the provision of services and facilities to the rural areas, relative satisfaction with the performance of such institution and organizations is still visible.
Although the performance of these organizations has been acceptable in four different aspects, their weaknesses cannot be ignored. In fact, if these organizations could make changes in rural development, they couldn’t cause rural sustainability and unsustainability is still continuing there. It can be said that even after the establishment and extra interfering of institutions in rural management, not only have not these human settlements become sustainable, but also several economic, social, and eco-environmental changes have been imposed on them.
Therefore, in spite of the fact that this research is intending to show the effectiveness of rural institutions on the improvement of rural position, it should be mentioned that it is a moderate impact appropriate to the time requirements which is mostly concentrated on services with no effective impact on rural sustainability. So, integrated objectives and systemic perspectives should be taken by managers and programmers and decision making should be done within the same framework. According to the results from the study, in line with the improvement of organizational and institutional performances in the studied area and other generalized regions, a few suggestions are presented:
1. Organizational and institutional emphasis on an integrated systematic rural development and sustainability by paying more attention to all the variables mentioned in the study.
2. More emphasis of related authorities and institutions on economic development of rural areas considering results from the study that shows some deficiencies in terms of income, employment, variety of activities, and ….
3. According to the better functions of rural institutions and organizations in social dimension of villages and the inseparable connection of economic and social dimensions, the existing capacity of social variables should be used for the improvement and promotion of economic sector.
4. Based on the results from the study it can be implied that the lack of suitable institutional interaction in different dimensions of rural development is one of the deficiencies and weaknesses in terms of rural sustainability. On the other hand, each institution and organization is trying for its own goals and it cannot lead to the comprehensive and sustainable rural development. So, it is suggested to increase this type of interactions and try to establish a new organization responsible for rural development.

Leila Ghobadi, Mehdi Moameri, ,
Volume 10, Issue 36 (summer 2021 2021)

Rangelands are lands covered mostly with indigenous vegetation such as grasses, grass-like plants, forbs, or shrubs, which are managed as a natural ecosystem. They are one of the most fundamental natural ecosystems in the world, and they play an important role in protein production and the ecosystem balance. Rangelands are largely used as a feed source for livestock. However, they provide other secondary resources such as firewood, wild edibles, medicinal plants, and water.
Today, one of the most serious and recent difficulties facing development initiatives is the degradation of natural resources (rangeland ecosystems are included) and their excessive use. Reduced forage production, less plant cover, soil degradation and erosion, water loss and increased rate of runoff and flood, loss of biodiversity, decreasing small ruminant productivity, increased invasive plants, and reduction of ecotourism areas are all consequences of quantitative and qualitative rangeland degradation. In recent decades, confronting the causes of forest and rangeland degradation and attempting to restore these resources has become a fundamental and necessary step toward sustainable development. Given that the vast area of forests and rangelands, and the high labor requirement for conserving and restoring these resources, it appears that stakeholder participation is the most effective strategy to develop these resources. Namin county in Ardabil Province contains a large area of​​ rangeland, which is the most important source of income for rural communities in the region. In other words, livestock husbandry in rangelands is one of the main activities of the local people, who rely on rangeland for forage. However, in recent years, the region's rangelands have been damaged for various reasons resulting in a reduction rangelands area. As a result, it appears that the reasons of rangeland ecosystems degradation should be identified in order to support rangeland ecosystems and reduce their degradation. So, the main purpose of this research is to investigate the economic and social factors affecting the rangelands degradation in Namin County's rural areas.
The research was conducted in Namin County's rural areas (including - Saqsloo, Aghzamankandi and Tifiyeh). The county of Namin is located in mountainous areas with an average elevation of 1700 meters above sea-level.
The research method is descriptive using survey and analysis.  In the three villages of Saqsloo, Aghzamankandi, and Tifiyeh, the statistical community for this study was 1279 individuals, with 326 beneficiaries. A questionnaire was used as the research tool in this study, and 21 beneficiaries (households) were interviewed using stratified random sampling. The validity of the questionnaire was assessed based on expert opinions, and its reliability was determined using Cronbach's alpha coefficient test.
A questionnaire was created based on three indicators: social factors affecting rangeland degradation with 13 questions (S1, S2, S3, … S13), economic factors with 10 questions (E1, E2, E3, … E10) and other effective factors with 10 questions (O1, O2, O3, … O10). Furthermore, each question was graded on a five-point Likert- scale. Based on accessibility, cost and the researchers’ capacity, the total number of the questionnaire in each village was selected according to about 5 to10 percent of the total number of the households (preferably heads of households). In the target villages, questionnaires were filled out through face-to-face visits, observation, and interviews.
The sample size for each village was then determined based on the number of households. As a result, in the village of Saqsloo, Aghzamankandi, and Tifiyeh 11, 4 and 6 questionnaires were completed, respectively. Data were analyzed using SPSS software Ver.22.
Discussion and Conclusion
The results revealed that economic factors such as insufficient annual income and social factors such as a lack of essential training and extension courses, limited participation of beneficiaries in rangeland project implementation, and a lack of proper management and sense of responsibility are the most effective factors in rangeland degradation. Rangeland degradation was primarily influenced by the quantity of beneficiaries and the technique of exploitation. In addition, the number of livestock and living expenses, as well as the economic position of rangeland beneficiaries in the community are important determinants. According to the results, the level of knowledge and awareness, improving the situation, income and livelihood, the effectiveness of training courses, and the participation of stakeholders and local organizations all had an impact on rangeland degradation. Therefore, because the villagers are in need of rangelands to supply fodder for their livestock, it is possible to reduce rangeland degradation by assigning rangeland management plans and projects of improving rangelands to stakeholders by following the laws and implementing planned management. In general, Department of Natural Resources and Watershed Management of Ardabil Province can act to reduce rangeland degradation of Namin County's rural areas by devolution of the implementation of rangeland management, improvement, and development projects to beneficiaries, involving beneficiaries in planning and implementation of projects, providing loan facilities to them, holding training and promotion courses by experienced natural resources experts to increase ranchers’ knowledge.

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