Search published articles

Showing 4 results for Keshavarz

Kiyoumars Zarafshani, Marziyrh Keshavarz, Tahereh Malaki,
Volume 3, Issue 7 (6-2014)

Different countries have been affected harmfully by drought as a natural hazard affected by harmfully. Iran has been subjected by consequences of harmful drought consequences. It is argued that rural households due to their high level of dependency on agricultural economy are not well equipped to deal with this multi-dementia phenomenon. This study aims to evaluate the degree of the rural household’s potential regarding adopting drought. Statistical society composed of ٣٣٢٩ farmer households resided in Drudframan in Kermanshah County out of which ١٧٢ assigned as our sample. This study suggests that households are classified into low-median and high regarding their level of adoption to drought. It further suggests that out of ١٤ studied villages, the residents of Moradabad, Bozorgdar sofla, possess the highest level of adoption with respect to drought. This in turn demands the involvement of drought planners of the province in mitigation plans of the phenomena taking into consideration its causes and consequences, farmers and their vulnerability potential regarding adoption to droughtlevel.

Behzad Adeli, Hamid Reza Moradi, Marzieh Keshavarz, Hamid Amirnejad,
Volume 3, Issue 9 (11-2014)

Draught is being considered as a climatic reality in arid and semi-arid regions such as Iran. Drought is capable of generating drastic impacts over water and soil resources, vegetation, animals and human beings. Water is a prominent factor as far as agricultural product is concerned specially in arid zones. Draught and its impact on water resources will bear unpleasant consequences namely for rural settlers whose livelihood depend on agricultural is argued that draught will lead to set of complicated environmental, economic and social impacts. Taking into account the frequency of its occurrence, extent and complexity it demands more attention regarding the identification of its impacts. There is not a rigid agreement regarding the definition of this phenomenon. This in turn will lead to some complexities with respect to the assessment of draught. There exist different measures for simulation of rainfalls, water surface run offs as well as other water resources. This helps to come up with clear images of climatic and hydrological draught. There exist different indices for measuring rainfall deviation from average including SPI and SDI. Lack of sufficient knowledge’s and understanding with respect to impacts is being considered as other complexity regarding the inter partition of draught. In spite of high occurrence and the great magnitude of draught, little attention paid to explanation of its impacts. According to the relevant statistics 22 % of economic damages resulted from natural hazard is associated with draught. 33 % of people are being affected by draught. In the countries based on agriculture economy, impact of draught could be evidenced by low surface water supply and underground waters. This in turn, is responsible for reduction in water supply as well as water quality, low level of crops production, productivity, and crisis regarding food an increase in livestock death. On the other hand, drought impacts could exemplify it in economic, social and environmental impacts including decrease in household incomes, reduction in substitute income resources, and increase in both hours and volume work, conflict regarding water utilization, food deficiencies, malnutrition, low level of health, and accessibility to sanitation services, low education possibilities, unequal access to financial supports. Moreover, increase in rural migration, lack of power, low life quality, destruction of natural habitats, low productivity of forests and pastures, increase in temperature as well as evaporation, low soil productivity, reduction in water resources, pollution, increase in fire incidence are among other impacts. Variation in spatial and temporal scale of its draught turns it into a very unique phenomenon. It is argued that draught impacts are result of natural interaction (low rainfall) and the way respondents respond. Most of draught studies predominantly are concentrated at national level. However, well documented information regarding draught impacts is nonexistence. This study aims to investigate draught impacts and its influential responsible factors at rural household level.
The research method is based on descriptive-analytical method. Needed data were obtained through survey in Dodangeh Behbahan. It is located in north-western part of Behbahan. Statistical society includes all of peasant households reside in village with 20 and over households (2865). Cochran formula was used in order to determine the sample size. This led to extraction of 339 peasants which were interviewed. Its viability was determined using relevant expert’s viewpoints. This study further demands application of standard rainfall indices in order to determine the magnitude and continuity of climatic and hydrologic draughts.
Current wide spread and server drought exerted considerable damage in Dodangeh rural economy. Efforts toward mitigation of economic impacts of draught require the identification of characteristics of this phenomenon. This study suggests that the assessment and evaluation of intensity and continuity of draught would well be done through application of standard rainfall and surface run offs. It further indicates that drought as a complex phenomenon is capable of increasing the vulnerability of the rural households. Certain economic impacts of draught are unexpected. Contrary to other draught studies results, agricultural lands have not been shirked. This has something to do with lack of due information regarding moisture status. The identification of draught risk is prerequisite for mitigation of farmer’s vulnerabilities. This in turn demands the application of sound and influential drought management based on information and relevant knowledge. In as much as agriculture is the most prominent livelihood in the region thus providing non-agricultural occupations help to reduce the level of vulnerability. Therefore, policies and measures for generating non-agricultural jobs in regions with high subjectivity to draught are highly recommended. According to the finding of this study, selling livestock’s and agricultural land are among some strategies for combating against draught taken by farmers. It is recommended that vulnerability of farmers, long run impacts and management issue all need to be considered. Moreover, improvement in extension services through provision of computable mechanism suited with draught condition assists mitigation of draught unpleasant impacts based on regression analysis, the amount of farmers debts, financial ability, age and households expenditure are the major variables as far as households vulnerability to draught is concerned. Furthermore, provision of financial and social support system is highly suggested.

Hamed Aramesh, Atefeh Ras, Soheila Keshavarz,
Volume 9, Issue 34 (winter 2021 2021)

Today, the rise of the global economic system, which has created great wealth and the spread of economic contradictions such as the gap between rich and poor, has brought about wide-ranging social changes and has led to the introduction of entrepreneurial ideas in the field of social issues. In recent years, social entrepreneurship has been identified as an important source of social, economic, cultural and environmental wealth. Due to lack of resources and facilities and remarkable population growth, communities, nowadays, are facing many problems, among which is the problem of unemployment. Because the employment situation of women in Iran, like in many developing countries, is not favorable, women always have fewer job opportunities and often work in the informal sector with low wages.
Given that half of people in any society are women, women's participation in various jobs and entrepreneurship is necessary for the growth and development of society. Women's participation in various economic, social and other fields is one of the indicators of the country's production. One of the main issues in development is the proper use of the capabilities and talents of human resources in society.
In the suburban area of ​​Chabahar, there is a traditional view and disbelief in the abilities of women. Most of the women in this area are divorced or heads of households and do not have a good economic situation. Since the situation of women in each region is reflecting the social and economic improvement of the regions, and also, due to the appropriate commercial and economic situation of Chabahar region, there are many opportunities for job creation and empowerment of women in this region. It seems that one of the ways to discover these opportunities and empower women in this region is to regard and implement social entrepreneurship. So far, domestic research with a social entrepreneurship approach has not examined the empowering factors of rural women. Therefore, this study aims to provide a model of social entrepreneurship in order to empower women in the suburban region of Chabahar in a comprehensive way, to extract effective indicators and answer the research questions.
1. What factors affect the empowerment of women in Chabahar suburbs?
2. What is the impact of each of these factors on the empowerment of women in Chabahar suburbs?
3. What is the framework to implement the drivers of empowerment for women in Chabahar suburbs?
This research is mixed in terms of purpose, application and in terms of data type. The qualitative part uses the Meta synthesis method. For data analysis, the software used in the quantitative section was SmartPLS2 for the first questionnaire and Expert choice software for the second questionnaire. The statistical population of the study is all Baluch women living in Chabahar.
Discussion and conclusion
Calculation of final weight and prioritization of effective indicators on women's empowerment in Chabahar suburban areas based on AHP method shows that among the identified indicators, women's self-confidence with a final weight of 0.457 has been identified as the most important effective indicator on women's empowerment, and motivational indicators, job creation and education with the final weight of 0.423 and 0.387, are, respectively, in the second and third place. Existence of social support for female heads of households and quality of life with a final weight of 0.030 has been identified as the least effective indicator among the indicators.
By meta-synthesis method, 21 indicators, 4 components and 2 dimensions were identified. The results showed that all variables except the variable of having sufficient skills, lead to empowerment of women in the suburban area of Chabahar. Also, all environmental variables lead to the empowerment of women in this area.
The most important indicators of women's empowerment in the Chabahar suburbs is self-confidence. Furthermore, the indicators of job creation motivations, level of education, elimination of labor market discrimination, and government support policies are ranked second to fifth, respectively, with regard to the importance of empowering women in this region.

Marzieh Keshavarz,
Volume 9, Issue 34 (winter 2021 2021)

For decades, various policy initiatives have been planned to achieve food security. However, the number of malnourished people is growing, especially in rural areas of developing countries. Due to the increase of extreme weather events, such as droughts, and significant depletion of water resources, achieving food security is not an easy task. Therefore, an investigation of rural households’ food security in drought prone areas is of great concern. On the other hand, it has been estimated that at least one third of the produced food would be wasted and half of the food waste originates at household level. However, considerable gaps exist in our understanding of how drought incidents affect the food waste management behaviors of farm families. Thus, addressing the factors influencing household’ food waste reduction efforts is crucial.
In order to investigate food security and food waste control pattern of the farm families under drought a survey study was implemented on eastern regions of Fars province (i.e.
Kherameh County). Kherameh has suffered from 9 continuous years of meteorological and hydrological droughts. Farm families of Kherameh County were the target population. A stratified random sampling technique was used to select a sample of families who suffered from drought. The formula of Scheaffer et al. (2012) was used to determine the sample size (n= 219). Food security questionnaire which was developed by the United States Department of Agriculture was applied to investigate food security of farm families under drought. Also, household-level food waste questionnaire (van Harpen et al., 2016) was used to assess food waste behaviors of farm families during drought. Moreover, a questionnaire was developed to explore the main determinants of food security and food waste control under drought. Its face validity was confirmed by panel of experts. A pilot study was also conducted to evaluate the instrument.
Result and discussion
The findings revealed four different food security groups including 1) food secure (24.6%), 2) food insecure without hunger (22.9%), 3) food insecure with moderate hunger (23.7%) and 4) food insecure with extreme hunger (28.8%). The regression analysis was conducted to determine drivers of food security under drought. The results indicated that the specified variables explained 62% of the total variance in food security. The standardized regression coefficients illustrated that income was the main predictor of farm families’ food security. Families with higher income loss had more problems ensuring food security than the smaller ones. The results indicated that crop yield played an important role in determining food security. It suggested that farm families who experienced crop yield loss consumed lower amounts of food than usual. On the basis of the findings, food prices had a significant effect on food security of farm families. This implies that the cost of food was the major constraint and the majority of food insecure families had to lessen their food quantity and quality at a survival level. The results revealed that employment ratio, water scarcity and financial capital had important influences on food security, too.
The findings illustrated that drought stimulated food waste control. So that, food insecure families with moderate and extreme hunger had significantly reduced their food wastes. Moreover, food waste was significantly related to bread, rice, fresh vegetables and fresh fruit. This is while dairy and meat products’ waste were negligible. Analysis of the Bayesian network and partial least squares (PLS) path model illustrated that attitude exerted the maximum influence on the food waste control. Previous studies confirmed a positive effect of attitude on the food waste control behavior. The results revealed that income was negatively associated with food waste control behavior. Farm families who attempted to develop off-farm income sources and those who earned more money from agriculture were less likely to reduce food waste. Moreover, food waste control of farm families was significantly influenced by perceived food accessibility. This implies that higher access to food supply centers reduces the probability of food waste management. Also, findings illustrated that perceived food quality was associated with food waste control behavior. This shows that food quality was believed to be effective in reducing the food wastes. The results revealed that water scarcity, food prices and knowledge were associated with food waste control behavior, too. Overall, the model explained 34% of the variance in food waste control.
To ensure food security and minimize food waste under drought conditions, development of climate smart agriculture that allow increasing food production while using fewer water resources, promoting drought-risk reduction solutions and knowledge and information systems, and enhancing social, financial and human capitals are imperative. 

Page 1 from 1     

© 2024 CC BY-NC 4.0 |

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb