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Nahid Isa Nejad, Ali Akbar Najafi Kani , Alireza Khajeh Shakooei,
Volume 12, Issue 43 (Spring 2023 2023)

Today, one of the country's tourism patterns is second homes tourism, often common in mountainous regions with mild regions. The second homes are primarily located in spectacular areas, recreational places, and on the outskirts of large and medium-sized cities. Rural tourism is a reliable source of income in many countries and has an increasing impact on improving rural households' economic and physical situation. The current study investigates the consequences of second homes tourism in mountainous villages near the metropolis of Tehran.
Researchers believe that households living elsewhere buy or rent second homes. Such homes are usually located in rural areas and are used for recreational purposes and are also called weekend homes and holiday homes.
Second homes usually have four characteristics:
- A private home that family and guests often use on weekends and holidays.
 -A private home that is alternately used as a holiday home.
- It is often purchased for retirement periods but is also used as a commercial property.
- Used as holiday homes, commercially as an investment, and usually by an agency. 

This study is applied with a descriptive and field descriptive method. According to the 1395 census, the statistical population of the current study is rural households living in 9 villages, totaling 5554 persons. 310 villages were chosen as the sample community using the Cochran algorithm, and data were analyzed using correlation analysis, Friedman, Kruskalvalis, and Linear regression in SPSS software.
Shemiranat is one of the counties of Tehran Province, considered an excellent tourism region of Iran, and consists of two districts: Lavasanat and Rudbar-e Qasran. According to the census of 2016, Rudbar-e Qasran District has a population of 17419. The Qasran Bastani region includes Oushan, Fasham, Darbandsar, Gajereh, and the villages at the foothill of Tochal to the western areas of the Jajrud River. Contrary to many peoples’ beliefs, the language of the people of Rudbar-e Qasran District in most neighborhoods, especially Meygun, Shahrestanak, Lalan, Zayegan, Ruteh, Garmabdar, Shemshak, and Darbandsar, is Mazandarani. 

Discussion and conclusion
The results of Chi-square, Spearman, and Kendall correlation analysis demonstrate that the construction of second homes has a substantial association with a 99 percent confidence level with physical changes in villages and improved economic indicators. Friedman's findings also rank the most effective elements in recruiting tourists and increasing second houses. Kruskal-Wallis's findings reveal that second-home tourism affects all communities analyzed in terms of physical and economic characteristics and that they are all similar. The results of the linear regression test reveal that, depending on the variables evaluated, the investigated components are acceptable and significant. The coefficient of determination indicates that around 95% of the development is determined by the variables analyzed, with only about 5% depending on variables not discovered in this study.
The second homes are part of the tourism industry, which aims to use and introduce natural, cultural, historical, and other resources in the region to tourists to create opportunities for tourism development, which creates business in rural areas. Second homes can also be considered a potential product that elevates the level of society and puts the country in the tourism industry. 
In this regard, sustainable tourism emerged as the only solution to save nature and human beings. From this perspective, the paradigm of sustainable tourism examines tourism across borders. The tourism industry creates a triangular relationship between the host community, their territory, and the guest community (tourists). The goal is to alleviate any pressure or crises that may arise and achieve a long-term balance between all three parties.

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