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Showing 4 results for Khorasani

Mohammad-Amin Khorasani, Mohammad-Reza Rezvani,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (9-2013)

Adjacent villages are among the settlements in which are simultaneously facing with some opportunities as well as threats. These in turn affect the quality of life and meeting the needs of the settlers. Accessibility to urban facilities and services from one hand and urban ecological threats and the consequences of rural migration on the other hand, lead to complex circumstances. Livable settlements briefly define as suitable and pleasant places to live and work. The study is comprised of Varamin adjacent villages next to four urban nucleuses. The research method is based on analytical method as well as field works and documentary data. The objective of this study is to identify the level of livability. As such one way analysis of variance was applied. This study suggests that there exists a significant difference in the villages in terms of their livability.

Mehdi Ghorbani, Fatemeh Salari, Mohammad Amin Khorasani,
Volume 5, Issue 15 (5-2016)

Sustainable development is actually a process towards sustainability. It can be conceptually classified within other concepts such as social reorganization, transition to a better future, conserving the quality of the environment, people empowerment, creating new capacities, and respecting indigenous knowledge and information. All these concepts are considered to be the main axis of sustainable development by contributing to the elimination of the need of new generation, regarding the need of future generations.
Hence, sustainable rural development is a multidimensional process that can come off through the bottom-up approach and ongoing, shared use of local supply and resources. "Social capital" is one of the most important social components and a basic aspect of local sustainable development. Social and economic capitals can strongly affect the trends of community-based management of villages. By amplifying the capitals and their optimization, their effect on rural development will be promoted.
In this research, regarding the fact that social capital plays a key role in the realization of rural development, we have used social network analysis method before and after the implementation of a community-based project of rural management to investigated different aspects of bonding and bridging social capital of rural micro-credit fund in Bstaq village of Srayan county, South Khorasan. In this village, mobilizing financial resources has been already done by the establishment of micro-credit funds. It is obvious that the physical sustainability of economic structure of the Fund requires the sustainability of social capital in local network of its beneficiaries. Therefore, social capital needs to get evaluated over time among members of rural micro-credit fund.
Social analysis and assessment of relations between members of rural micro-credit fund of Bastag, in the form of various subgroups, were done using the approach of social network analysis. Efficiency and impact of RFLDL project has been already evaluated for all the indicators and studied cases in two times, one before the implementation of the project in 1390 and one after that in 1394. We have first identified members of microcredit fund in Bastag using survey research and the study of documents in RFLDL project. Then, a network analysis questionnaire was developed and completed doing direct observations and interviews with different individuals. Rural micro-credit fund of Bastag consists of 13 groups. These include Aba-Abdellah, Azahra, Imam Reza, Amir-al- momenin, Sar-Allah, Javad-al-Aeme, Abolfazl, Sahbalzman, Kosar, Musa ibn Ja'far alMahdi, vali-e-asr, and Yas-e-nabi groups. The number of people who completed the questionnaires are 190 people among the group members and 13 heads of the funds. The head of the groups are determined by members in a local election. Data analysis has been done by analyzing and investigating the bonding relations between the group members or bridging communications between leaders in the form of rural micro-credit funds. Network analysis used in this research is a method of full network in which all network members are examined. Finally, collected data were analyzed in UCINET 6.507 software and then the intended indicators were analyzed as well.
Discussion and conclusion
The most significant ides contributing to the establishment of micro-credit fund is to achieve development goals to decrease poverty, mobilize financial resources of rural communities and organize local societies in aligned groups. In this research, we have examined trust-partnership bonds and evaluated various indicators of density, reciprocity links, transition and average geodesic distance using social network analysis method to assess bonding and bridging social capital between members or heads of the groups or between leaders of micro-credit funds of Bastag located in Sarayan and studied in RFLDL project.
Results show that the average density of trust-partnership bonds between members of rural micro-credit funds is high. In the next step of doing RFLDL project, the same indicator increased compared to before. In this village, two groups named Kosar and Azahra have been reported with moderate downwards density of trust- partnership bonds. In other groups this indicator is at its moderate upwards level. In Bastag, mutual trust is high and mutual partnership is up to the middle. The sustainability of communication networks and the institutionalization of various links in the village is assessed as moderate upward. This indicator is also high between the head groups of the village. After project reviews by accomplishing participating activities for rural sustainable development show more density between members of micro-credit fund comparing to before. However, respiratory was noticeably high between the head of the groups.
The velocity of Trust and Participation is high between the members of the Fund in the village of Bastaq. The amount has even increased more after the implementation of the project. The velocity of trust and partnership between the heads of micro-credit fund has respectively increased from 1 to 1.18 and 1.08 to 1.25. Furthermore, people linked together in the shortest possible time and at highest speed. Thanks to the great social :union: and solidarity among people, mobilization of social and financial resources will be possible at a higher speed. Considering the results of social capital assessment before and after the project, it can be said that RFLDL project acted successfully in building trust and creating good chances to strengthen the spirit of partnership and cooperation between members of the fund in Bastag.

Mojtaba Ghadiri Masom, Mohammad Amin Khorasani, Zahra Torkashvand, Shima Amidi,
Volume 10, Issue 37 (Fall 2021 2021)

Entrepreneurship as a strategy in the development, prosperity and growth of human societies has been an invaluable mechanism through which all the factors, resources and facilities of a society are mobilized in a spontaneous and evolutionary fashion, which is the source of many positive economic and social effects and consequences. Knowing about the driving forces of rural entrepreneurship development are crucial. The development of rural entrepreneurship depends on some drivers such as appropriate infrastructure, environmental conditions, social cohesion and solidarity of entrepreneurs in different stages from production to supplement, quality of institutional services, supportive laws and policies and individual and behavioral characteristics of entrepreneurs. Despite the necessity of these drivers, the level of priority and significance are not the same, hence some of them will be mandatory and others might be complementary in the entrepreneurial process. This study seeks to identify the most important drivers of entrepreneurship development in rural areas of Iran by a systematic review of scientific publication in recent years, and prioritize these drivers based on their significance.

This study is applied in terms of purpose, and descriptive-analytical in terms of content. In this study, meta-analysis method was used to identify the drivers of entrepreneurship development in rural areas of Iran. 50 published papers in national and international scientific research journals until March 2018 were used to identify the drivers of entrepreneurship development.  The main topic of these papers was entrepreneurship in rural areas of Iran. We implemented Q method for extracting and summarizing the most important factors of rural entrepreneurship. To this end, this study selected 38 Q statements as the Q sample. For sorting Q categories using purposive sampling method, 30 individuals familiar with rural entrepreneurship were selected as participants. Finally, factor analysis method in SPSS software was utilized to identify and prioritize the most important drivers of rural entrepreneurship.

Discussion and conclusion
Findings of the meta-analysis from the review of sources indicate that among the conducted studies, behavioral, educational and technological, supportive, economic, social, and environmental and infrastructure drivers are among the most important drivers of rural entrepreneurship development.  Based on the findings of the Q method, which prioritized the most important drivers of rural entrepreneurship, the discourse analysis and the participants' mental pattern highlighted the behavioral drivers. Behavioral drivers consist of ability to endure difficult and stressful situations, strengthen the self-confidence, problem solving skills, discipline at working, acknowledging opportunities and be risk-taking.  For educational drivers, the participants prioritized adequate access to information channels and resources, investment in research and development to increase productivity, and taking entrepreneurship training courses. For economic drivers, the respondents underscored the access to seed money, granting low-interest loans and tax deduction in creating new production units. On supportive drivers, the priority was for transparent economic and tax rules and household support. The expansion of platforms and infrastructure (road, electricity, telephone, Internet, etc.) was the most important condition for infrastructure drivers. As a result, in order to develop rural entrepreneurship, in addition to these drivers, it is necessary to consider issues such as establishing rural incubators and think tanks, establishing rural development councils and entrepreneurship parks, and providing basic infrastructure for policy makers and planners.

Mojgan Ghalami Cheragh Tapeh, Alireza Darban Astaneh, Mohammad Amin Khorasani,
Volume 12, Issue 43 (Spring 2023 2023)

Rural tourism is a sustainable form of rural development that utilizes the resources available in rural areas. However, due to geographical isolation and lack of benefits, these areas often have untapped potential. This lack of development prevents strengthening of social and economic foundations within local communities. Regarding tourism planning in certain areas, previous research has focused on identifying important factors and drivers. However, there is a lack of certainty surrounding regional development in the planning process. To address this, planners and scenario writers can use these factors as a control mechanism to map and manage the desired future.

The purpose of this research is to create scenarios that will help determine the factors that impact the growth of rural tourism in Urmia County. The study will use the Wizard scenario to identify key variables that contribute to sustainable tourism in the villages within the county. Ultimately, the goal is to develop scenarios that will enhance the feasibility of sustainable rural tourism development. The purpose, application, and type of research method used in this study are descriptive-analytical. The nature of the data collected is qualitative, and the method of data collection is through field research. The questionnaire tool was implemented in two stages, and data analysis was conducted using future research techniques and the Mick Mac software, along with interaction analysis. In general, the working method has been done in two main stages in this research. Twenty professionals with expertise in the subject were selected for a statistical sample. They were provided with a questionnaire to complete. After careful consideration of the experts' opinions and research, it was determined that there are 36 significant indicators in 5 different components: economic (9 indicators), socio-cultural (8 indicators), managerial (7 indicators), natural (8 indicators), and infrastructure (4 indicators). During this study, it was found that out of the 36 indicators examined, several key factors drive tourism development in the rural regions of Urmia County.

Discussion and Conclusion
In this study, we created scenarios by considering critical uncertainties, predetermined drivers, and the impact of key obstacles. The result of this process was three scenarios. One scenario depicts a promising and favorable situation, another is static and intermediate, and the third portrays a critical and undesirable situation. Out of the three scenarios, scenario number two has the most favorable conditions for tourism in the villages of Urmia County. This scenario is considered the best because all possible situations are desirable. Out of the 36 possible situations, 16.6% are critical, 11.11% are relatively critical or on the brink of a crisis, 13.88% are relatively favorable, and 58.33% are very good. 27.77% faced unfavorable circumstances, while 72.23% had favorable ones. The second scenario is the most optimal, as all the crucial factors are at their best. This scenario comprises seven highly desirable situations, two moderately desirable ones, one on the brink of crisis, and two critical situations. In Scenario No. 1, there are several possible states. Seven of these states are ideal, one is good, one is risky, and two are critical. The factors in this scenario are stable. Five situations are entirely positive, three that are somewhat positive, one that is risky, and three that are critical. In these critical situations, the key factors are likely unfavorable compared to their desired state.
After analyzing the potential outcomes in three categories - favorable, static, and undesirable -, it is clear that the strong research scenarios lead to more favorable conditions than any other category. These scenarios provide a promising future for tourism in the villages of Urmia. By acknowledging the strengths and limitations present, better planning for rural tourism in Urmia can be achieved. Improving this trend will have a direct and indirect positive impact on the future development of tourism in the region

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