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Zinab Asadi, Eissa Pourramzan, Nasrollah Molaei Hashjin,
Volume 5, Issue 15 (5-2016)

Nowadays, most experts in rural development field agree that reaching to sustainable development is not impossible without all people’s Participation and undoubtedly, the process of development will be facilitated, with more speed and less expenditure. Meanwhile, the historical experience of our country emphasizes on utilizing top-down strategies for development, it shows its failure on the process of rural development. Therefore, based on this experience and increasing overall knowledge and scientific knowledge, it is necessary for the society to pay attention to rural development which is dominated by people’s Participation and this Participation should be the priority for plans and measures.
Spontaneous and endogenous development indicated that in all stages and in different circumstances, development is based on Participation of local people for mobilization of resources and institutionalizing local Participation with emphasis on empowerment and capacity building. People’s Participation causes them not to feel alienated with plans and new elements; this makes them to be engaged throughout the planning process and after that in implementation and maintenance of the plans; they feel that the plan and the product belong to them and they cooperate greatly to maintain it and make it dynamic. People’s Participation in local planning may lead to decentralization and it can reduce the limitations of top-down planning.
So, these plans and all the expenditures in these villages should result in development, if villagers wants and needs are recognized and they are engaged in villages' affairs; because, on one hand, villagers Participation leads to empowerment of institutions and social organizations in the village so that they facilitate development process, and on the other hand, it leads to usage of capabilities and talents of villages for national development, the sustainability of population and decrease of regional inequalities. Khoshke-bijar district is located in north-east part of Rasht County; in recent years, many construction plans and projects were prepared and implemented in these villages such as preparing and implementing guide plans, equipping and modernization of agricultural lands, gas delivery plans, purified water delivery system, and so on. According to this, the present study aims to answer this fundamental question that how much influence does people's Participation have on the development of villages in Khoshke-bijar district?
Regarding its objective, this is a practical study and a descriptive-analytical one according to its methodology. For studying and recognizing the status quo, descriptive method, and for statistical analyzing in the case of rural services and population, analytical method has been used. Therefore, theoretical and conceptual framework of the study and geographical and demographic features of the study were collected by documentary method and determining the ways that people engage in different areas had been done through field study. Statistical population includes villages of Khoshke-bijar district in Rasht County that have been selected in four categories: small villages, medium size villages, big villages and parts that are a combination of village and town. Study sample is determined 400 villagers, according to Morgan Standard Table that is distributed and completed by using random-quota sampling method in the studied area. Questionaries' validity is determined by experts' comments and those who have expertise in rural planning and its reliability is determined by Cronbach's Coefficient Alfa (0.81). For data analysis in this study some tests have been used including Wilcoxon Test, Spearman Correlation Test, and Kruskal Wallis Test.
Discussion and conclusion
Participation objective is generally defined as voluntarily participation of people in development plans in all stages- including goal setting, decision making, implementation, maintenance and evaluation. People's Participation can be recognized as a process through that poor and disadvantaged people can be organized and by this organizing they could try development efforts. If all villagers could be directed toward field creation and optimal organization, this filed and organization turn to be an instrument for expressing their wants, through that they could achieve their rational wants.
Villagers' Participation in Khoshe-bijar district will be on its maximum level, and can have impact on rural development, if all cited obstacles are removed. It is obvious that removing the existing economic problems in Khoshke-bijar district is not possible without focusing on social, cultural and political problems and when villages lack a desirable level of culture and social attitude, it will be impossible to expect them understand new methods of economic development and take the risk of them. Finally, it can be said that in Khoshke-bijar villages, despite of many different problems and obstacles in the way of Participation and using that for rural development, villagers' desire to engage in affairs and their presence in many development plans can be helpful and it clarifies the necessity of planning for this important matter.
The results show that the desire for intellectual, and physical Participation among villagers is in a desirable level. By increasing the economic power of the villagers in Khoshke-bijar district which is possible through their own Participation, we can expect that the level of Participation in plans and projects for rural development increase too. There is no doubt that Participation motivation among villagers depends on using cultural actions and giving awareness to them that are the top priorities. Because the level of Participation and cooperation among villages are at a high level in many villages of the developed countries in the world and they strongly believe in team work activities, the level of Participation is in a desirable level and villages are more developed too, due to widespread acculturation and internalization among rural people. It is obvious that when people of the studied area are aware of the advantages and effective results of cooperative works and they know more about the results of Participation for sustainable profits and interests, their motivation for Participation will increase.

Mohammad Nasiri Lakeh, Nasrollah Molaei Hashjin, Eisa Pourramzan,
Volume 10, Issue 35 (Spring 2021 2021)

The rural management system in Iran has undergone complex transformations in terms of socio-economic structures over the years, and efficient management void in rural areas in the long run, especially in recent decades, has posed many obstacles for villagers.
In this regard, it is necessary to explain the importance of local management in all dimensions and explain the role of local managers in performing tasks in rural areas in order to increase productivity, efficiency. After the formation of Islamic councils, and subsequently the establishment of rural municipality paved the way for giving the people the authority to manage. This leads to social capital in these areas, which can follow ensue further development.
In the present study, we first identify the weaknesses, strengths, opportunities and threats of the current rural management system, and then by reforming the rural management system, it provided conditions for the socio-cultural and economic development of villages in the central region of Guilan Province.  Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the rural management system and rural economic and socio-cultural development in the central region of Guilan Province.

According to the purpose, nature and method, this study is considered as an applied and descriptive-analytical research, respectively. In order to achieve the purpose of the research, the technique of direct observation was utilized in five dimensions to obtain data on the status and level of development of the studied counties. The statistical population of the study is the central area of Guilan province, villages depending on their height above the sea level are in two classes: coastal-plain and foothill-mountain. In order to select the samples in the villages of each county in the central region two criteria of population and geographical situation were considered. 120 villages were randomly selected from the villages from six counties of the region. Descriptive and inferential statistical methods as well as SPSS software were used to explain the central tendency and variability. Tables based on the T test and Arc GIS was used to produce the maps.

Discussion and conclusion
In this study, rural development in the central region of Guilan has been studied as a dependent variable in both economic and socio-cultural dimensions. In order to study rural management in two socio-cultural and economic dimensions, 33 items are considered "socio-cultural" and 31 items are considered "economic".
The item of raising the level of scientific knowledge of the villagers has obtained the lowest average score (3.17) in a total of 33 items studied in the socio-cultural dimension. In general, the average score of all social items is 3.71, which is higher than the mean, or 3, so it can be concluded that the improvement of rural management system is effective for socio-cultural development of villages. Also, the improvement of rural management system provides the socio-cultural development of the villages. It was also found that the items of cooperation with the Civil Registration Organization, recognizing social and cultural deficiencies and suggesting plans, introducing orphaned kids to support institutions, providing cultural and educational facilities and preparing support plans were among the most important items.  
In general, the average score of all economic items is 3.55, which is higher than the mean, or 3, so it can be concluded that improving the rural management system is effective on rural economic development. The items “estimation and regulation of annual rural budget", “business licensing", "impact of improving new management on rural economic development", "types of rural insurance" and "preparation of reform plans and proposals" in the economic sector with the highest scores, thereby are more important and effective than other items.
According to the findings of the present study, rural management in the central region of Guilan has economic and socio-cultural disadvantages. Therefore, suggestions in each of the dimensions of economic and socio-cultural development are presented as follows:
  • Predicting credits and facilities to support rural entrepreneurship according to the capacities of each village.
  • Preparing priority employment-generating plans in order to enjoy government support from the executive management of the villages based on the capabilities of each of the villages in the district.
  • Holding educational programs for Islamic village councils and rural governors relating to their various duties, rights and laws and regulations.
  • Holding rural employment and entrepreneurship training courses for villagers in the central area of Guilan.

Ali Yousefi Taleghani, Nasrolah Molaei Hashjin, Parviz Rezaei,
Volume 11, Issue 39 (Spring 2022 2022)

Nowadays, much attention has been paid to discussions and concerns about environmental and land use changes. In such a situation, sustainable land use has become an important analytical-political issue. Land use is considered as an example of human effect on the environment. In developing countries, the issue of land use change is more important due to poor management and disruption of the political and economic structure. Land use change and land cover has become a complex process that involves different variables and factors at different social and spatial levels. The great and potential effect of land use change and land cover on the physical and social environment has created a motivation for research to understand land use change and its main causes and effects. The growth of the population of Rasht and the consequent need for more housing and construction, has led to the physical expansion of the city from various angles. In some cases, this problem has been solved in an unplanned way through land use change, both around cities and in peripheral rural settlements. On the other hand, the migration of some villagers to these rural areas and the lack of a specific authority and institution to control constructions, has caused physical development in an unbalanced way and without an integrated plan. It is clear that in this case, the land use of the agricultural lands of the village will change from agricultural to other uses, especially residential. Therefore, the researcher seeks to answer the following general question in this study: "How can these land use changes be organized in order to preserve land by identifying the factors affecting land use change?"

In terms of the method, this research is considered as a descriptive-analytical study. The statistical population of this study is the villages around Rasht City. In the present study, a researcher-made questionnaire was used for data collection. The questionnaire was designed after identifying the economic and social factors affecting agricultural land use change. In fact, in this questionnaire, the respondents were asked to evaluate the effect of each of the socio-economic factors on land use change in the form of Likert scale. This questionnaire was given to the respondents in the villages around the city of Rasht. Finally, 516 questionnaires were completed by the respondents. The data were analyzed by one-sample t-test and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA).

Discussion and conclusion
The factors affecting land use change on a regional scale were analyzed aiming to identify the mechanism of interaction simulation and predict the process of land use change. Land cover changes not only have a significant effect on the key parts of natural resources, but it has a close relationship with sustainable socio-economic issues. According to the results of the studies, human activities currently play a key role as a factor in land use change. Land use in an improper way can lead to some environmental issues. There is little knowledge on these issues and a brief understanding of the complex factors and processes that control land use change.
It's difficult to identify the factors affecting land use change and their prioritization. The present study investigated the socio-economic factors affecting land use changes in villages around Rasht using a questionnaire technique and based on the views of villagers. According to the results, economic factors are more important and effective on the research issue than social factors. Drought and water scarcity in agriculture created economic problems for farmers and prevented them from engaging in agricultural activities. The change of use from agriculture to residential and service activities has also occurred due to the decline in agricultural activities. Other relevant factors are lack of sufficient budget to purchase agricultural machinery, reduced income of the agricultural sector, lack of financial support in the production stages, the benefits of investing in land and housing, low prices of agricultural products and high prices of agricultural inputs. Social factors, on the other hand, are the pressure of children to sell land, the lack of interest of young people in agricultural activities, the belief in the unsuitable position of agricultural activities, the increase in the tourist population and the migration nature of villages


Javad Vahabi, Mohammad Baset Ghoreishi , Nasrollah Molaei Hashjin,
Volume 12, Issue 43 (Spring 2023 2023)

The concept of water resources management changes over time with various factors, such as environmental knowledge, technology, and recognition of the difference in the value of water resources. Water resources management is affected by various economic, social, political, cultural, and technical factors. Accordingly, the concept of sustainable management of agricultural water resources has been raised in response to the issues of inappropriate use of water resources and harmful environmental effects and the traditional agricultural economy. Reducing water resources increases the cost of new water resource provision, and usually, developing countries cannot meet these costs. Therefore, the optimal consumption and the correct management of the supply and demand of existing water resources are proposed to meet the economic cost. Water will be an effective agent. Many scientists have studied the relationship between water and economic development from different aspects, for example, in the case of natural disasters like floods and droughts. The results of studies have shown that available water for agriculture and economic development, and investment in water infrastructure, especially in the agricultural sector, reduce poverty in some African countries. Development generally means improving the material and spiritual level of human society and creating suitable conditions for a healthy life for all members of society. According to this concept, development includes economic, social, political, and cultural aspects, which include quantitative and qualitative changes. The desired purpose of development is to improve the quality of life for everyone. Therefore, the effort to achieve development should be in a way that includes the interests of most people.

This article is a survey-based analysis, which means it focuses on a small portion of society, specifically village officials and farmer households in the study area. The necessary data was collected through a questionnaire. The statistical population of the research is the villages of the central floodplain of Gilan, which includes village officials and farmer households of the villages of the study area. 384 questionnaires were randomly completed. Then, the questionnaire was analyzed using SPSS software and with relevant statistical tests.

Discussion and conclusion
The results showed that, according to 50% of respondents, agricultural water resources management has a moderate effect on increasing the diversity of agricultural activities, 46.8% on increasing purchasing power and housing construction, and 42.2% on reducing costs. Production in the agricultural sector is considered low. From the perspective of 27.6% of respondents, the effect of agricultural water resource management on reducing production costs in the agricultural sector is high, and 44.3% has a moderate effect on the area under cultivation of agricultural products. According to the survey, 25.6% of respondents believe that the impact of agricultural water resource management on expanding the cultivation area of agricultural products is minimal. Out of the respondents, 38.3% believe that agricultural water resources management moderately improves their satisfaction with life in the village, while 29.7% think it also moderately enhances their satisfaction.
Additionally, 30.5% of the respondents stated that agricultural water resources management has significantly impacted increasing attention toward transformation industries in agriculture. It has been found through research that managing agricultural water resources has significant effects on various aspects of agriculture and rural communities. Specifically, it has a 34.7% impact on agricultural production growth, a 29.4% impact on agricultural output increase, a 50.3% impact on rural employment generation, and a 50.11% impact on the income and well-being of villagers in the central plains of Gilan Province.

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