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Showing 9 results for Moradi

Mohamadreza Rezvani, Mehrnoush Moradi,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (3-2013)

Strategic tourism planning is being considered as a way of rural development. It further is a response to Globalization and rural reconstruction. Tourism development requiers systematic comperhensive approach. Rural settlements located in margin of desert area of Mighan, despite of their varied tourism potentials, are very deprived and distressed. The major objective of this study is to investigate the feasibility of tourism development and is relevant the system. Sample is composed of tourists, residents, and local managers. Random sampling technique was applied in order to come up with 274, 150, and 30 respectively. This is followed by application of desriptive and inferal statistics including T students. This study suggests that due to a lack of knowledge of tourists as well as tourism marketing, tourism demand regarding, tourism attractiont the study area is very negligble. It further suggests that tourism constituent’s elementsincluding tourism constituents elements including tourism attractions, transportation, infrastructure, and tourism sales and participation are at medium level. However, knowledge level regarding tourism was fairly poor. It is argued that internal tourism potentials as well as external tourism opportunities of the study area are oppropriate. Via appropriate and consolidated tourism planning including marketing, promotion and improvement of tourism infrastructures and superstructures, we could exploit all of the internal strengths as well as external opportunities regarding tourism development.

Ali Ghasemi, Varaz Moradi Masihi,
Volume 3, Issue 8 (8-2014)

Rural tourism and tourism economy are being considered as one of the major economic development indicators. Moreover, most of the planners and policy makers believe that tourism industry is the major element of sustainable development. As such, rural tourism through appropriate planning and identification of advantages and limitations could perform effective role regarding rural development as well as national development. The major objective of this study is to identify potentials and capabilities regarding sustainable tourism Alltapeh village located in Behshar in Mazandarn province. This village encompasses Abasabad tourism area which is among one of the recorded safaveeye’s tourism attractions. This study aims to explain the role of tourism regarding economic – social sustainable development in the study area. Research method is based on analytical – descriptive. Data gathering demands application of field work and documentation. Data analysis is based on SWOT matrix emphasizing weaknesses, strengths, threats and opportunities as well as proposing suggested strategies in order to achieve sustainable rural tourism. Statistical society composed of 1900 rural settlers located in the study area as well as tourists (500000 per year). Sample size was determined to be 218 which constitute of 78 of local community and 140 tourists. This study suggests that rural ecological vulnerability taking into account Abasabad tourist area is relatively high. This paper further believes that rural tourism requires more attention regarding tackling threats and limitations and relative comparative advantages as far as an appropriate policy making is concerned. It further concludes that tourism planning could lead to local economic variations and thriving organized economic activities and more importantly sustainable rural tourism.

Behzad Adeli, Hamid Reza Moradi, Marzieh Keshavarz, Hamid Amirnejad,
Volume 3, Issue 9 (11-2014)

Draught is being considered as a climatic reality in arid and semi-arid regions such as Iran. Drought is capable of generating drastic impacts over water and soil resources, vegetation, animals and human beings. Water is a prominent factor as far as agricultural product is concerned specially in arid zones. Draught and its impact on water resources will bear unpleasant consequences namely for rural settlers whose livelihood depend on agricultural is argued that draught will lead to set of complicated environmental, economic and social impacts. Taking into account the frequency of its occurrence, extent and complexity it demands more attention regarding the identification of its impacts. There is not a rigid agreement regarding the definition of this phenomenon. This in turn will lead to some complexities with respect to the assessment of draught. There exist different measures for simulation of rainfalls, water surface run offs as well as other water resources. This helps to come up with clear images of climatic and hydrological draught. There exist different indices for measuring rainfall deviation from average including SPI and SDI. Lack of sufficient knowledge’s and understanding with respect to impacts is being considered as other complexity regarding the inter partition of draught. In spite of high occurrence and the great magnitude of draught, little attention paid to explanation of its impacts. According to the relevant statistics 22 % of economic damages resulted from natural hazard is associated with draught. 33 % of people are being affected by draught. In the countries based on agriculture economy, impact of draught could be evidenced by low surface water supply and underground waters. This in turn, is responsible for reduction in water supply as well as water quality, low level of crops production, productivity, and crisis regarding food an increase in livestock death. On the other hand, drought impacts could exemplify it in economic, social and environmental impacts including decrease in household incomes, reduction in substitute income resources, and increase in both hours and volume work, conflict regarding water utilization, food deficiencies, malnutrition, low level of health, and accessibility to sanitation services, low education possibilities, unequal access to financial supports. Moreover, increase in rural migration, lack of power, low life quality, destruction of natural habitats, low productivity of forests and pastures, increase in temperature as well as evaporation, low soil productivity, reduction in water resources, pollution, increase in fire incidence are among other impacts. Variation in spatial and temporal scale of its draught turns it into a very unique phenomenon. It is argued that draught impacts are result of natural interaction (low rainfall) and the way respondents respond. Most of draught studies predominantly are concentrated at national level. However, well documented information regarding draught impacts is nonexistence. This study aims to investigate draught impacts and its influential responsible factors at rural household level.
The research method is based on descriptive-analytical method. Needed data were obtained through survey in Dodangeh Behbahan. It is located in north-western part of Behbahan. Statistical society includes all of peasant households reside in village with 20 and over households (2865). Cochran formula was used in order to determine the sample size. This led to extraction of 339 peasants which were interviewed. Its viability was determined using relevant expert’s viewpoints. This study further demands application of standard rainfall indices in order to determine the magnitude and continuity of climatic and hydrologic draughts.
Current wide spread and server drought exerted considerable damage in Dodangeh rural economy. Efforts toward mitigation of economic impacts of draught require the identification of characteristics of this phenomenon. This study suggests that the assessment and evaluation of intensity and continuity of draught would well be done through application of standard rainfall and surface run offs. It further indicates that drought as a complex phenomenon is capable of increasing the vulnerability of the rural households. Certain economic impacts of draught are unexpected. Contrary to other draught studies results, agricultural lands have not been shirked. This has something to do with lack of due information regarding moisture status. The identification of draught risk is prerequisite for mitigation of farmer’s vulnerabilities. This in turn demands the application of sound and influential drought management based on information and relevant knowledge. In as much as agriculture is the most prominent livelihood in the region thus providing non-agricultural occupations help to reduce the level of vulnerability. Therefore, policies and measures for generating non-agricultural jobs in regions with high subjectivity to draught are highly recommended. According to the finding of this study, selling livestock’s and agricultural land are among some strategies for combating against draught taken by farmers. It is recommended that vulnerability of farmers, long run impacts and management issue all need to be considered. Moreover, improvement in extension services through provision of computable mechanism suited with draught condition assists mitigation of draught unpleasant impacts based on regression analysis, the amount of farmers debts, financial ability, age and households expenditure are the major variables as far as households vulnerability to draught is concerned. Furthermore, provision of financial and social support system is highly suggested.

Hossin Heydari, Qumars Zarafshani, Khadije Moradi,
Volume 4, Issue 11 (5-2015)

Rural development requires special attention regarding human forces .Rural settlers as a prime human resources related to agriculture are a major leverage as far as rural development is concerned. Lack of social capital is being considered as missing chain with respect to economic growth and development in underdeveloped countries. It is agrued that social capital influences sustainable development from different aspact in developing countries including Iran. This is well justified by existance of their transient, unstable economy. Social capital is known world wide as a major determinent of rural development. However, this is not well experienced in Iran's rural geographical space. In other word, planners and policy makers overlooked this issue. This is being considered as the most prominent vacume as far as the rural development litriture is concerned. Both social capital and development possess complex nature. This in turn demands comprehensive and deep study. This could well be done via application of qualitative approach. This study aims to invastigate Farsinj rural development taken into account social capital in order to come up with associated development model.
Research method:
This paper applied qualitative approach using foundamental theory method. This theory is being considered as one of the qualitative research methods. It ia besed on inductive approach using real situation for determination of the components of a problem. Statistical society was comprised of key aware folks in Farsinj village located in songhor koliayee which were chosen through targeted snow ball sampling technique. The study area is center of parsineh which is located in cold mountainous climatic zone. Based on 1390 census, it houses over 2355 with 663 households. Data gathering were done via individual semi structured interview as well as concentrated groups and direct observation resulted in field notes. The application of multi data gathering techniques in qualitative research named trianglizaition increase the viability of the result. Compiling fifteen of those interviews, led to theoretical saturation at least after one hour. The resultant data in three stage that is open coding (conceptualizing and investigating), axis coding and selective coding, were analyzed. Open coding led to formation of 16 classes. The relationships between components were explored through application of axis coding. This led to formation of external social capital as a prime class or phenomena based on paradigm model. This model includes casual conditions and backgrounds, intervening conditions, as well as interaction, strategies and consequences.
Discussion and conclusion:
Farsinj village located in songhor koliayee is being known as one of the typical and pilot village in Kermanshah province. Based on the investigation, high level of education, number of existing occupations as well as the rural settler’s level of commitment, responsibility and the feeling of being served with regard to following the villages affairs are among the factors responsible for Farsinj being known as spectacular villages. It is argued that the feeling of being rival, high level of settler’s motivation and engagement of some of the folks in high ranking governmental possessions all would be important components formation of external social capital in the study area. Trust in outsiders, the existence of agriculture bank, high schools as well as getting married to the males outside their locality all led to formation of better opportunities for investment in the study area. All these factors have led to some positive outcomes including the provision of services to neighboring villages and being well known village in the area. Make it short; the level of development of the study area is highly associated with the formation of external social capital.

Seyyed Hassan Moteei-Langroudi, Horieh Moradi,
Volume 4, Issue 13 (11-2015)

Rural planning is one of the most important activities for agents and planners of development. Agriculture Jihad aims to accomplish rural development purposes through codification of plans and activities to increase the level of awareness and professional skills of villagers. In developing countries, it is a problem that rural planners do not have enough technical and professional information. Change agents in Agriculture Jihad as the engine of rural development have the responsibility to educate villagers and increase their level of awareness, insights and professional skills. Agents' professional development in Agriculture Jihad means using potential capacities of staffs which are not used completely at the moment. Today, economic development experts believe that using human resources which have been developed is the most important factor that effect on the process of socioeconomic development in countries. So, they have emphasis on investment in human resource development more than ever. On the other hand, changes because of globalization resulted in changes in human resource development and also characteristics of developed human resource and human resource requirements of labor market have increased in more dimensions. Creating communication is change agents' skill which means capability of planning, preparing and presenting profitable innovations to the villagers. On the whole, it can be said that professional empowerment is the process of continuous improvement in of Agriculture Jihad which is done by creating and expansion of dominance based on people and groups' competency on all the areas and duties and influence on staffs' performance and the overall performance of the organization in rural planning. Therefore, empowerment should be focused in order to develop human resource in Agriculture Jihad which results in empowerment and job satisfaction of the staffs and approaching to one of the rural development's purposes. So, regarding to the importance of the subject and since the operational systems of the organization are executed by humans and this is the most important investment of the organization, this study is implemented aiming to explain professional capabilities of the agents in Agriculture Jihad for rural planning. The study aims to answer this key question that "Whether agents of Agriculture Jihad in Kermanshah province have the professional capabilities of rural planning or not".
The study population includes all agents and rural development planners in Kermanshah province which is 456 people. In this study, all the staffs of Agriculture Jihad including manager, experts, technicians and constructive corps are called agents of Agriculture Jihad. The sample size is determined 210 people according to Morgan table. Sampling method was chosen randomly out of the respondents. Data collection tool was questionnaires and its validity was confirmed by some of the university professors and experts; its stability was determined using pre-test. Cronbach's Alfa was calculated 93% and 90% for professional capability in rural planning and entrepreneurial spirit respectively that shows the suitability of the data collection tool. For data analysis, descriptive statistical methods and referential statistics have been used. In descriptive statistics part, distribution of items' frequency and characteristics of respondents such as frequency and percent are measured and also the professional capability in rural planning and entrepreneurial spirit in management of Agriculture Jihad in Kermanshah province are studied too; in referential statistics part, correlation analysis and regression analysis are used. Data analysis is done with SPSS 20 software.
Discussion and Conclusion
According to these study findings, the condition of entrepreneurial spirit between agents of Agriculture Jihad in this province is more than the measured average level. The result showed that in organization staffs' point of view these parameters are considered as the most important ones in performing a job: having responsibility, job satisfaction and self confidence in performing the job and having the experience in the field of training courses for having job satisfaction and professional capability, job requirements' assessment for starting a job, motivation for improvement and using new and innovative methods for performing the job, having the spirit of forgiveness and sacrifice in group activities and having the ability to adapt to new environment. And there is also a great correlation between variables such as entrepreneurial spirit, age, effects of in-service training course and professional capability for rural planning which shows the importance and outstanding role of these variables in professional capability. The results of step by step regression showed that variables such as entrepreneurial spirit, up to date specialized information and contribution in in-service training courses had many impacts on agents' professional capability and these variables are able to explain 64 percent of changes in the case of professional capability for rural planning. So it can be said that, using information systems in developmental activities, training the skills and creativity techniques to the staffs are some of the actions which can be suitable areas for development of entrepreneurial spirit and these actions also provide agents' professional capabilities in Agriculture Jihad.

Ali Alimadadi, Abdolhamid Nazari, Mahmood Moradi, Ramin Ghaffari,
Volume 5, Issue 16 (summer 2016 2016)

According to general census in 2011, rural population of the country has been over 21 million and 603 thousand people. Considering the per capita monthly subsidy equivalent to 455,000 riyals, it can be resulted that in the first three years of the project, over 353 trillion has been allocated to rural community. Calculations show that this amount is equivalent to 2.4% of the total budget intended for this period of time. It was the first time that this amount of cash was being directly distributed among villagers by its cost and expenditure management being transferred to the families themselves. It seems that this method of paying subsidies has greatly influenced on economic and social status of rural communities.
Considering economic and cultural structure of rural societies together with attempts to remedy the lack of liquidity, a large amount of subsidies granted is spending for household livelihood expenses such as food, non-food and service expenses. Therefore, in this article we are intended to investigate the impacts of targeted subsidies on the current status of livelihood expenses of rural households in different social strata as well as making a comparison of targeted subsidies in two geographical areas (Kalat and Binalud). Generally, in this research we are trying to find answers to the questions that: 1) how is the position of natural resources, economic capital and people s income in rural areas of Kalat and Binalud (Torghabeh Shandiz)? 2) How did targeted subsidies affect to change patterns of livelihood expenses in different classes of rural areas in the County of Kalat and Binalud? And is there any significant difference between the two areas or not?
This research is an applied one which has been provided using the quantitative approach of descriptive-analytical. This is an exploratory research, as well. Basically, it has been done using the principals of survey researches which has investigated the effects of targeted subsidies (independent variable) on livelihood expenses of rural households (dependent variable) applying post event processing. This research has done in the two cities of Kalat and Binalud located in Khorasan Razavi. There are two reasons for choosing these cities. First, these are greatly influenced by their position i.e., they are located near the metropolitan County of Mashhad. Then, due to the border location of the two cities, not many researchers have concentrated on the matter of development in these areas, yet. So, due to the importance of environmental contrasts in geography, data analysis has been conducted using comparative approach that helped us study different aspects of the matter to determine and classify the role of different geographical foundations (including natural conditions, the distribution of basic economic resources, income, and social conditions) in class differences among rural groups. We have eventually compared the impact of paying subsidies on the increase of income and consequently on changing spending patterns of livelihood expenses by the residents of the two areas. Questionnaires providing in two types of qualitative and quantitative are being considered as the main tools of the study. Quantitative questions are mostly intended to answer the first question of the research which includes some issues of households' social features (population, age, gender, education) and economic resources (occupation, expenses and income, land, livestock, housing, and machinery resources). Qualitative questions aim at the investigation of changes in spending patterns by rural households to answer the second question arose in the research. This type of questions consist of 8 main components (food and non-food items, educational, medical, and healthcare expenses, communication services, tourism, Energy, agricultural institutions) of more than 54 reagents.
Discussion and conclusion
Emphasizing sustainable livelihoods approach, this research aims at analyzing consequences of targeted subsidies plan on the changes in spending patterns in different social strata of rural communities. Then, comparing the results in the two areas of Kalat and Binalud we will be able to examine the impact of geographical factors. As contrasting foundations of every natural area can be considered to be the basis of economic and social differences of different societies that may be changed later by the government policies. According to the survey, particular environmental situations and capacities of rural settlements in each of these areas has made different economic functions at regional level related to local communications and its connection with the metropolitan County of Mashhad. These factors are so much effective that each single one can cause long-time consolidation of special economic, social and cultural mechanisms in rural areas and geographical environments. There is no doubt that these factors firstly influence the economic business of the studied area. In Binalud, there are approximately 10 % of rich families by an average monthly income of higher than 20 million riyals which are owning of almost about 21% of economic resources. In return, the rest 70% of low-income families (less than 10 million riyals) are providing with 52% of economic resources. This situation indicates bigger class differences in this area.
The above mentioned indicators are not so much far from each other in Kalat. Additionally, different interactions and communications between urban and rural areas and their impacts on the households' livelihoods caused changes in spending patterns of rural households. Because,b 65% of Kalat villagers mentioned that, compared to the past, after receiving cash subsidies no change occurred in their spending. As an overall conclusion, the new method of targeted subsidies has relatively influenced the increase of income in lower social classes (about 15 to 25%) and somewhat moderated class differences. This factor has greatly affected spending patterns and made it improved, while it can be said that, due to the free price of subsidized goods, it didn’t lead to the sustainable livelihood of households.

Horieh Moradi, Farhad Javan, Sepideh Amraei, Maryam Beiranvandrad,
Volume 9, Issue 34 (winter 2021 2021)

Rural Entrepreneurship is a process of emerging actions and value creation in geographical places. If planned and rationally managed, it can be an investment in the development of social and geographical space in rural areas. Rural entrepreneurial streams, the formation of micro-enterprises and the reflectivity and role-playing of entrepreneurs in the development of areas around large cities, can cause spatial-local changes in development. Accordingly, the present article was designed with the aim of analyzing the effects of rural entrepreneurship in the development of suburban spaces in Kermanshah based on the process method of multidimensional entrepreneurial attitude.

Research Methods
The present study is applied in terms of purpose and descriptive-analytical in terms of method. The statistical population is those rural settlements that have a history of agricultural activities and water and land capacities and under the demand pressure and condition went through changes such as replacing the cultivation of new crops instead of traditional ones, patterns of cultivation and more intensive cultivation. A total number of 21 entrepreneur villages of urban peripheral spaces located in Baladarband and Miyandarband Rural Districts in the central district of Kermanshah city in the period of (2016-2017) was included 38 active entrepreneurs less than 20 km away from Kermanshah metropolis. Since the number of rural entrepreneurs in the city was limited, in order to increase the accuracy of the research, a complete enumeration was used. A process approach to entrepreneurship in suburban areas is a multidimensional approach. In this view, entrepreneurship is a multidimensional and complex framework that emphasizes the individual, the environment, the organization, and the process of the economic project. According to Kuratko and Hodgest 2004, this type of process shifts entrepreneurship from a fragmented school of thought to a dynamic and interactive process approach that constitutes the variables and items measured in this study. The method of data collection was field method (questionnaire); its face validity was confirmed and its validity and reliability were obtained by using Cronbach's alpha test for the variables of external and internal environment of entrepreneurship in the suburban area of ​​0.72, which indicated the appropriateness of the research tool. For this purpose, first the dimensions and concepts of identifying the suburban areas of the central district of Kermanshah city are inferred and determined according to the typology of the suburban areas. Then, correlation and multiple regression tests in SPSS20 software were used to analyze the effects.

Discussion and Conclusion
Findings indicate that entrepreneurship in the central district of Kermanshah, from a spatial perspective, is the space of functions such as some agricultural and industrial activities (such as production sites) organic fertilizers, cut flowers, production of new crops instead of traditional crops, etc.), tourism and recreation that cannot be placed in Kermanshah due to lack of sufficient space. Conceptually, it has been associated with rapid social and economic growth. From an institutional point of view, it is very complex and sometimes confusing in the field of management due to the presence of formal and informal stakeholders, and this complexity has often led to the failure of economic activities in this region. In other words, from the perspective of the urban peripheral entrepreneurship, the entrepreneurial areas of the central district of Kermanshah city are structurally-physically in the category of rural urban peripheral spaces (rural places with urban awareness and thinking), which are not close to the city center and distance from the city (maximum 20 km). However, due to the presence of entrepreneurs and the spatial connection with the metropolis of Kermanshah, they have caused changes and are experiencing a kind of urban life. The results also showed that there is a positive and significant relationship between the variables of entrepreneurial spirit of individuals, economic and environmental process in rural areas and the development of suburban spaces at the level of one percent error. The results of regression analysis showed that the variables of rural entrepreneurship (entrepreneurial spirit of individuals, economic process and environment (external and internal) governing the village), have a significant effect on the development of suburban spaces and have the ability to explain 96% of changes in suburban spaces. The most important influential variable was the environmental variable. In this study, among the multiple dimensions of entrepreneurship, the most important variable in the development of suburban spaces was identified as the internal and external environment of rural space, Entrepreneurs' role in the environment includes the currents and peripheral spaces that govern entrepreneurship, such as people, experiences, social, economic, political, technology and related constructive interactions between the entrepreneur and the environment, can be concluded external elements affect the entrepreneur and his personality and in some cases create ideal conditions in which the entrepreneur can discover opportunities and take advantage of them. Therefore, it is proposed to control the flows and forces (economic, social, technological and political) that impact the entrepreneurs and their businesses from the external environment of the villages over time.

Raei Seyedeh Samaneh , Ebrahim Moradi, Ahmad Akbari,
Volume 10, Issue 35 (Spring 2021 2021)

The increasing population growth and the need for more agricultural products on the one hand, and on the other hand, the limitations of agricultural development are problems that human beings have always tried to solve. Due to the limited resources and inputs of production, it seems that further production growth is possible through advanced technologies. In fact, technology is something beyond the method of production and its processes; Technology is a mixture of knowledge, skill and technical ability. In fact, technology is something beyond the method of production and its processes; Technology is a mixture of knowledge, skill and technical ability. The use of technology can increase productivity, increase labor productivity, reduce production costs and reduce hassle of labor, hence encouraging villagers to continue agricultural activities.  Therefore, the development of technology will play an important role in development strategies and rural economy.  Based on the translog cost function, technological changes can be divided into three components: pure technical change, non-neutral, and scale expansion. Recognizing the changes in technology governing wheat farmers for this matter, and its growth rate to help improve and strengthen their status and provide analyzes based on economic principles should be considered.
Among agricultural products, wheat is considered a strategic product and has more than 50% of the total cultivation area of Iranian grain crops.  Fars Province is the second province in terms of wheat production in Iran. Despite the high capability of wheat production in Iran, this province has changed its position in production due to instable production. Thus, addressing the issue of technological changes that can affect wheat production is of particular importance.
Also, in Fars Province, zoning plan of production areas was carried out in 2013 with the aim of transferring new knowledge to producers in the agricultural sector in small managerial areas called zones. In addition to the zoning plan in Fars Province (cities), in this research, an attempt has been made to address the changes in wheat farmers' technology and its impact on the rural economy using the geographical weight regression method.

The current study is descriptive-analytical and applied in terms of aim. The data collection tool is in the form of documents which according to the information obtained from the experts of Fars Agricultural-Jahad organization during the period 2013-2018. First, the distance between cities was created using a Google Earth software to form a weight matrix; Then, the model was estimated with the translog cost function and by considering the weight matrix and the geographical weight regression method in Stata16 software. The statistical population of the study is wheat farmers in the cities of Fars Province, which is divided into 612 parcels. Now, after several years of implementation of this plan (zoning of Fars province), technology changes by its components (pure technical change, non-neutral change and scale expansion) to produce wheat in Fars Province was examined using weight regression approach Geographical (GWR). Because each implementation of technology change requires special policies, calculating technology changes by its components is vital and necessary.
Discussion and conclusion
The results of estimating the translog cost function by geographical regression model showed that seed, soil and water elasticity at the level of one percent and toxin elasticity at the level of five percent are significant. High coefficient of determination is also a good sign of fitness. Evaluation of the results of calculating technology changes shows that in the study period and with a geographical regression approach, the average progress of wheat technology in the rural economy of the province sums to 0.001. In addition, the average growth rates of pure technical change, non-neutral scale expansion are -0.005, 0.021 and -0.15, respectively. The share of the effect of non-neutral technical change rate in technology changes is greater than the share of pure technical change and scale expansion.
As the results show, the average growth of technology is not significant, which can be attributed to the lack of convergence of the average growth rate of non-neutral technical change and pure technical change and scale expansion. In fact, this level of technological advancement has not been able to have much positive effect on the rural economy in Fars Province. According to the results, it is suggested that for the growth of new technology, investment in mechanization infrastructure such as leveling, drainage, land consolidation and lending to be used to better use equipment and production facilities and benefit from the optimal scale of production because in practice, the performance of new technologies will be negligible if these issues won’t be considered.
In addition, the results show that cities; Marvdasht, Arsanjan, Kazerun, Sarvestan and Kharameh, which are located near the center of the province (Shiraz), have had the greatest impact due to technological changes in the rural economy, because they have more facilities. Abadeh, Neyriz, Mehr, Farashband and Rostam, which are located in the marginal areas of Fars Province, had the lowest average of technological changes in the region's economy, because they had less access to the use of new technologies.
In addition, the results of neutral change lead to cost savings on the production factors.  In other words, technological changes have been able to manage the use of inputs to reduce production costs.

Kebria Moradi, Hamdollah Sojasi Qeidary, Hamid Shayan, Omid Ali Kharazmi,
Volume 10, Issue 38 (winter 2022 2022)

In recent decades, the international growth of agricultural tourism in rural economies has raised a number of important policy-related topics for local development planning, the most important of which is the development of production and support for entrepreneurship in agricultural tourism. Given that entrepreneurship in all areas, including agricultural tourism, is a complex phenomenon, agricultural tourism as a complex system encompasses a large range of interactions between economic, environmental, social, technical and financial elements. Therefore, the development of entrepreneurial businesses for agricultural tourism is based on the framework of the factors that make up the environment of a system. Therefore, all these factors must be investigated. Because these factors are interrelated and interact directly and indirectly. In this regard, identifying key factors and factors in the development of entrepreneurial businesses as a complex system can help to revitalize rural areas of the region and is effective in realizing the goals of entrepreneurship in rural areas. Therefore, in this research, it will be tried to identify the proposed dimensions and components for the development of entrepreneurial businesses in the field of agricultural tourism, and the model of development of entrepreneurial businesses in agricultural tourism will be provided based on the causality model.

The current research is an applied research and regarding the results, it is an exploratory research. In this regard, the factors affecting the development of entrepreneurial businesses in agricultural tourism were identified and classified in four socio-cultural, individual skills, tourism facilities and policies. This research also focuses on the rural areas of Mahallat town due to its potential and its ability to develop agricultural tourism. According to field studies of 40 villages in the studied area in two districts of Khorheh and Bagherabad, 21 villages with agricultural tourism capability were identified and selected. In order to investigate the effect of each variable in the causal factors model, 30 questionnaires were designed and delivered to the executive and academic elites. Vensim software was used to draw the causal diagram based on systematic thinking, and to analyze the collected data, descriptive and inferential statistics (single sample and Friedman) were used in SPSS software.

Discussions and Results
The results of t test indicate that the factor of policy making and its related variables are the highest mean and then the factor of facilities and services of tourism with 4.02, the factor of individual skills with 3.8, socio-cultural factor with 3.7 and the factor of local capacity with 3.6 are placed in the next ranks respectively. Regarding the fact that in recent years, entrepreneurship is considered as one of the important components of job creation and economic development in societies, so in the last few decades, policymakers in different societies have tried to develop entrepreneurial policies for economic growth. Also, given that the rural development plays a very important role in national development, the development of entrepreneurial activities in rural areas can be considered as a tool for national development. The results of the research on the basis of the t test show that the impact of the policy making factor on the development of entrepreneurial businesses in agricultural tourism is ranked first, and the factor of tourism facilities and services, socio-cultural factors, individual skills and local agricultural capacities are the next ranks respectively. The results of the Friedman test also indicate that the factor of policy making is ranked first by the experts, so the findings of this study indicate that the government as the most influential factor through policies and policies related to the development of entrepreneurial entrepreneurship in the field of agricultural tourism and supportive policies can enhance the motivation and the fields of entrepreneurship development in the villages. On the other hand, it has a direct impact on other factors as well. Also, the cultural and social factor and policy will have a significant impact on the individual skills factor as there are positive attitudes towards entrepreneurship in the community as well as policy makers support entrepreneurial activities in rural areas, the desire for entrepreneurial activities in agricultural tourism grows in local communities. It also boosts social and communication skills, entrepreneurship creativity and innovation, and high-quality services, resulting in tourists coming to the region more frequently and defining their good experience everywhere. Also, the factors of policy making and individual skills will directly affect the factors of the facilities and services of the tourism because when qualified human resources are trained in local communities, especially experienced tour guides and thus creating interaction between tourists and residents of the region and awareness of tourists' needs can serve as a stimulating factor for satisfaction and safety of tourists. Local capacity factor is also an important factor in the development of entrepreneurial businesses in rural areas, because there is no potential and developmental capacity for this type of tourism in many areas.

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