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Ali-Akbar Najafi-Kani, Nooshin Sadeghi, Maryam Rahmani,
Volume 2, Issue 5 (12-2013)

With accelerated urban growth during past decades in the country,one could well observed the annexation phenomena. This unplanned and spontaneous annexation paved the way for the development of sputter settlements in the margin and edges of the cities. This study aims to investigate the challenges and barriers that these new borne communities are of Ouzineh and Anjirab encountered with. It plans to evaluate the satisfaction level of the settlers. Regarding the provision of services by Gorgan urban authorities and municipalities. The research method has descriptive - analytical and survey nature which supports documentation as well as field works. This study demands the application of K2, logistic regression,and independent Fiand T test, and SPSS software.It suggests that there exists significant relationship between level of development and social economic and environmental indices. It is further argued that migration and its issuing impacts is being considered as the most prominent barrier and challenges regarding spatial development of urban margined lands. It further supports this fact that in appropriate urban policies regarding development has enhanced the challenges and un-satisfaction level of squatter settlements

Ali Akbar Najafi Kani, Mehdi Hesam, Hadiseh Ashor,
Volume 4, Issue 11 (5-2015)

Nowadays, management and economy as science as well as entrepreneurship receive special attention. Strengthening entrepreneurship and creation of an appropriate setting for its development are being considered as a good tool for economic improvement namely in developing countries. Based on entrepreneurship world statement, there exist a high relationship between national economic growth and organizational and national entrepreneurship level. Generally speaking, entrepreneurs potentially exist in any country. However, one should put extra effort to increase their capabilities. Moreover, the existing structures should pave the way for proving themselves. As a matter of fact, entrepreneurs play a vital role regarding social and economic development and transformation. They act as a prime element for revitalization as well as continuation of development. That is why many governments in both developed and developing countries try to guide and encourage entrepreneurs and provide them relevant education .Iran experienced high rural-urban migration as a result of rural backwardness. This is associated with ghettoes, down grading of quality of life, low job opportunities, increase in crime and delinquency. The major objective of rural plan is the achievement of rural development. This in turn will lead to reduction of unemployment increase in job opportunities. These two phenomena are the resultant of Imbalanced labor force, demand and supply as well as decrease in agricultural growth sector in rural areas and decline in job opportunities (23.4%). It is argued that agricultural development by itself cannot guarantee rural economic development and irradiate poverty. Thus attention to other sectors is strongly suggested. Despite, the importance of entrepreneurial ship and its impact upon global economy, Iran has not paid an appropriate attention in this regard. High degree of youth population, lack of job opportunities, high unemployment rate demand more attention to this phenomenon. As such this paper predominantly aims to access entrepreneurship status in southern Astarabad in Gorgan.
Research method:
This study possesses descriptive- analytical nature. It is farther based on survey technique and questionnaire. As such 10 experts in the area were asked to give their opinions in order to weigh the relevant chosen criteria. Study area is composed of 16 villages which house 4805 households. Cochran formula was applied in order to determine the appropriate sample size with the significant level of 95%. Sample size turned out to be 356 which extracted via random sampling technique taking into consideration the number of households in every individual village. This study further followed by application of hierarchical weighing fuller triangle technique regarding the viewpoints of the experts. At the end, it demands ORESTE model in order to rank the villages.
Discussion and concluding:
This study suggests that entrepreneurship not only cause better utilization of the existing resources, but also paves the way for rural settlements sustainability. This is because entrepreneurship through providing job opportunities and resultant sufficient incomes make the settlers to remain in their village. It further could attract investment and draw outside labor force to the area. This in turn will strengthen the foundations of national regional development. However, all of the villages do not possess the same potential in terms of entrepreneurship. As such this study try to prioritize villages located in southern Astarabad in Gorgan from entrepreneurship aspect. According to experts view points, accessibility to education and training, consulting, experiences, knowledge and skill are being considered as main yardsticks in this regard. However, access to capital without needed education and training could not lead to entrepreneurship. According to ORESTE technique computation Naziabad, Sarnabad, and Maryamabad, based on the above mentioned criteria possess the highest ranks as opposed to lower shahkoh, Siyashlou and Qazagh-mahale. This study suggests education and training regarding entrepreneurship specifically in the area of tourism. It believes that lack of capital is being considered as a major obstacle in the study area. Providing low interest loans to rural settlers which could give them initial capital and motivation with respect to entrepreneurship is highly recommended.

Aliakbar Najafi Kani, Esmaeil Shahkooei, Masomeh Molaei,
Volume 5, Issue 16 (summer 2016 2016)

Todays, the importance of agricultural development and putting more value on it, unlike past days, is concluded from the fact that in the process of economic development program, an increasing attention is given to social welfare goals in addition to other goals of increasing revenue. In every society, at times of population increase, the increase of agricultural products, which is in direct relation with the rate of population increase, requires an increase of the productivity in existing lands relying on the improvement of farming techniques and irrigation systems. Basically, agricultural development means a transition of traditional techniques to modern industrial ways of production which includes top modern agricultural techniques like planting and harvest methods and the use of agricultural machinery. Agricultural mechanization is a new approach of providing the situation of promoting from traditional to modern agriculture. Additionally, it is considered as the most useful factor to help us achieve our goals of rural development. Machinery technology development is a matter of great importance in rural development strategies. Using technology in the process of rural development can lead to the elimination of barriers to production. As mechanization causes less difficulties and more money from agricultural activities, it makes farming more fascinating for villagers and stimulate them to continue their farming activities and prevent them continuously move to the cities. In this research, we are investigating possible consequences of mechanization and its effect on rural development of south Astarābāto find answers to the following questions:
1) Is there any connection between agricultural mechanization with productivity and improvement of agricultural economy?
2) To what extent has agricultural mechanization affected promoting of social components such as reducing immigration and increasing farmers' tendency to stay in rural districts?
3) Is there any relation between official policies or responsible organization and agricultural mechanization?
This is an applied research which has been done using descriptive- analytical approach in a field study. For data analysis and interpretation, independent T test, Mann Whitney test, and the process of correlation analysis have been applied in SPSS software. Statistical population of the research consists of two types of agricultural households, a group of more mechanized households and another group of less mechanized ones, from 22 villages located in rural district of South Astarābād. A number of 10 villages (including 6 plain villages and 9 mountain villages) were chosen as sample society based on the total number of 6423 households and homogeneity of the villages in terms of geographical features. Using Cochran formula, the sample size of the society (190 households) was determined. Considering the population of each village, their participation in answering the questionnaires was determined. Questionnaires were delivered among different households in a simple random sampling way.
Discussion and conclusion
By its effect on timely agricultural operations and reducing production costs, agricultural mechanization plays an effective role in increasing revenues and consequently improving economic level and quality of life for agricultural uses. According to the results from the questionnaires a significant relation of a top confidence level (95 or 99%) is confirmed between agricultural mechanization with productivity and improvement of economic and social components. In this regard, the government plays a key role in the development of mechanization infrastructures such as integration, leveling, land drainage, giving low-interest loans and making decisions for agricultural institutions. Considering the fact that lower participation and self-help of operators and lack of education and awareness of the benefits of mechanization are the most important factors affecting the failure of the government and people in promoting mechanization, an overall management and programming by the government is inevitable to help us achieve our goals. The followings are suggested for the improvement of mechanization.
- Strong support of the government for infrastructure development of agricultural mechanization such as land consolidation, irrigation channels, land leveling and drainage, irrigation development, and construction of roads between farms;
- Reducing official bureaucracy and granting low-interest loans by banks to promote agricultural mechanization;
- Holding training and educational coursed for the introduction of proper use of machineries and their technology to the farmers.

Esmaeil Najafi, Yaqub Abdali, Maryam Beyranvandzadeh,
Volume 9, Issue 34 (winter 2021 2021)

One of the major and fundamental issues in the field of spatial planning is balanced development, which can be raised in the form of balanced development of sectors or regions. In line with the social justice policy, as the central aim of the country's development plans, it is necessary to study the situation of different regions in terms of distribution and the extent of having different environmental indicators and consider the shortcomings and inadequacies for future development plans. Such studies can show the situation of different geographical areas from a comparative point of view and classify them in terms of development facilities and bottlenecks, also, determine their development priorities. In this way, by assessing the potential level of the regions, their facilities and capabilities can be presented from different perspectives and the necessary tools can be provided to ascertain the decision for allocation of different resources in the territory. The aim of this study is to level, classify and spatial zoning of rural poverty in Hormozgan Province using environmental indicators and combined indicators. These indicators have been used to rank the rural areas of Hormozgan Province based on the level of environmental potential. The results of this study can be effective for decision-making officials and ultimately, the development of social justice.
Research Methods
The present research applied-developmental in terms of purpose. In respect of the type of methods it is a combination of descriptive-analytical and correlational methods. The data used were collected through statistics and information published from the identification of settlements and statistical yearbook published in 2016, meteorological data, topographic maps, geology and faults, etc. For data analysis, McGranhan method or correlation coefficient method was used. Furthurmore, calculating the sum of points has been used to weight the indicators. The fuzzy scaling method is one of the most common and important methods for normalizing stability indices, which is the basis of many other methods and is also mentioned in the sources with titles such as deprivation coefficient. Indicators with a positive aspect (ascending) and indicators with a negative aspect (descending) have different computational bases. This method has also been used to determine deprivation coefficients and the Combined Human Development Index in the UN Human Development Report. This method also uses Spearman correlation coefficient. Kramer correlation coefficient has been used to express the degree of correlation between the two variables studied independent variables (environmental factors) and dependent variables (economic development).
Discussion and Conclusion
Based on the calculated combined environmental index score, 92 villages of Hormozgan province are located in 5 classes and zones. In 13.04% of the rural areas, the combined index score is less than 0.913 and in these rural areas, the environmental potential for development is very low. In 9.78% of the rural areas, the combined index score is between 0.914 to 1.095 and in these rural areas, the environmental potential for development is low. 38.04% of the rural areas in terms of environmental potential are in the range of 1.096 to 1.279, which is at an average level. Combined environmental index score in 28.26% of rural areas is between 1.280 to 1.462 and these rural areas have great potential in terms of environmental indicators. In 10.87% of the rural areas, the score of the combined environmental index is 1.463 and more. These rural areas have a great environmental potential. Among the rural districts of Hormozgan Province, Koukherd and Fatoueh Rural Districts are from Koukherd and central district of Bastak County, Gafer, Darabsar, Jakdan and Sardasht Rural Districts of Gaofroparmon, Gohran and central district in Bashagard County; Bandar Charak Rural District of Shibkuh District in Bandar Lengeh County; Rovidar Rural District of Rovidar District in Khamir County; Faryab Rural District of the central district in Rudan County and Cheragabad, Karian and Gorband Rural District of Tokhoor and central districts of Minab County are among the rural districts that are in a low situation of environmental capabilities and potentials. As the results suggest, the highest percentage of frequency is related to the level of moderate and low environmental poverty and the lowest percentage is related to rural areas with high environmental poverty and very low environmental poverty. That is, out of 92 rural areas in Hormozgan Province, 12 villages are very high in poverty, 9 villages are very poor, 35 villages are moderately poor, 26 villages are low in poverty and 10 villages are very low in poverty.
The results suggest that there is a direct and significant relationship between environmental variables and rural economic development. The significant level (0.000) indicates the relationship between independent variables (environmental factors) and dependent (economic development). Rainfall, water resources, climate, land potential and natural hazards (earthquake and flood) are the most important environmental indicators that can play a role in limiting the economic development of rural areas in Hormozgan Province.
The main natural environmental limitations for rural economic development in Hormozgan Province are the following:
  • Low precipitation with unfavorable time and space distribution, hence lack of water resources, as a result, it is difficult to regenerate the natural forests and pastures and return to normal balance.
  • Extension and multiplicity of saline formation along with alkalinity, which has made a large part of the province's water and soil resources saline and inutile.  
  • Risks caused by natural disasters, the influx of dunes and desertification with a negative inclination in pasture production and lack of investment to protect forests and pastures, water and soil and rural fuel supply.
  • Continuation of drought and its negative consequences in agriculture, urban and rural development.
  • Existence of unfavorable weather conditions that cause severe depreciation of material capital and machinery compared to other regions of the country. Also, the biggest problem in rural employment is the inadequacy of income from economic activities (mainly agriculture and maritime). One of the most important strategies in the field of agriculture is the development of greenhouse cultivation due to the conditions of water resources and shortages in this sector.

Aliakbar Najafi Kani, Kobra Najafi,
Volume 10, Issue 35 (Spring 2021 2021)

The tourism industry can provide a good platform for investment, and because of its less reliance on resources, provides an opportunity for less developed countries to stimulate their economic growth to increase production and create job opportunities. Meanwhile, the villages have very favorable and special conditions in accordance with their cultural, social, economic, geographical and natural structure. Today, tourists are interested in visiting farms, orchards, groves, springs, cultural and tourist landscapes in rural settlements. Therefore, planning to use them to develop rural tourism is inevitable. Undoubtedly, rural tourism is a reliable source in many developed and developing countries, which can have a significant impact on increasing the income of villagers. One of the biggest benefits of the rural tourism sector is to create income and increase wages, and consequently to improve the economic situation for the people who work there. Accordingly, the overall purpose of this study is to investigate the capacity of tourism development and provide solutions to develop tourism in mountainous villages near the metropolis of Tehran.
Damavand County is in Tehran Province, which has been selected as a typical tourism region of Iran. According to the 2016 census, its population is 125480 people. This county with an area of 1932 square kilometers, includes five districts named Damavand, Absard, Kilan, Rudehen and Abali, two districts including central and Rudehen and 111 villages. Its average height above sea level is 2300 meters.
The center of this county (Damavand city) is located 75 km away from Tehran and has an average height of 2051 meters and its population is 48380 people.
The central district of the county consists of three rural districts, Jam Abroud, (Absard city as capital), Abarshiveh Rural District, (Sarbandan village as the capital), and Tarrud Rural District, (Mara village as the capital), which overall have 87 villages.
Damavand mountainous and countryside county, with its many capabilities and diverse geographical landscapes, has potential and actual capabilities to attract tourists. Abali track, lakes such as Tar and Havir lakes, several waterfalls such as Tizab, Ayeneh Rud. Cheshmeh A'la and Roodafshan Cave and its numerous springs, beautiful gardens and farms, and a very pleasant climate are among its tourist attractions.
The most important attractions of this area attract many nature enthusiasts. For many years, it has been used by the public, especially the residents of the metropolis of Tehran, and many travelers travel from other areas, so comprehensive understanding, design, and proper management to develop tourism in this area is essential and inevitable. Accordingly, the present study, by examining and explaining the important factors of tourism development, tries to consider the welfare of present and future generations, improvement in the quality of life and finally improvement of economic and social welfare level and creating a healthy rural environment in the study area. According to the mentioned issues, the fundamental questions of the research are as follows:
  • What is the capacity of rural tourism in the studied villages?
  • What are the key strategies to solve tourism issues in rural areas?
Research Methodology
Research type is applied research and the research method is descriptive-analytical and field study. The statistical population of the present study is rural households living in the twelve studied villages that according to the 2016 census the population is equal to 14024 people and 3600 households, 15 questions in this research as tourism development capacity and 18 questions as possible challenges for tourism development. It was set in a five-level Likert item (very low, low, medium, high and very high). Tables 1 and 2 demonstrate the reliability of the research instrument using Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the studied components which were 79%, the sample size was 260 by using Cochran's formula and the number of samples was randomly simple/systematic after measuring, the generators were analyzed by using SPSS software and using a hierarchical cluster analysis method.

Discussion and Conclusions
The results of studies in the field of rural tourism show that tourism is an important factor in the occurrence of positive and negative changes in the economic, social and environmental fields at the local and regional levels. Although this activity can lead to the development of rural areas, it can have both adverse consequences. The results of the Friedman Test for measuring the tourism development capacity explain a significant difference at the 99% level with each other. Also, for the challenges of tourism development a significant and 95% difference between the investigated indices is observed. The results of the hierarchical cluster analysis test (neighborhood matrix calculations) Euclidean distance of each village is compared to the next village and based on this, the similarities and differences of the villages have been explained. Then, the clustering process is done in eleven stages, and the studied villages are classified into four categories in terms of tourism capacity. The first cluster villages (Moomej, Jaban Ayneh Varzan) and the second cluster villages (Sarbandan, Zan, Seyyedabad, Havir, Dehnar and Shalambeh) have the most tourism development capacity respectively. Although the third cluster village (Vadan) and the fourth cluster villages (Sorkh Deh and Hashemak) have many tourist attractions compared to the first and second cluster villages, they have lower tourism development capacity. The studied villages are also divided into four categories in terms of the challenges of tourism development. The first cluster village (Moomej village) and the second cluster villages (Jaban, Sarbandan, Vadan, Zan, Ayneh Varzan, Seyyedabad, and Dehnar) have the most challenges in tourism development, respectively. However, the villages of the third cluster (Havir and Shalambeh) and the villages of the fourth cluster (Sorkh Deh and Hashemak) have the least challenges respectively. It can be concluded that while some villages have a high tourism potential based on studied indicators, some of them are also more vulnerable. Therefore, the endeavor of all local managers and officials towards the comprehensive management of rural tourism development is essential and inevitable.

Ali Akbar Najafi Kani,
Volume 10, Issue 38 (winter 2022 2022)

On the one hand, food Supply to the country's 85 million people and its growing population, and the need to achieve self-sufficiency in agricultural production and food security, on the other hand, necessitate an increase in agricultural production in the country. This requires an alteration in traditional farming systems and methods, including soil cultivation and open field cultivation (cultivation in farm and garden) and their replacement with new and high-yield methods such as hydroponics.
Hydroponics, despite the need for sufficient expertise and relatively high initial capital compared to soil cultivation,  has several advantages such as high yield, low labor requirement, no need to observe crop rotation, weed control, plant growth uniformity, minimum water loss, Lack of competition of plants for water and nutrients, the possibility of providing food supply in accordance with the needs of plants, less use of chemicals and as a result healthier crops. Another advantage of this system is its applicability and use in various levels, including large greenhouses commercially and small home scales. In-home environments, by using unused spaces such as homes’ rooftops, indoors and even parking lots and so on, the required products can be easily produced organically. By using the mentioned method and by employing the professional and the youth of the country and also by considering the numerous advantages of hydroponic systems, not only it creates jobs and entrepreneurship, but also helps the development of the country's economy by producing valuable products.

Research Methodology
Due to the importance of the subject, the general purpose of this study is to scrutinize the role of hydroponic farming in the prosperity and the production leap and, consequently, the economic development of rural areas. The present study is in applied form and in terms of the method is descriptive-analytical based on field studies and the statistical population is the villages of the central district of Gorgan County. After identifying and designing the indicators, a questionnaire was prepared that by using Cochran's formula, 240 employers and hydroponic farmworkers, as well as villagers, were selected and interviewed as a sample population. Finally, using the T-test and Mann–Whitney U test, multiple linear regression test, and cluster analysis  (compression type) in the SPSS software environment, data were measured and analyzed.
Gorgan has a privileged geographical position and excellent climatic conditions due to its location which is between a vast and fertile plain and mountains covered with forests and also its relatively short distance to the Caspian Sea. This County is bounded by Aq Qala city from the north, Semnan Province from the south, Aliabad County from the east, and Kordkuy County from the west. In terms of area, Gorgan is 1615 square kilometers (7.91 percent of the province) and the average height of the city is 155 meters above sea level. According to the country divisions in 2016, it consists of two central parts, Baharan and five Rural Districts (Estarabad-e Jonubi, Anjirabad, Roshanabad, Estarabad-e Shomali, Qoroq) and 98 villages.

Results and discussion
The results of the independent t-Test indicate that there is a significant difference in the production of summer crops per unit area between the two studied methods and the income of landowners with a 99% confidence level. The results of the Mann-Whitney test also indicate that there is a significant difference of 99% among the chemical fertilizers absorption coefficient, pesticides, and the apparent quality of crops. Moreover, the results of the multiple linear regression test to explain the effectiveness of hydroponics in multiple fields show that their satisfaction with hydroponics is very high. In other words, the hydroponics method not only reduces water consumption and increases production per unit area and demonstrates the 99% relationship, but also partially improves the absorption of pesticides and chemical fertilizers in the plant. The results obtained or the coefficient of determination obtained in the regression indicate that hydroponic farming was effective up to approximately 88% in increasing crop production per unit area, reducing water consumption and increasing the fertilizers and absorption coefficient, and also increasing farmers' incomes. Cluster analysis was used to measure the development capacity of hydroponics in the target villages and they were classified into four categories in terms of development capacity. Villages of the first cluster (Karimabad and Saadabad) and villages of the second cluster (Lamlang, Jelin, Kheyrat,Fayzabad and Ziarat) have the highest development capacity of hydroponics, respectively. The villages of the third cluster (Maryamabad) and the villages of the fourth cluster (Qarnabad, Dodangeh, Ahangar Mahalleh, and Tushan), although they have good capacity in different fields, they have a lower capacity in comparison to the villages of the first and second clusters.

Nahid Isa Nejad, Ali Akbar Najafi Kani , Alireza Khajeh Shakooei,
Volume 12, Issue 43 (Spring 2023 2023)

Today, one of the country's tourism patterns is second homes tourism, often common in mountainous regions with mild regions. The second homes are primarily located in spectacular areas, recreational places, and on the outskirts of large and medium-sized cities. Rural tourism is a reliable source of income in many countries and has an increasing impact on improving rural households' economic and physical situation. The current study investigates the consequences of second homes tourism in mountainous villages near the metropolis of Tehran.
Researchers believe that households living elsewhere buy or rent second homes. Such homes are usually located in rural areas and are used for recreational purposes and are also called weekend homes and holiday homes.
Second homes usually have four characteristics:
- A private home that family and guests often use on weekends and holidays.
 -A private home that is alternately used as a holiday home.
- It is often purchased for retirement periods but is also used as a commercial property.
- Used as holiday homes, commercially as an investment, and usually by an agency. 

This study is applied with a descriptive and field descriptive method. According to the 1395 census, the statistical population of the current study is rural households living in 9 villages, totaling 5554 persons. 310 villages were chosen as the sample community using the Cochran algorithm, and data were analyzed using correlation analysis, Friedman, Kruskalvalis, and Linear regression in SPSS software.
Shemiranat is one of the counties of Tehran Province, considered an excellent tourism region of Iran, and consists of two districts: Lavasanat and Rudbar-e Qasran. According to the census of 2016, Rudbar-e Qasran District has a population of 17419. The Qasran Bastani region includes Oushan, Fasham, Darbandsar, Gajereh, and the villages at the foothill of Tochal to the western areas of the Jajrud River. Contrary to many peoples’ beliefs, the language of the people of Rudbar-e Qasran District in most neighborhoods, especially Meygun, Shahrestanak, Lalan, Zayegan, Ruteh, Garmabdar, Shemshak, and Darbandsar, is Mazandarani. 

Discussion and conclusion
The results of Chi-square, Spearman, and Kendall correlation analysis demonstrate that the construction of second homes has a substantial association with a 99 percent confidence level with physical changes in villages and improved economic indicators. Friedman's findings also rank the most effective elements in recruiting tourists and increasing second houses. Kruskal-Wallis's findings reveal that second-home tourism affects all communities analyzed in terms of physical and economic characteristics and that they are all similar. The results of the linear regression test reveal that, depending on the variables evaluated, the investigated components are acceptable and significant. The coefficient of determination indicates that around 95% of the development is determined by the variables analyzed, with only about 5% depending on variables not discovered in this study.
The second homes are part of the tourism industry, which aims to use and introduce natural, cultural, historical, and other resources in the region to tourists to create opportunities for tourism development, which creates business in rural areas. Second homes can also be considered a potential product that elevates the level of society and puts the country in the tourism industry. 
In this regard, sustainable tourism emerged as the only solution to save nature and human beings. From this perspective, the paradigm of sustainable tourism examines tourism across borders. The tourism industry creates a triangular relationship between the host community, their territory, and the guest community (tourists). The goal is to alleviate any pressure or crises that may arise and achieve a long-term balance between all three parties.

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