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Nasr-O-Llah Mulayi-Hashjin, Abdollhamid Nazari, Vahid Adeli-Mosayeb,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (9-2013)

Iran’s agricultural sector comparing with the other economic sector suffers from subsistence method. Small farm size, scatter distribution of holdings, lack of an appropriate irrigation and drainage systems, and non-existence of roads between farms have led to increase in production costs and reluctance regarding agriculture activities and relevant investment. This in turn demands the implementation of equipped – renovated rice paddies plan. The study area is Soome-e Sara. Research method is based on analytical – descriptive method. This is followed by application of field work via observation, interview and filling the questionnaire in order to determine the economic impacts as well as the mechanization and its subsequent labor forces release as a result of implementation of the mentioned plan in the study area. Based on Morgan’s table, 376 questionnaires were distributed among the rural settler’s. This is followed by coding and SPSS analysis. This study suggests that the implementation of the mentioned plan has led to reduction in rice production costs, increase in efficiency and peasant incomes. It is further argued that needed labor force in new rice field is lower than the non-applied plan fields. Moreover, peasants possess job variation in new rice paddies as opposed to non-applied plan paddies. Furthermore, number of peasants deal with second round crop in new farms is more than the traditional one. However, the area under cultivation for second round crop in these villages which adopt the plan is more than the traditional one.

Ali Alimadadi, Abdolhamid Nazari, Mahmood Moradi, Ramin Ghaffari,
Volume 5, Issue 16 (summer 2016 2016)

According to general census in 2011, rural population of the country has been over 21 million and 603 thousand people. Considering the per capita monthly subsidy equivalent to 455,000 riyals, it can be resulted that in the first three years of the project, over 353 trillion has been allocated to rural community. Calculations show that this amount is equivalent to 2.4% of the total budget intended for this period of time. It was the first time that this amount of cash was being directly distributed among villagers by its cost and expenditure management being transferred to the families themselves. It seems that this method of paying subsidies has greatly influenced on economic and social status of rural communities.
Considering economic and cultural structure of rural societies together with attempts to remedy the lack of liquidity, a large amount of subsidies granted is spending for household livelihood expenses such as food, non-food and service expenses. Therefore, in this article we are intended to investigate the impacts of targeted subsidies on the current status of livelihood expenses of rural households in different social strata as well as making a comparison of targeted subsidies in two geographical areas (Kalat and Binalud). Generally, in this research we are trying to find answers to the questions that: 1) how is the position of natural resources, economic capital and people s income in rural areas of Kalat and Binalud (Torghabeh Shandiz)? 2) How did targeted subsidies affect to change patterns of livelihood expenses in different classes of rural areas in the County of Kalat and Binalud? And is there any significant difference between the two areas or not?
This research is an applied one which has been provided using the quantitative approach of descriptive-analytical. This is an exploratory research, as well. Basically, it has been done using the principals of survey researches which has investigated the effects of targeted subsidies (independent variable) on livelihood expenses of rural households (dependent variable) applying post event processing. This research has done in the two cities of Kalat and Binalud located in Khorasan Razavi. There are two reasons for choosing these cities. First, these are greatly influenced by their position i.e., they are located near the metropolitan County of Mashhad. Then, due to the border location of the two cities, not many researchers have concentrated on the matter of development in these areas, yet. So, due to the importance of environmental contrasts in geography, data analysis has been conducted using comparative approach that helped us study different aspects of the matter to determine and classify the role of different geographical foundations (including natural conditions, the distribution of basic economic resources, income, and social conditions) in class differences among rural groups. We have eventually compared the impact of paying subsidies on the increase of income and consequently on changing spending patterns of livelihood expenses by the residents of the two areas. Questionnaires providing in two types of qualitative and quantitative are being considered as the main tools of the study. Quantitative questions are mostly intended to answer the first question of the research which includes some issues of households' social features (population, age, gender, education) and economic resources (occupation, expenses and income, land, livestock, housing, and machinery resources). Qualitative questions aim at the investigation of changes in spending patterns by rural households to answer the second question arose in the research. This type of questions consist of 8 main components (food and non-food items, educational, medical, and healthcare expenses, communication services, tourism, Energy, agricultural institutions) of more than 54 reagents.
Discussion and conclusion
Emphasizing sustainable livelihoods approach, this research aims at analyzing consequences of targeted subsidies plan on the changes in spending patterns in different social strata of rural communities. Then, comparing the results in the two areas of Kalat and Binalud we will be able to examine the impact of geographical factors. As contrasting foundations of every natural area can be considered to be the basis of economic and social differences of different societies that may be changed later by the government policies. According to the survey, particular environmental situations and capacities of rural settlements in each of these areas has made different economic functions at regional level related to local communications and its connection with the metropolitan County of Mashhad. These factors are so much effective that each single one can cause long-time consolidation of special economic, social and cultural mechanisms in rural areas and geographical environments. There is no doubt that these factors firstly influence the economic business of the studied area. In Binalud, there are approximately 10 % of rich families by an average monthly income of higher than 20 million riyals which are owning of almost about 21% of economic resources. In return, the rest 70% of low-income families (less than 10 million riyals) are providing with 52% of economic resources. This situation indicates bigger class differences in this area.
The above mentioned indicators are not so much far from each other in Kalat. Additionally, different interactions and communications between urban and rural areas and their impacts on the households' livelihoods caused changes in spending patterns of rural households. Because,b 65% of Kalat villagers mentioned that, compared to the past, after receiving cash subsidies no change occurred in their spending. As an overall conclusion, the new method of targeted subsidies has relatively influenced the increase of income in lower social classes (about 15 to 25%) and somewhat moderated class differences. This factor has greatly affected spending patterns and made it improved, while it can be said that, due to the free price of subsidized goods, it didn’t lead to the sustainable livelihood of households.

Fatemeh Mozafari, Abdolhamid Nazari, Shahbakhti Rostami, Mostafa Shahinifar,
Volume 11, Issue 41 (Fall 2022 2022)

One of the current plans of the Iranian government is the "Home Business Organization Plan" to solve the problem of unemployment, which started in 2010. Even though home businesses are generally neglected in the economy, they are essential to creating employment, increasing income, improving the quality of life, reducing poverty, and perpetuating the population in rural areas. Unemployed, low-income or no-income villagers have welcomed the "home business organization plan" in Ilam province due to the following issues: geographical isolation, mountainous nature, distance from industrial and service centers, incompatibility of water and soil resources, lack of facilities for water control and transfer, the predominance of micro-agricultural exploitation units, the low level of mechanization, the severe financial weakness of the private sector, migration and the weakness of the economic foundations of rural society and in general the traditional and livelihood structure of production. In the present study, the issue has been discussed only from the economic viewpoint. Its purpose is to explain the role of economic dimensions of home businesses in the sustainable livelihood of rural households. Therefore, the central question of the present paper is: to what extent has the creation and development of home businesses in terms of job creation and diversification, increasing income and empowering and reducing poverty affected improving the sustainable livelihood of rural households?

Research Methods:
The current research is descriptive-analytical, and its statistical population includes 1476 households receiving loans in-home businesses who live in 287 villages in Ilam province. Considering the number and dispersion of villages, their selection was made by the sampling method. First, the number of villages was limited to 56 using cluster sampling (considering the homogeneity of four factors: altitude, distance from the city center, number of households and loan receivers). Then, the number of sample households was estimated to be 200 according to Cochran's formula and selected by simple random method. Finally, the data was collected using a researcher-made questionnaire after confirming its validity and reliability. After confirming the data's normality through the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, one-sample t-tests and confirmatory factor analysis were used to evaluate the hypothesis.

Results and Discussion: 
The conceptual basis of the current research is based on the strategy of "sustainable livelihood". Sustainable livelihood is not a "theory" but a strategy discussed in the scientific and executive circles of development programs in the framework of "sustainable development theory". This strategy has four environmental, economic, social and institutional dimensions. The first principle of the sustainable livelihood strategy emphasizes "focusing on people" and achieving sustainable development is considered an endogenous and bottom-up motivational movement. Nevertheless, according to the general structure of the organization and planning system of Iran, in which the "government" has a central role in carrying out any plan, and in terms of sustainable livelihood strategy, it is considered an external intervening factor with a top-down orientation, this paradox should be considered more seriously. The results showed that the creation of home businesses from the economic aspect in the job creation indicators, primarily the increase of women's jobs and the diversification of activities, had positive effects, which indicates its alignment with the standards of sustainable household livelihood strategy. Although the plan has been relatively successful in increasing income, it has not been very successful in terms of empowerment, especially poverty alleviation of the lower strata of society. The evaluation of the effectiveness of creating home businesses on the sustainability livelihood by the target community showed that the factors of job creation and diversification of activity with a particular value of 2.743 and variance percentage of 31.509, income generation and empowerment with a special value of 1.192 and the variance percentage of 13.263 and poverty alleviation with the value of 1.043 and the variance percentage of 11.249 are ranked first to third, respectively. In general, the performance of the mentioned plan can be evaluated as successful in creating jobs and diversifying the activities of the studied households. According to the indicators in the area of income increase, there is an unbalanced distribution of resources, income and investment power, which shows the weakness of the economic foundations and the undesired livelihood of the villagers of Ilam Province. In the field of poverty alleviation, the plan has not been very successful. The results of this research are fundamentally different from similar international studies and have some similarities with some similar national studies.

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