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Eisa Pourramzan, Zahra Akbari,
Volume 3, Issue 10 (3-2015)

The industrialization of rural areas has led to changes in rural economies through the absorption of rural population. This in turn, helps in reduction in unemployment rate as well as economic growth. This strategy is capable of improving rural standard of living and paves the way for the achievement of sustainable rural economy. This study tries to investigate the dimensions, aspects and benefits associated with linkages between agriculture and rural industries in general and in central part of Rasht in particular. It further stresses on the impact of agricultural complementary processing industries upon rural economy.
This study has applied nature and it is based on descriptive - analytical method. It further demands application of survey, field works as well as documentation. Statistical society composed of rural development experts. Out of 243 first round questionnaires, 48 were selected. The credibility of this questionnaire was done using the related experts. Its viability was determined to be 0.876 using Kronbakh alpha. This study further supports application of SPSS, Excel and Arc GIS for data analysis purpose.
This study suggests that the benefits and impacts of linkages between agriculture and industries are proven. This could exemplify itself in agricultural product support at different production stages, usage of new agricultural economic method, strengthening rural economy base, creation of jobs incomes as well as expansion of exports and rural investments. This linkage in turn could lead to strengthening rural economy bases and the achievement of rural sustainable development. It finally conveys this message that the only way of increase in agricultural products and self- sufficiency and entering into international market competition is through creation of agricultural complementary – processing industries.

Zinab Asadi, Eissa Pourramzan, Nasrollah Molaei Hashjin,
Volume 5, Issue 15 (5-2016)

Nowadays, most experts in rural development field agree that reaching to sustainable development is not impossible without all people’s Participation and undoubtedly, the process of development will be facilitated, with more speed and less expenditure. Meanwhile, the historical experience of our country emphasizes on utilizing top-down strategies for development, it shows its failure on the process of rural development. Therefore, based on this experience and increasing overall knowledge and scientific knowledge, it is necessary for the society to pay attention to rural development which is dominated by people’s Participation and this Participation should be the priority for plans and measures.
Spontaneous and endogenous development indicated that in all stages and in different circumstances, development is based on Participation of local people for mobilization of resources and institutionalizing local Participation with emphasis on empowerment and capacity building. People’s Participation causes them not to feel alienated with plans and new elements; this makes them to be engaged throughout the planning process and after that in implementation and maintenance of the plans; they feel that the plan and the product belong to them and they cooperate greatly to maintain it and make it dynamic. People’s Participation in local planning may lead to decentralization and it can reduce the limitations of top-down planning.
So, these plans and all the expenditures in these villages should result in development, if villagers wants and needs are recognized and they are engaged in villages' affairs; because, on one hand, villagers Participation leads to empowerment of institutions and social organizations in the village so that they facilitate development process, and on the other hand, it leads to usage of capabilities and talents of villages for national development, the sustainability of population and decrease of regional inequalities. Khoshke-bijar district is located in north-east part of Rasht County; in recent years, many construction plans and projects were prepared and implemented in these villages such as preparing and implementing guide plans, equipping and modernization of agricultural lands, gas delivery plans, purified water delivery system, and so on. According to this, the present study aims to answer this fundamental question that how much influence does people's Participation have on the development of villages in Khoshke-bijar district?
Regarding its objective, this is a practical study and a descriptive-analytical one according to its methodology. For studying and recognizing the status quo, descriptive method, and for statistical analyzing in the case of rural services and population, analytical method has been used. Therefore, theoretical and conceptual framework of the study and geographical and demographic features of the study were collected by documentary method and determining the ways that people engage in different areas had been done through field study. Statistical population includes villages of Khoshke-bijar district in Rasht County that have been selected in four categories: small villages, medium size villages, big villages and parts that are a combination of village and town. Study sample is determined 400 villagers, according to Morgan Standard Table that is distributed and completed by using random-quota sampling method in the studied area. Questionaries' validity is determined by experts' comments and those who have expertise in rural planning and its reliability is determined by Cronbach's Coefficient Alfa (0.81). For data analysis in this study some tests have been used including Wilcoxon Test, Spearman Correlation Test, and Kruskal Wallis Test.
Discussion and conclusion
Participation objective is generally defined as voluntarily participation of people in development plans in all stages- including goal setting, decision making, implementation, maintenance and evaluation. People's Participation can be recognized as a process through that poor and disadvantaged people can be organized and by this organizing they could try development efforts. If all villagers could be directed toward field creation and optimal organization, this filed and organization turn to be an instrument for expressing their wants, through that they could achieve their rational wants.
Villagers' Participation in Khoshe-bijar district will be on its maximum level, and can have impact on rural development, if all cited obstacles are removed. It is obvious that removing the existing economic problems in Khoshke-bijar district is not possible without focusing on social, cultural and political problems and when villages lack a desirable level of culture and social attitude, it will be impossible to expect them understand new methods of economic development and take the risk of them. Finally, it can be said that in Khoshke-bijar villages, despite of many different problems and obstacles in the way of Participation and using that for rural development, villagers' desire to engage in affairs and their presence in many development plans can be helpful and it clarifies the necessity of planning for this important matter.
The results show that the desire for intellectual, and physical Participation among villagers is in a desirable level. By increasing the economic power of the villagers in Khoshke-bijar district which is possible through their own Participation, we can expect that the level of Participation in plans and projects for rural development increase too. There is no doubt that Participation motivation among villagers depends on using cultural actions and giving awareness to them that are the top priorities. Because the level of Participation and cooperation among villages are at a high level in many villages of the developed countries in the world and they strongly believe in team work activities, the level of Participation is in a desirable level and villages are more developed too, due to widespread acculturation and internalization among rural people. It is obvious that when people of the studied area are aware of the advantages and effective results of cooperative works and they know more about the results of Participation for sustainable profits and interests, their motivation for Participation will increase.

Mohammad Nasiri Lakeh, Nasrollah Molaei Hashjin, Eisa Pourramzan,
Volume 10, Issue 35 (Spring 2021 2021)

The rural management system in Iran has undergone complex transformations in terms of socio-economic structures over the years, and efficient management void in rural areas in the long run, especially in recent decades, has posed many obstacles for villagers.
In this regard, it is necessary to explain the importance of local management in all dimensions and explain the role of local managers in performing tasks in rural areas in order to increase productivity, efficiency. After the formation of Islamic councils, and subsequently the establishment of rural municipality paved the way for giving the people the authority to manage. This leads to social capital in these areas, which can follow ensue further development.
In the present study, we first identify the weaknesses, strengths, opportunities and threats of the current rural management system, and then by reforming the rural management system, it provided conditions for the socio-cultural and economic development of villages in the central region of Guilan Province.  Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the rural management system and rural economic and socio-cultural development in the central region of Guilan Province.

According to the purpose, nature and method, this study is considered as an applied and descriptive-analytical research, respectively. In order to achieve the purpose of the research, the technique of direct observation was utilized in five dimensions to obtain data on the status and level of development of the studied counties. The statistical population of the study is the central area of Guilan province, villages depending on their height above the sea level are in two classes: coastal-plain and foothill-mountain. In order to select the samples in the villages of each county in the central region two criteria of population and geographical situation were considered. 120 villages were randomly selected from the villages from six counties of the region. Descriptive and inferential statistical methods as well as SPSS software were used to explain the central tendency and variability. Tables based on the T test and Arc GIS was used to produce the maps.

Discussion and conclusion
In this study, rural development in the central region of Guilan has been studied as a dependent variable in both economic and socio-cultural dimensions. In order to study rural management in two socio-cultural and economic dimensions, 33 items are considered "socio-cultural" and 31 items are considered "economic".
The item of raising the level of scientific knowledge of the villagers has obtained the lowest average score (3.17) in a total of 33 items studied in the socio-cultural dimension. In general, the average score of all social items is 3.71, which is higher than the mean, or 3, so it can be concluded that the improvement of rural management system is effective for socio-cultural development of villages. Also, the improvement of rural management system provides the socio-cultural development of the villages. It was also found that the items of cooperation with the Civil Registration Organization, recognizing social and cultural deficiencies and suggesting plans, introducing orphaned kids to support institutions, providing cultural and educational facilities and preparing support plans were among the most important items.  
In general, the average score of all economic items is 3.55, which is higher than the mean, or 3, so it can be concluded that improving the rural management system is effective on rural economic development. The items “estimation and regulation of annual rural budget", “business licensing", "impact of improving new management on rural economic development", "types of rural insurance" and "preparation of reform plans and proposals" in the economic sector with the highest scores, thereby are more important and effective than other items.
According to the findings of the present study, rural management in the central region of Guilan has economic and socio-cultural disadvantages. Therefore, suggestions in each of the dimensions of economic and socio-cultural development are presented as follows:
  • Predicting credits and facilities to support rural entrepreneurship according to the capacities of each village.
  • Preparing priority employment-generating plans in order to enjoy government support from the executive management of the villages based on the capabilities of each of the villages in the district.
  • Holding educational programs for Islamic village councils and rural governors relating to their various duties, rights and laws and regulations.
  • Holding rural employment and entrepreneurship training courses for villagers in the central area of Guilan.

Somayeh Ashouri Moridani, Mohammad Baset Ghoreyshi, Issa Pourramzan,
Volume 10, Issue 37 (Fall 2021 2021)

The limited financial capital in villages and the distance between rural production units and the policy of urban financial institutions have caused the lack of financial resources for villagers.  It should be noted that the low returns of both labor and capital factors has reduced the incentive for financial institutions to invest in agriculture, industry and services. In order to overcome this problem, one of the solutions within the framework of rural development policies is to provide micro-credits. This mechanism, which can eliminate the major problems of the rural economic system, has been widely appreciated in the last decade. Being so successful to a great extent, the United Nations named 2005 the Year of Micro credit.
The various capabilities of Masal County in Gilan Province have caused managers to seek financial funding from the government for various economic, physical and social sectors of villages to reduce rural poverty and boost local productivity. To this end, the credits were granted from the Agricultural Jahad Organization for agriculture (agriculture, horticulture and animal husbandry) and the banks for tourism and handicrafts to the villagers.
According to the purpose, nature and method, this study is considered as an applied and descriptive-analytical research, respectively. A descriptive method was used to identify the current situation in rural areas of Masal County. In this way, the agricultural land capability and the quantitative and qualitative status of agricultural inputs were identified. Documentary research and field studies were used to collect the required data. In the next step, these descriptive findings were evaluated to analyze the role of financial credits in creating agricultural developments using statistical analysis. The statistical population of the study consists of villagers living in rural areas of Masal County. According to the census of the Statistics Center of Iran in 2016, Masal has 94 inhabited villages with 9380 households and 29019 people and 14 uninhabited villages, which includes 55.1% of the total population of Masal County. 15 sample villages were selected, which include 2406 households. Using Cochran's formula, we determine 331 households as the sample size to complete the questionnaire.
Discussion and conclusion
63% of the total respondents received loans and financial credits in the agricultural sector. 37.8% of them admitted that the role of these credits in guiding the villagers towards new cultivation methods was moderate. 33.5% believe that the share of financial credits in increasing rural agricultural production has been between 11% and 19%. In other words, we can say: 58.9% of the respondents who used the received credits in the agricultural sector presume the effectiveness of the credits to be less than 20%.
After evaluating and analyzing each of the components related to financial credits for the agricultural developments, each item for the components was scored. The weighted mean of the items shows that the item "role of financial credits in creating new and high-yield crops" with an average of 3.98 in the first place, the item "willingness of villagers to reuse financial credits in the agricultural sector" with an average of 3.72 in the second place, and the item "The effect of financial credits on bringing villagers to provide advanced equipment, tools and machinery in increasing land productivity" with an average of 2.86 is in third place.
Based on this we can say: Granting financial credits to farming villagers has made them more capable of carrying out economic activities in the agricultural sector. By providing suitable inputs such as seeds, seedlings, fertilizers, pesticides, as well as improving agricultural and horticultural lands, and using advanced tools and equipment, they were able to increase the efficiency of their lands. In some cases, they were able to exploit bare lands, and help increase the land use.  After increasing production and the improvement of the living conditions of the villagers, the service sector has greatly decreased. Based on this we can say: Financial credits have been able to bring about changes in the agricultural sector in rural areas of Masal County. Thus, they have a positive effect on them.

Maryam Alinaghipour, Esa Pourramzan, Nasrolah Molaeihashjin,
Volume 11, Issue 39 (Spring 2022 2022)

The concept of livability is complex and includes various aspects of life. In general, livability is all the components that are the basis of creating a high quality settlement increase the rate of livability and the level of satisfaction of rural residents. These components appear in different dimensions: environmental-ecological, socio-cultural, economic, institutional-managerial and physical. Economic dimension is not the only factor affecting livability, but it is the significant one in the opinion of rural residents.
The villages around the metropolis of Rasht, like other villages in the country, are facing with various problems., If a place is economically improved, it is more suitable for living. Increasing the economic level Especially for young people will create satisfaction and prosperity in the society, increase the motivation of the residents to stay in the village environment and prevent the migration of the villagers, by investigating this issue, more appropriate planning can be done in the village environment to achieve the desired quality of life. The purpose of the current research is to analyze the economic livability of rural settlements around the metropolis of Rasht.  The study identifies economic indicators that are effective in livability and evaluates them in order to answer these questions: what are the economic indicators affecting livability? which villages are the most economically livable village in the study are?

The research in terms of purpose is applied study and in terms of methodology is descriptive-analytical. The required information is collected from documents and a field study. The required data are collected by interviewing and a questionnaire from head of household and village managers. The components and items in the questionnaire were extracted from the literature and field studies.37 rural settlements around metropolis of Rasht were statistical population. 516 head of household and 37 rural managers were statistical samples. The number of household head has been estimated based on the total number of households in the study area and using the Cochran formula. The validity of the questionnaire was approved by experts and specialists in rural studies. The reliability of questionnaires was assessed by Cronbach's alpha method. A number of questionnaires were completed randomly to pre-test in the study area and its reliability coefficient (0.837) was calculated which indicates the acceptable reliability. Excel and SPSS software were used in the descriptive statistics section. For inferential statistics, and the process of indexing, the livability scores were used for comparison and conclusion. One-sample t-test was used to prove the significance and generalizability of research results, and regression analysis to show the impact of the economic dimension on livability and for further analysis. The results of the studied villages were ranked according to the economic livability scores at five levels: very desirable, desirable, moderate, undesirable and very undesirable.

Discussion and conclusion
The economic dimension in livability consists of 4 components and 16 items. The components include employment and income, household expenses, land and housing value and tourism. Component of employment and income had 8 items including having a suitable job (in a village or adjacent town), the variety of available job opportunities in the village, job security and job satisfaction, satisfaction with family income, satisfaction with total family income, satisfaction with family saving and the existence of profitable investment. The component of the household expenses had 3 items including levels of satisfaction with household expenses, satisfaction with housing costs and satisfaction with shipping costs. The component of land and housing value had 3 items including the value of land in the village, the growth of the price of land and the growth of housing prices. The component of tourism had 2 items including the annual number of tourists and the income generated by the presence of tourists.
After identifying the effective components and items and the process of creating index, the economic livability scores of each of the studied villages were obtained. The value of land and housing with the score of 9.00 was the highest score and the tourism index with a score of 1.2 was the lowest score. Development of tourism was found an effective way to increase the level of economic livability in the studied villages. Also, considering the livability scores, Pirkolachai village has the highest score of 29.7 and Varazgah village has a lowest score of 94.3. Furthermore, the studied villages are classified according to their livability scores in five groups. According to this rating, Pirkolachai villages is very desirable, Talemseshanbe, Kassar, Alman, Balakkoyakh, Tuchipaibast, Roknsara, Lachegorab, Shalko are desirable, Dareposht, Foshtam, Keshalvarzal, Gilpordesar, Pesikhan, Pasvishe, Komakol, Piledarbon, Bijarbaneh, Pachkenar, Gorabvarzal are moderate, Roudbordeh, Kheshtmasjed, Tazeabad, Siaestalkh, Mangode, Garfam, Shekarestalkh, Kizhde, Karchovandan, Ravajir, Kisarvarzal are undesirable, and Varazgah, Koleshtaleshan, Tarazkouh, Bijarpas, Vishkavarzal, and Vishkamatir are very undesirable on the level of livability.
The present research is in line with the research of researchers such as Khorasani et al. (evaluating livability), Isalo et al. (analysis livability economic indicators), Jomepour and Tahmasebi (explanation of livability), Sasanpour et al. (identification of livability indexes), Khorasani, Rashidi et al., and Honarvarsedighian (livability measurement). Finally, according to the conducted research, we can find ways to improve the economic livability. The measurement of livability can lead to proper decisions in the field of rural policy and investment and sustainable consumption of resources, stimulate the participation of village residents and planning correctly which recognizes the capabilities of each region separately, improves the quality of management levels.
To this end, the study suggests the following actions:
Provide plans for investing in the village - many villagers tend to invest their little savings in the village, but they have not been able to take action because rural managers do not plan on this. The studied villages have a high potential for attracting capital because of the proximity to the Rasht metropolitan area. -
Create jobs in village and the follow up supports- creating job in the village increases the motivation to stay in rural areas. In many of the studied villages production united are available, but it is used by non-local labors, nevertheless many villagers work in the cities and other villages. Rural managers can obligate the job owners in the villages to hire local residents. In this case, part of their dissatisfaction about jobs and income will be reduced.
Plan to attract tourists – villagers can create activities in the village to attract tourists, and then with the necessary promotions and marketing, they will boost their village.


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