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Mousa Sadeghi, Hossein Rabiei,
Volume 4, Issue 11 (5-2015)

Achievement of rural development as a way to maintain national security and identity requires extra efforts regarding deprivation issue in backward regions and makes them receive their development rights. Economic development paves the way for creation of optimum and thriving life space. It is argued that physical isolation, potential economic and physical incapability, and remoteness from political, economic and decision making focal points enhance their degree of under development and make the corresponding gap even wider. The authors believe that the creation of border markets in rural areas is being considered as one of the strategy regarding spatial economic development in border areas. This could lead to stabilization of population, creation of job opportunities, , reduction of goods smuggling activities, utilization of common resources between neighboring countries, sustainable economic development. It further decreases geopolitics tensions between two countries through increase in goods movement and better utilization of space economy. Golestan province and Gonbad Kuvoos city are located in dry climatic region. This is associated with potential physical and economic incapability namely with respect to agricultural sector. Lack of space economy invites planning. One of the most important plans regarding economic development taking into account its potential situation as well as its border location is development of border markets in which could facilitate the trade between two countries. This in turn would grantee security, employment and higher level of development. This study aims to emphasize spatial development and rural organization with respect to border villages. Taking into account its specific climatic conditions as well as geopolitics challenges resulted from having common border with Torkamanestan, development of border markets could be an appropriate option. They could enhance national security, stabilization of population as well as immigration.
Research Method:
This study has applied nature. Data gathered through documentary approach. After reviewing the relevant literatures and based on finding associated with previous studies conducted by Fajr development consulting engineers and existing information, indices and indicators were selected. This is followed by application of multi criteria decision making technique, TOPSIS, regarding data analysis.
Discussion and Conclusion:
Based on the application of TOPSIS technique and corresponding computation and more specifically measurement of similarity index, Dashli Brun would be an optimum location for creation of border market and considered to be target village. The corresponding indices regarding determination of Dashi Brun as target village are distance to Inche Brun border market, to Eshghabad, to provincial town, to border, concentration index, amenities indices and population growth rate. It is argued that distance to Inche Brun border market could lead to better distribution of economic activities in border region. Moreover, distance from capital of Torkamanestan, Eshghabad, could enhance trade along the border and subsequent economic prosperity in the bordering region. Distance to Golestan center and other populous cities increase both imports and exports activities in border market. Centrality index and population growth rate will lead to provision of needed labor force for border market as well as better population distribution in the region and the province. This in turn will improve rural space economy in pioneer area. In effect, development of Dashli Brun border market will have great impact upon rural economic development income level and other corresponding development indices .Space economy associated with rural area more specifically border regions demand more attention ,interactions and components resulted from government divergence and convergences, border line controls and preventing goods smuggling activities. It is argued that space economy play better role regarding border market. The development of border market could well be justified by the existence of physical and climatic barriers, unpleasant social, economic and entertaining conditions, lack of desire and motivation to leave in the area, political, economic and security challenges in the area This invites planning in order to fully utilize the regional potentials. 

Afshin Mottaghi, Hossein Rabiei, Mosayeb Gharehbeygi,
Volume 4, Issue 14 (2-2016)

When unbalanced spatial dispersion of developmental indicators increase, unbalanced distribution of facilities and population will dramatically increase too and meanwhile the increase of centralization of indicators in regions that suffer from centralization of facilities and population will lead to population and facilities movement from deprived regions and this will increase unbalanced spatial-geographical dispersion. So, achieving sustainable development of human force is impossible. For achieving sustainable development as the ultimate goal of planning, the first step is studying and recognizing the current situation and the level of distribution of facilities in regions as a starting point for achieving development. Planning which its goal is sustainable development in settlements especially in border regions, needs spatial organization in rural regions to organize macro and national issues including national security issues more precisely and more efficiently. Therefore, in this study compatibility or incompatibility in spatial dispersion of development pattern in South Khorasan villages are evaluated and classified regarding some indicators such as infrastructure, social-economic, education and culture, and health. According to the results of this study, it seems that spatial organization in border counties and villages located in South Khorasan is extremely unbalanced and incompatible.
Regarding its methodology, this study is a cause and effect-comparative one and regarding its nature it is a practical study. 23 indicators have been chosen out of developmental indicators which include socioeconomic, educational-cultural, health and infrastructural ones. Data were collected through documentary research using documents of government offices in 1392, in four cities which are located in South Khorasan border (Nehbandadn, Darmiyan, Zirkuh and Sarbisheh). Statistical population includes villages located in border counties in South Khorasan province and the study samples regarding statistical population have been determined 11 villages according to the separation of political boundaries in villages. To classify border villages of this province according to the level of getting facilities according to the studied indicators, TOPSIS approach and Shannon Entropy Coefficient have been used to determine the weight coefficient of each of the indicators.
Discussion and Conclusion
In recent years, planners and politicians are interested in studying the unbalanced spatial dispersion in different geographical areas and the existence of unbalanced conditions in different dimensions is an important sign of undeveloped regions. This study tries to reveal the importance of getting more of economic indicators through a critical realism point of view by answering to this question that "how border rural districts of South Khorasan province are related to their socioeconomic context as an organization?” It seems that by evaluating spatial condition, it is possible to achieve to a total indicator of security status; therefore it is expected that security status will not be in a good condition when a region gets less of economic indicators. The study result showed that Mood rural district have the best condition in evaluating socioeconomic, educational-cultural, health and infrastructural indicators and as a result in final classification this rural district is the only district among border rural districts in South Khorsan province which gets the most facilities. Studies show that rural districts, Mood, Doroh, MomenAbad, Mighan and Shusf are respectively in the first to fifth grade, regarding balanced spatial development pattern. In this classification, four rural districts, Ghohestan, Miyandasht, Naharenjan, Arabkhane are deprived rural districts respectively. On the whole, in South Khorasan province among 11 rural districts as study samples, regarding socialeconomic, educational-cultural, health and infrastructural indicators, 6 rural districts including Doroh, MomenAbad, Mighan, Bandan, Shusf ans Gezik are recognized as rural districts that get less facilities and four of them including Ghohestan, Miyandashtn Naharenjan and Arabkhane are recognized as deprived rural districts respectively.
 Mood rural district is the only case that encompasses all of this study indicators, however this region is not in a desirable situation and its numerical distance from developmental indicators is almost a lot. Such pattern shows the incompatible and unbalanced characteristic of spatial construction in border counties of South Khorasan province.

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