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Maryam Momenpour, Seyedeh Zoleikha Ghorbanzadeh Zafarani, Hasan Rasoli,
Volume 11, Issue 40 (summer 2022)

Cities have profound effects on the surrounding rural areas, which are manifested in various environmental, social, economic and physical dimensions. Knowing the type of texture is necessary to measure the quantity of filled and empty areas, explore the quality of mass and space contiguity and identify the shape-spatial system for the regularity of filled and empty spaces. Agriculture can be the core of the space economy because it is the biggest attractor of labor in some regions and can create the most income and development. Since development is a multi-dimensional concept, which requires reorganization of the socio-economic system with it, examining the different levels and dimensions of development and knowing the differences in resources of different regions can be effective for planning. In this regard, the purpose of the present research is to measure and evaluate the desirability of peri-urban spaces for the agricultural development of rural settlements in Golestan Province.
Golestan Province, the study area of ​​this research, is a northern province that is distinguished in agriculture due to its geographical location. The importance of the agricultural sector for this province is because of the role of this sector in increasing the country's food security and prosperity. This calls for proper and accurate planning and agricultural development. 

This research is a descriptive-analytical and applied study. The secondary data were collected from the agricultural statistics of the province in 2015. The statistical population of the study consists of 14 cities in Golestan Province based on the latest political-administrative divisions. For data analysis, we used WASPAS multi-criteria combined technique in Excel spreadsheet software, and Shannon's entropy was used to determine the weight of each index. ArcGIS was used to draw the maps.

Discussion and conclusion
The findings of this research echo the results of Kaderzadeh et al.'s studies (2016), entitled agricultural development of the cities of Kurdistan Province and confirm the difference between the cities of a province in indexes. And the indicators of development agricultural development. It also shows that most of the cities of the province are in an unfavorable situation in terms of sustainable agricultural development indicators. Also, the findings of Taqvi and Bahari (2013) regarding the distribution of the components of the development of the cities of Mazandaran Province, Sakhawat (2013) regarding the measurement of the development of the provinces of Iran, Fadeli (2014) about the inequality of development in the western provinces confirm the difference between the cities of the province in terms of development indicators. Considering the general results of this research and the placement of rural settlements in Gonbad and Gorgan Counties at the highest level of development, it can be seen that the most important factors affecting the development are the strong and concentrated urban economy and the labor force. And trained, high-quality soils with agricultural capabilities, the use of modern and efficient agricultural tools and equipment, abundant manpower, large area, especially Gonbad Kavus County, etc. The robust economic role of the cities of these two counties (Inche Broon for Gonbad Kavus County and Sohrkhankalate and Jalin for Gorgan County) is evident because they have attracted most of the services and infrastructures, and this has led to the lack of these services in rural areas. Given that in addition to increasing urbanization of the country in the future, it is inevitable to pay attention to rural settlements for balanced development and fair distribution of services based on the current situation of settlements. Fair planning and distribution of services is a must, which requires optimal investment in rural settlements for the realization of homogeneity, social justice and better living condition in different settlements.


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