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Farahnaz Rostami, Vahid Ali-Abadi, Sara Baghaeei,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (9-2013)

This analytical – comparative study aims to investigate the impact of membership in rural bodies’ upon social capital level and quality of life of rural woman. Statistical community is composed of 5000 Kangavar’s rural woman out of which 380 happened to be our sample size using Bartlett’s table. Sampling technique was based on simple random sampling. Data analysis was done via application of descriptive statistics including frequency, medium and mode as well as inferential statistics mainly T test. Comparative analysis regarding social capital status was done through ISDM and Mean Whitney U test. This study suggests that the level of social capital of rural woman was moderate. Moreover, there exists a significant difference at 5 % level between membered rural woman as opposed to non-membered ones with respect to social capital level and quality of life. It further indicates that putting value on life and adoption, level regarding differences of membered women compared with the other component of social capital possesses higher average. However, none membered women work ties possess higher average among non-member rural woman.

Shah-Bakhti Rostami, Mohammad Mirza-Ali,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (9-2013)

Rural conducted plan is being imposed to accomplish rural development. In fact, these plans are regarded as a document for social – economic development at village level. These plans aim to meet all of residential, services and entertainment needs within their time period taking into account village settings as well as the relevant ultra-plans. However, the implementations of these plans face some problems. This world be intensified taking into account unplanned rural development and shortage in corresponding allocated credits. These plans are ordered by Islamic housing institute. However, there exists some regional differences among geographical spaces. This in turn reduces the degree of accuracy of these plans and demand them some modification. The study area is villages of GonbadKavuoos. It further aims to investigate the locational criteria for different land uses pertaining to rural conducted plans. The research method is based on descriptive – analytical approach and it has applied nature as well. It is based on survey technique. This study suggests that locational criterion for these types of plans have been proposed. However, the lack of monitoring during implementation has diverted these plans from their predetermined goals.

Fatemeh Rostami, Ehsan Jabbari, Shahbakhti Rostami,
Volume 9, Issue 34 (winter 2021 2021)

According to the theoretical frameworks in the spatial analysis, every "structure" in space has a specific "function". To study phenomena and to identify the relationships between them, these two concepts are of particular importance, especially in the "structural-functional dynamism" approach. The basic premise of this approach is based on the existence of a link between the structure and function of phenomena, the output of which represents the capabilities of that system. If a watershed can be considered as a spatial structure, then the existing wells in the area would represent one of its functions in form of groundwater exploitation.
During the last three decades, the rapid increase in the population of urban centers adjacent to the Mahidasht watershed along with the change of cultivation pattern has led to the uncontrolled expansion of irrigation cultivation pattern, which in turn has led to excessive use of groundwater. For this reason, in the last four decades, the number of wells drilled in the study area has increased 23 times compared to the four decades before, from about 70 wells to more than 1,593 wells. Excessive exploitation of groundwater resources has led to an increase in the depth of wells and this, in turn, has led to lowering the groundwater level in the study area. Nowadays, this process has created some kind of zones that can be called critical zones in terms of increasing the depth of wells and water abstraction. In the present study, in order to determine and draw the map of such zones, the two main bases of spatial analysis, namely "position" and "distance" were applied, and common techniques and tools of GIS were used to analyze data related to wells in the study area.
Study area: Mahidasht watershed with an area of 1506.64 square kilometers and a perimeter of 239.9 kilometers is located in Kermanshah province, west of Iran. The area contains 132 springs, 14 Qanats (aqueducts) and 1593 wells.  
Data: The data applied in the present study include seven layers namely; Digital Elevation Model (DEM), wells, rivers, country divisions, catchment divisions, urban and rural settlements. They were obtained from the US Geological Survey (USGS), Kermanshah Regional Water Company and the Governor Office of Kermanshah, respectively. For spatial analysis based on the location and distance of wells, the following data were applied: year of drilling, depth, type of consumption, annual discharge rate, annual performance, discharge of each well (litters per second), location of settlements in the study area and their attributes. In terms of techniques, the following ones were applied: point in polygon, spatial join, buffering and spatial interpolation.

Techniques: In the present study, a table containing the coordinative and descriptive features of 1593 wells drilled in the Mahidasht watershed was converted into a point layer in ArcGIS. This layer, in addition to showing the distribution of wells in the region, was the basis for all other following analysis in this study. Mosaic, Extract, Hydrology, Thiessen Polygon and Natural Neighbor techniques and tools have also been applied to show and draw the final map of critical zones.
Discussion and results
The results of the present study indicated that in a chain process the following events have occurred in the study area:
  1. Rapid increase in the population of the region during the 1980s and 1990s led to the increasing use of various resources, including groundwater resources,
  2. The number of wells in the study area increased with unusual speed,
  3. Increasing the number of wells led to increasing the depth of wells over time, especially during the 2000s.
  4. Increasing the average depth of wells in Mahidasht watershed led to over-depletion of groundwater aquifers and lowering its level.
  5. All of the above have led to the creation of zones known as critical groundwater abstraction zones. The result of the present study is the calculating, determining and mapping these zones based on common techniques in spatial analysis. These critical zones are located in the lands of 61 villages and cover an area of 20,000 hectares.
However; despite the increase in the number of wells, the population of villages in the region has decreased. It means that the increase occurred in income due to the change of cultivation pattern from rain-fed to irrigated has not been invested in the villages of Mahidasht but has been transferred outside the region. Therefore, it can spatially be concluded that increasing the number of wells and high consumption of groundwater not only did not cause economic growth and prosperity in the villages of the region, but also has disturbed the ecological balance of the area. The last point is that; if no developmental measures are considered to improve and repair the conditions governing the critical zones in the study area, according to the structural-functional dynamism approach, it should be expected that change in a part of the spatial system will alter and even destroy the functions, structures and living space of the area. Thus, it can be concluded that, this problem can take the region away from the desired (and even minimum) conditions for a rational life and cause the destruction of other components of the system.

Fatemeh Mozafari, Abdolhamid Nazari, Shahbakhti Rostami, Mostafa Shahinifar,
Volume 11, Issue 41 (Fall 2022 2022)

One of the current plans of the Iranian government is the "Home Business Organization Plan" to solve the problem of unemployment, which started in 2010. Even though home businesses are generally neglected in the economy, they are essential to creating employment, increasing income, improving the quality of life, reducing poverty, and perpetuating the population in rural areas. Unemployed, low-income or no-income villagers have welcomed the "home business organization plan" in Ilam province due to the following issues: geographical isolation, mountainous nature, distance from industrial and service centers, incompatibility of water and soil resources, lack of facilities for water control and transfer, the predominance of micro-agricultural exploitation units, the low level of mechanization, the severe financial weakness of the private sector, migration and the weakness of the economic foundations of rural society and in general the traditional and livelihood structure of production. In the present study, the issue has been discussed only from the economic viewpoint. Its purpose is to explain the role of economic dimensions of home businesses in the sustainable livelihood of rural households. Therefore, the central question of the present paper is: to what extent has the creation and development of home businesses in terms of job creation and diversification, increasing income and empowering and reducing poverty affected improving the sustainable livelihood of rural households?

Research Methods:
The current research is descriptive-analytical, and its statistical population includes 1476 households receiving loans in-home businesses who live in 287 villages in Ilam province. Considering the number and dispersion of villages, their selection was made by the sampling method. First, the number of villages was limited to 56 using cluster sampling (considering the homogeneity of four factors: altitude, distance from the city center, number of households and loan receivers). Then, the number of sample households was estimated to be 200 according to Cochran's formula and selected by simple random method. Finally, the data was collected using a researcher-made questionnaire after confirming its validity and reliability. After confirming the data's normality through the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, one-sample t-tests and confirmatory factor analysis were used to evaluate the hypothesis.

Results and Discussion: 
The conceptual basis of the current research is based on the strategy of "sustainable livelihood". Sustainable livelihood is not a "theory" but a strategy discussed in the scientific and executive circles of development programs in the framework of "sustainable development theory". This strategy has four environmental, economic, social and institutional dimensions. The first principle of the sustainable livelihood strategy emphasizes "focusing on people" and achieving sustainable development is considered an endogenous and bottom-up motivational movement. Nevertheless, according to the general structure of the organization and planning system of Iran, in which the "government" has a central role in carrying out any plan, and in terms of sustainable livelihood strategy, it is considered an external intervening factor with a top-down orientation, this paradox should be considered more seriously. The results showed that the creation of home businesses from the economic aspect in the job creation indicators, primarily the increase of women's jobs and the diversification of activities, had positive effects, which indicates its alignment with the standards of sustainable household livelihood strategy. Although the plan has been relatively successful in increasing income, it has not been very successful in terms of empowerment, especially poverty alleviation of the lower strata of society. The evaluation of the effectiveness of creating home businesses on the sustainability livelihood by the target community showed that the factors of job creation and diversification of activity with a particular value of 2.743 and variance percentage of 31.509, income generation and empowerment with a special value of 1.192 and the variance percentage of 13.263 and poverty alleviation with the value of 1.043 and the variance percentage of 11.249 are ranked first to third, respectively. In general, the performance of the mentioned plan can be evaluated as successful in creating jobs and diversifying the activities of the studied households. According to the indicators in the area of income increase, there is an unbalanced distribution of resources, income and investment power, which shows the weakness of the economic foundations and the undesired livelihood of the villagers of Ilam Province. In the field of poverty alleviation, the plan has not been very successful. The results of this research are fundamentally different from similar international studies and have some similarities with some similar national studies.

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