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Heshmat-Allah Saadi, Hajar Vahdat Moadab,
Volume 4, Issue 14 (2-2016)

Industrialization of rural districts can be considered as one of the appropriate approaches toward the diversification of economy. In this way, the rural lifestyle can get developed through the process of job creation and the increasing of income and its balanced distribution can create a favorable environment for the achievement of sustainable rural development. Some researchers of rural development believe that the industrialization of rural districts in the framework of national master plan is inevitable in economic growth. So, in the last two decades, authorities and program makers have mainly shifted their focus of attention on the settlement of industries in villages in the form of industrial towns and areas.
Results from various studies imply the improvement of lifestyle among villagers after the establishment of industrial towns there. In spite of all the good consequences of industrial growth in rural areas, it should be noted that rural industry can cause lots of problems within rural population and itsenvironment if they cannot be correctly controlled.
Opposing ideas like those mentioned against economic, social, and environmental interests seems common in the process of development. Environmental effects of industrial concentration in a small zone or an inappropriate area can cause serious hazards either locally or internationally. So, identification and evaluation of such problems from different aspects can help us discover the effectiveness of these programs and investigate their range of effectiveness for the purposes of local and regional development. On the other hand, it can be useful for the spatial programming of the target areas where this activities have been done or are affecting by such activities. Therefore, this study aims to study social and economic impacts of industrial micro plans on rural populations.
This is a quantitative study, a non-experimental type regarding the strategy used for the rate and control degree of variables, an applied one on its target, and a survey research according to the method used for collecting data.Its statistical society includes villagers above 18 in the village of Shahnjryn among them 161 members were randomly selected through Cochran formula as samples. Also, we have also made questionnaires to collect data. 
Questionnaire used for collecting data in this research has been already designed in 1392 in consultation with experts. Its validity was confirmed by researchers and experts. For testing the reliability of the questionnaire a number of 30 questionnaires was done by the villagers of Shahnjryn. Results were analyzed and Cronbach's alpha was calculated 0.73 which is good for the project. Collected data have been already analyzed in SPSS .16 software. Descriptive statistics such as Frequency, percentage, standard deviation, mean variance and coefficient of variation have been used in descriptive part of the research as well as mean comparison, correlation coefficient and factor analysis tests used for data analyzing.
Discussion and conclusion
Lots of researches have been already done in Iran and throughout the world to find out the socioeconomic impacts of industrial micro plans on rural communities. A major noticeable part has focused on the positive effects of industrial occupations on rural development. Results from the present study reveal the high economic impacts of industrial projects in rural areas as it can cause new chances of employment and economic variations that cause the development of the areas. In addition, it should be considered that in rural districts industrial activities are in rival with farming.
Generally, industrial projects in rural areas have negative effects on agriculture. As, in some cases like the utilization of lands and human forces, industrial projects are precedent. Not only can industrial projects affect the economic status of rural areas, but also social consequences are possible. Prevalence of industrial projects in rural areas may lead some changes in relationships and geographical actions and trends, as well. Predictions like these have been proven to be true up to the results of the present study. Totally, based on the results from the study, there are some approaches to moderate the negative effects of industrial projects in the neighboring villages by the reinforcement of their positive effects. The followings are examples of these approaches:

- As a necessity, all the Eco environmental impacts of each industrial project must be evaluated in advance to find measures to modify its dangerous impacts on the environment.
Industrial occupations are produced in villages mainly by the purpose of creating nonagricultural business and employments. It is obvious that such industries should not affect negatively on agricultural production. Therefore, it is necessary to pay simultaneous attention on both industrial and agricultural development. To achieve the goal, we suggest to make measures for programming agricultural growth along with the industrial ones.
Modifying the negative effects of industrial growth on agriculture, the headquarters of the industrial activities must be located in villages with less farming capacity. Additionally, a strategy of development and implementation of industrial projects must be defined to keep villagers from leaving the village.
In rural industries, for a more effective development process, it must be tried to use mainly from rural labor force and formations.

Hossein Karimzadeh, Sima Saadi,
Volume 11, Issue 39 (Spring 2022 2022)

Despite the fact that the number of female entrepreneurs is growing, data shows that they grow at a slower rate than male entrepreneurs due to the difficulties and challenges they face. There have always been several obstacles and challenges in founding and growing enterprises, whether in urban or rural settings. On the other hand, the resources and contexts available for entrepreneurship can help to mitigate some of the barriers and challenges; in other words, the right geographical location and easy access to resources can help to foster entrepreneurship development, which is the foundation for regional development. Additionally, urban and rural women entrepreneurs play essential roles in the economic growth, particularly in developing and underprivileged countries. The World Bank claims that investing more in female entrepreneurship will result in a nation's development. The reasons are women's empowerment in society (whether urban or rural) eliminates inequality and poverty, and women are the first hope for family development and country development in underdeveloped countries. Female entrepreneurs' success in these societies benefits not only the economy but also the social and cultural structure. Nonetheless, women entrepreneurs confront numerous challenges, just like other groups of entrepreneurs.

The study's statistical population is made up of women aged 15 to 65 who live in Marivan City and its surrounding villages. According to the statistical population of 65081 women between the ages of 15 and 65 in Marivan, 189 samples were chosen using Cochran's formula. In addition, 9 villages were chosen from a total of 93 villages in Marivan County based on their distance from the city: 3 villages within 0-5 km of the city (close), 3 villages within 5-10 km of the city (medium), and 3 villages at a distance of 10-15 km from the city (far). According to the statistical population (827), there are 113 questionnaires distributed in the villages indicated. For statistical analysis of the research, the one-sample t-test and ANOVA have used in SPSS 22 software, and for spatial analysis of the research ArcGIS software was used.

Discussion and conclusion
According to the research findings in the economic and political dimensions, women entrepreneurship growth in the both study area's settlements, namely rural areas and Marivan City, are not at the required level. The reasons are the lack of private investment in the region to build enterprises, the lack of banks and institutions offering loans and financial credits in rural regions, the existence of extreme poverty in the region, particularly in rural areas, lack risk-taking, lack of government assistance, lack of action in villages or municipalities to build and promote women's entrepreneurship, lack of public sector cooperation in investing in new firms, and so on. It should be mentioned that the status are considerably better in urban regions than rural ones. These findings are congruent with Sivanesan's 2014 study comparing rural and urban female entrepreneurship in India, as well as Robinson et al. (2004) and Rasekhi et al (2018). Marivan City has a better social and infrastructural status than rural areas in both social and infrastructural terms. Lack of participation of women in business organizations, unions, and guilds, lack of educational fields related to entrepreneurship in rural areas, lack of social security for women in the marketplace, lack of cooperation of rural managers with women, lack of a class or organization of women entrepreneurs, lack of appropriate technology infrastructure in rural areas are some of the reasons for this. These findings are in line with a 2011 study by Angela Davis comparing the priorities of urban and rural entrepreneurs' service demands, as well as studies by Asitik (2015) and Anthopoulou (2016). (2010). Both towns are in good shape in terms of individual dimensions, but when comparing the averages of the two, Marivan is in a better position than rural areas (cities with an average of 3.96 and villages with an average of 3.04). Individual qualities and backgrounds of entrepreneurship in the inhabitants of the research area, such as readiness to confront challenges and difficulties, not escaping unpleasant situations, people's level of responsibility, self-reliance, and acceptability, could be the cause for this. These findings are in line with those of a 2013 study in Kentucky by Hyunjeong Joo, which compared rural and urban entrepreneurs. There is a substantial difference in the mean of the desired dimensions, according to the analysis of the variance test. In addition, according to the post hoc test, the city of Marivan has the biggest differences from other groups, i.e. rural groups, in all of the analyzed characteristics. The city of Marivan has a better situation in the field of female entrepreneurship development than the rural areas analyzed, according to the findings of a spatial analysis of research in ArcGIS software. Due to the fact that the rural areas studied had an unfavorable situation in this regard, we have measured these areas by distance from the city. According to GIS maps, the villages near the city of Marivan, especially Bileh and Tazehabad, are in a more favorable situation than other rural areas. The reason for this can be considered the proximity of these villages to the city of Marivan.

Saadi Mohammadi, Zahra Hakiminea,
Volume 11, Issue 42 (winter 2023 2023)

Quality of life is core to the sustainable security approach. Regarding that, the status of supply and access to livelihood capital to provide livelihood and quality of life for villagers have an undeniable role in moving towards the stability of the security of rural border areas. The rural border areas of Marivan are in an adverse situation in terms of access to livelihood assets. Livelihood poverty due to poor access to livelihood assets is the dominant feature of the border village areas of Marivan County. This situation is evident in the unemployment report of the management and planning organization of the province, where the highest unemployment rate of the province is related to Marivan County, with 28.6 percent. Although Marivan County is in third place in the province after Sanandaj and Saqz counties in terms of population (12.2% of the province's population), it includes 23.6% of the unemployed in the entire province. The number of unemployed people in the rural areas of Marivan is 3446, with a rate of 19.3%. Compared to the unemployment rate of the rural areas of other counties of the province, it has the highest unemployment rate. Due to being in the political and geopolitical stake, a lot of money and capital is spent to keep the security of this county. According to the principles of stable security, identifying and solving the trends leading to insecurity are significant. So instead of dealing with threats, the emergence of insecurity is prevented by controlling these trends. The current research discusses why the inappropriate situation of access to livelihood assets in the border rural areas of the region was created and continued and what instabilities and risks did it leave behind?

The present applied research has been carried out using a post-event descriptive method. The research is qualitative, in essence. Data were collected by targeted interviews. The three main questions of the research are the destabilizing effects of security, the causes and factors of occurrence and continuity, and the strategies adopted by villagers against inappropriate access to livelihood capitals. The research population includes specialists, experts and informants in security and law enforcement, academics and management of the county, who were determined using a targeted non-probability sampling method based on the snowball method, and their number reached 50 people. The analysis of the interviews was done with the grounded theory technique in three stages open coding, central coding and selective coding.
The spatial scope of the research is the border villages of Marivan County. A county that is located in the west of Kurdistan Province and is adjacent to the Kurdistan region of Iraq. These border villages are within Sarshio, Khavomirabad and Zrivar Districts, which are the closest to the borderline (less than 15 kilometres from the border). The location and target villages of the research were considered (10 villages).

Discussion and conclusion
The creation of livelihood poverty due to the lack of provision and proper access of border villagers to livelihood assets has caused a variety of security instabilities. Many of the identified concepts, or in other words, the adverse effects resulting from the lack of adequate provision and access to livelihood assets, are the result and effects of weakening and failure in other dimensions and security indicators. The lack of adequate provision and access to livelihood assets in the studied areas, in addition to direct effects (destruction of the natural environment, poverty, human and financial losses), has also had many indirect and dependent effects (creating security holes with Distance between the people and the system due to the feeling of injustice caused by the government's lack of attention to these areas with the continuation of human and financial losses, environmental crises, the continuation of smuggling, increase in immigration, etc.). On the other hand, the instability and security problems created are not only limited to these areas and have threatened the national and public security of the country as well.
The most important strategies adopted for security and development in order to deal with the poor livelihood and security situation include border blocking strategy and threat-oriented management, one-dimensional development management strategy, extreme exploitation of the natural environment and dealing with illegal jobs and smuggling, immigration and capital outflow from the borders. However, there needs to be a structural solution to the problem at the regional level. Therefore, defensive strategies have generally been used to prevent the deterioration of the existing situation.
Also, using the grounded theory technique (three stages of open, central and selective coding), it was found that there are many obstacles and problems related to development and security managers and local communities for the business environment or the lack of access to livelihood assets in the studied border rural areas.
The results showed that the lack of proper access of the border villages of the county to livelihood assets had caused the instability of security in its various fields in the studied area. The security instabilities were placed in 51 indicators in the form of 3 main categories: unstable security future and political-military problems, instability of food and environmental-physical security, and instability of economic and social security. This situation showed that the lack of access to livelihood assets has reduced the quality of life and, as a result, security instability in the border villages of Marivan County.
Also, the results of the grounded theory technique extracted 63 weaknesses. These weaknesses are grouped into components such as weak development planning, policy-making and management, the inappropriateness of the business environment of the region, border security management, weak laws and protections, weakness in the physical infrastructure needed for economic development, the lack of local people's capital and socio-cultural weaknesses. 
Finally, the results of interviews and field observation showed that the strategy of blocking borders and threat-oriented management, one-dimensional development management, extreme exploitation of the natural environment, and dealing with illegal jobs and smuggling, migration and departure capital from borders; The most important strategies adopted by development and security officials and villagers in dealing with the unfavorable situation of access to livelihood assets and security instabilities resulting from it.

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