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Ali Shamsoddini,
Volume 5, Issue 15 (5-2016)

In Iran, management system of rural areas was kind of non-governmental before the Constitutional Revolution. In such a system, Khans and masters; the village chief and elders were responsible for the village and its affairs. In 1354, by the progress of land reform programs and the elimination of feudal serf system from social communication system, the village chief was removed from the Rural Management System and rural councils were replaced by. After Islamic Revolution, important measures done in the field of construction, especially, rural management. Some examples of such measures are; the amendment of Islamic Councils, the foundation of the House of companion, and the construction of rural development office. Rural Islamic councils play important roles in the process of people's participation in promoting rural developments. Rural councils and municipalities, as cooperative and public institutions, are considered to be communication bonding between people and institutions with administration staff of the government. So, they carry a key role in the process of rural development.
Thus, people's satisfaction with the performance of rural municipalities plays a decisive role in the success of such institutions and achieving their goals. The more satisfied villages are with the performance of rural municipalities, the more confident they will do their citizen responsibilities in the process of implementation and monitoring of civil public programs. In this research, the socio-economic performance of Fahlian rural municipality, of the central part of Mamasani County, has been analyzed based on surveys of villagers through questionnaires. The present research aims at appraising villagers' satisfaction with the performance of Fahlian rural municipality applying Kano model to make three categories of the villagers' basic needs come true. The intended needs are; economic, functional and emotional ones. We are going to use the results from the research to obtain an accurate picture of the satisfaction of rural population with the performance of rural municipalities to help us improve rural services and enhance villagers' satisfaction.
This study is a combination of analytical survey method based on questionnaires, in which the most important areas associated with villagers' satisfaction of the village municipality in Fahlian is being tested. Considering the goals of the research, it is an applied one. The statistical society of the research includes all the rural residents in Fahlian. In order to determine the sample size, we have first used Cochran-Sharp methods. Using this formula, the sample size was calculated140 people from the entire 2177 inhabitants of the village. Then, questionnaires were completed using simple random sampling method.
Cronbach's alpha coefficient was calculated 0.809 for the whole questionnaire. Totally, the validity and reliability of the statements and questionnaire have been in a good level. They have also reported to be reliable for research fields and obtaining the views of the sample. For preparing questionnaires like those in the Kano model, two questions are needed to design for each feature. The questionnaires are classified in two categories. The first category questionnaires are functional and the second ones are non-functional ones. To design this section a five-point Likert- type scale was used. Although there are different models for evaluating the quality of services, it is hard to compromise on the ways to identify factors affecting this. Some of these models involve hysteresis, Kano, Seroquel, QFC, and etc. In this study, Kano model was used as a measuring tool of people satisfaction.
Discussion and conclusion
In Iran, contemporary rural management was affected by major changes. Each of these changes have had a significant impact on the fate and success of Iran Rural Development. Creation of rural municipalities in villages is the last link in the chain. Of course, it does not include all the villages, yet. Objectives and responsibilities outlined in the by-law of rural municipalities, whose most prominent characteristic is their mediating role among local communities and state institutions, seems to be greater than their power and human, financial and material capacities available to them. According to the data collected from Surveys of Fahlian residents to know if they are satisfied with socio-economic performance of their rural municipality using Kano model, it was realized that based on villagers perspectives asphalt and table investment streets are among their most prominent needs while Fahlian rural municipality was doing its best for waste collection and disposal. Also, they were largely making efforts to pave the way for the formation of cooperatives of production and consumption.
Thus, the maximum level of villagers' satisfaction and their dissatisfaction with the performance of the rural municipality was reported to be 0.413 and -0.747, respectively. Results from the questionnaires and their analysis using Kano model indicate that villagers' emotional needs have been better provided than their other needs. The coefficient for their emotional needs was 0.611 which is more than the coefficient obtained for the two other needs of basic and functional ones by the coefficient of 0.425 and 0.523, respectively. Consequently, the village staff and authorities, especially those in rural municipality, must largely focus on providing villagers with their basic and functional needs. In this way, they are needed to improve and mobilize transporting system as well as the improvement of communicating systems like telephone and internet to help them attract more tourists and investors.
For functional needs, they have partly acted successfully in making security measures for the attraction of tourists and investors. Studies demonstrate that rural municipalities will be able to eliminate a great part of villagers' dissatisfaction and make them satisfied if they apply the results from this study in making decisions for rural development and improvement.

Erfaneh Hosseinzadeh, Ali Shamsoddini, Rabiaz Rabia Ghorbaninejad, Ali Tavakolan,
Volume 10, Issue 37 (Fall 2021 2021)

Culinary tourism may have many economic benefits for rural areas. Many practitioners consider this type of tourism as a tool for rural development that can stimulate the local economy and support existing jobs and create new jobs in these areas. Food tourism events have recently become a major means for economic development in villages and local areas. The question of the study is to what extent culinary tourism has been able to be effective in maintaining economic growth and development in the rural areas particularly the north regions of the country and foster the survival and stability of the villages.
 The present research is applied in terms of purpose and a mix method (qualitative-quantitative) study in terms of data collection. The qualitative part consists of a content analysis and the quantitative part is descriptive-exploratory. The method of data collection is a desk research and a field study using semi-structured interviews and a questionnaire. The research population is also divided into qualitative and quantitative. The research community for the qualitative part comprises the experts of the Tourism and Cultural Heritage Organization, as well as professors on rural planning and development in Mazandaran Province. The characteristics of them were high experience as a manager, knowledge of the research topic, and they were selected in a purposeful and snowball method, so 16 people were selected to achieve a saturation. The statistical population for quantitative part was a limited and included 375 restaurateurs, accommodation owners, hotel owners and experts of the Tourism and Cultural Heritage Organization. 182 of them were randomly selected using the Cochran's formula. Coding was the data analysis tool for qualitative part and Delphi technique was used to design the model in quantitative part. Finally, the model was obtained using the structural equation modeling and PLS Smart software.
Discussion and conclusion
In many countries, food tourism is closely in consistence with agricultural policies and is often deemed as a means to support a sustainable rural economy. When it comes to sustainability in rural development, economic growth and poverty alleviation for villagers along with optimizing the social structure of their communities, which is obtained by equitable distribution of services and promoting sustainable livelihoods. Non-agricultural activity diversification in rural areas accelerates the process of sustainable development, not only economically but also culturally and socially. Since Mazandaran Province is popular tourist destinations in Iran, it has the capability to utilize food as a tourism axis in this province. The present study demonstrates that for the culinary tourism in the studied area, the three categories of marketing, services and planning should be attended. This will result to sustainable income, economic growth and sustainable employment, and ultimately to foster a sustainable economy. All indicators for the model of culinary tourism on sustainable rural economy of Mazandaran were confirmed. These findings show that the aspects of food tourism, sustainable income, economic growth and sustainable employment have been able to form a model for analyzing food tourism in a sustainable rural economy. In conclusion, the aspects of the model and the underling hypothesis were validated.

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