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Mojtaba Ghadiri Masom, Mohammad Amin Khorasani, Zahra Torkashvand, Shima Amidi,
Volume 10, Issue 37 (Fall 2021 2021)

Entrepreneurship as a strategy in the development, prosperity and growth of human societies has been an invaluable mechanism through which all the factors, resources and facilities of a society are mobilized in a spontaneous and evolutionary fashion, which is the source of many positive economic and social effects and consequences. Knowing about the driving forces of rural entrepreneurship development are crucial. The development of rural entrepreneurship depends on some drivers such as appropriate infrastructure, environmental conditions, social cohesion and solidarity of entrepreneurs in different stages from production to supplement, quality of institutional services, supportive laws and policies and individual and behavioral characteristics of entrepreneurs. Despite the necessity of these drivers, the level of priority and significance are not the same, hence some of them will be mandatory and others might be complementary in the entrepreneurial process. This study seeks to identify the most important drivers of entrepreneurship development in rural areas of Iran by a systematic review of scientific publication in recent years, and prioritize these drivers based on their significance.

This study is applied in terms of purpose, and descriptive-analytical in terms of content. In this study, meta-analysis method was used to identify the drivers of entrepreneurship development in rural areas of Iran. 50 published papers in national and international scientific research journals until March 2018 were used to identify the drivers of entrepreneurship development.  The main topic of these papers was entrepreneurship in rural areas of Iran. We implemented Q method for extracting and summarizing the most important factors of rural entrepreneurship. To this end, this study selected 38 Q statements as the Q sample. For sorting Q categories using purposive sampling method, 30 individuals familiar with rural entrepreneurship were selected as participants. Finally, factor analysis method in SPSS software was utilized to identify and prioritize the most important drivers of rural entrepreneurship.

Discussion and conclusion
Findings of the meta-analysis from the review of sources indicate that among the conducted studies, behavioral, educational and technological, supportive, economic, social, and environmental and infrastructure drivers are among the most important drivers of rural entrepreneurship development.  Based on the findings of the Q method, which prioritized the most important drivers of rural entrepreneurship, the discourse analysis and the participants' mental pattern highlighted the behavioral drivers. Behavioral drivers consist of ability to endure difficult and stressful situations, strengthen the self-confidence, problem solving skills, discipline at working, acknowledging opportunities and be risk-taking.  For educational drivers, the participants prioritized adequate access to information channels and resources, investment in research and development to increase productivity, and taking entrepreneurship training courses. For economic drivers, the respondents underscored the access to seed money, granting low-interest loans and tax deduction in creating new production units. On supportive drivers, the priority was for transparent economic and tax rules and household support. The expansion of platforms and infrastructure (road, electricity, telephone, Internet, etc.) was the most important condition for infrastructure drivers. As a result, in order to develop rural entrepreneurship, in addition to these drivers, it is necessary to consider issues such as establishing rural incubators and think tanks, establishing rural development councils and entrepreneurship parks, and providing basic infrastructure for policy makers and planners.

Zahra Torkashvand, Amir Heidarian, Hasan Ali Faraji Sabokbar,
Volume 12, Issue 43 (Spring 2023 2023)

Migration is a behavior driven by various motives, including education, job search, welfare, and escape from war. In recent decades, there has been an increase in the international migration of Afghan people to neighboring countries, particularly Iran. The impact of migration on a country's development is significant, and skilled and unskilled migration significantly impacts the economy of countries.
Many villages in Iran are currently experiencing slow development and require a strong driving force to bridge the gap. Entrepreneurship is a valuable tool for innovation, changing the primary force behind economic growth and development and a solution for the economic and social advancement of villages in numerous countries. Additionally, Afghan immigrants have been an integral part of the workforce in rural areas for years, whether willingly or unwillingly. They typically reside in regions where labor demand is relatively high and have been able to take advantage of entrepreneurial opportunities in villages near the country's capital. This study addresses the factors that Afghan immigrants consider when identifying entrepreneurial opportunities.
Varamin County is located in Tehran Province. In the past two decades, due to the creation of various jobs in the agricultural and service sectors, it has become one of the most suitable places for Afghan immigrants to immigrate. This research examines rural entrepreneurship opportunities from Afghan immigrants' perspective.

For this study, we utilized an applied and developmental approach with a descriptive-analytical methodology and conducted a survey. To gather data, we administered a questionnaire with a 5-point Likert scale. The sample size was determined using Cochran's formula, resulting in 374 Afghan immigrants residing in rural areas. The data were analyzed using frequency, percentage, average, and standard deviation statistics for description and inferential statistics for analysis. In order to check if the data was normal, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was utilized.
Additionally, to examine the correlation between the research variables, the one-sample t-test was implemented. The study focused on identifying opportunities for rural entrepreneurship as perceived by Afghan immigrants. The evaluation was conducted from four dimensions: economic-financial, cultural-social, personality-individual, and political-administrative. Each dimension was assessed based on multiple indicators.
The study is performed in Varamin County with eight sections, four towns, and 216 villages. It is one of Tehran province's industrial and agricultural hubs, with rural and urban populations of 14130 and 34062 people, respectively. In addition, 48192 Afghan immigrants live in this county.

Discussion and conclusion
According to the Afghan women immigrants' viewpoint, the total direct effects amount to 1.931. Regarding indirect communications, the indicators with the highest and lowest levels of influence are personality-individual (1.951) and political-administrative (0.371), respectively. As for the direct relationship intensity, the indicators with the highest and lowest values are personality-individual (0.622) and political-administrative (0.371).
According to Afghan male immigrants, the total direct effect is 1.394. Regarding indirect communication, personality-individual indicators have the highest impact at 1.887, while economic-financial indicators have the lowest impact at 0.424. Based on Figure 4, the highest and lowest impact intensities of direct relationships are caused by personality-individual indicators at 0.682 and economic-financial indicators at 0.424, respectively.


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