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Ahmad Farahani, Falsoliman Mahmod, Mohamad Hajipour, Nahid Haghdost, Morteza Felezi,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (3-2013)

Nowadays information technology indices are being concerned as measures of development. This in turn will lead to many advantages’ in different areas
for the evolved party. However, rural development is responsible for social and cultural changes. These could be exemplified itself in increase in job opportunities and rural income, improvement in nutrition’s standards as well as educational and sanitation-medical status. The provision of these them could prevent irrational rural urban migration. The major objective of this study is to investigate the impact of information technology on job opportunities, self employed phenomena, job skill, relevant general knowledge’s, specialized knowledge’s, and last but not least rural urban migration. This study is composed of all rural settlers between 15-30 age brackets living in southern Khorasan villages which are exposed with ICT services the sampling technique was based on regular clustering. As such 386 were selected. The research method is composed of descriptive and in feral statistics. It is further supported by filling questionnaire. This study suggests that the targets of information technology are predominately young. In addition, there exists significant variation and differences between the level of information technologies acceptance and improvement in general and specialized rural knowledge’s as well as self employed and increase in job skills.

Khadijeh Javanii, Esmail Karami Dehkardi, Hosin Farahani,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (3-2013)

Agricultural sustainability is being undoubtly considered as one of the most prominrnt sector of sustainable development. Bala Velayats settlers Torbate Heydareeyeh basically rely on orchard economy and more specifically on Safran for their livelihoods. This crop originally was cultivated in Khorasan this in turn requier special attention regardinng the sustainability issue. This paper aims to emphasis on social – economic sustainability regardingSafarans production. The research method of this study is based on both field works and documentary method. It is further supported by regression correlation analysis as a part of data gathering procedures, questionnaire were distributed among rural key and influential persons (Dehyaran) as well as 227 of peasants extracted out of 20 villages. This study suggests that the economic status of the peasants, their low income, price fluctuation of Safran, non-assured prices of Safran, lack of appropriate marketing, the high procurement costs, and incapability of government institutions regarding the creation of co-operative institutions responsible for transaction of Safran, all are being considered s major cause of Saran’s economic no sustainability. However, spontaneous community participation and their extravagant desire regarding cultivation of this crop are among sustainability’s elements. This in turn could justify the social sustainably of the villages. This study suggests that there exists a positive and significant correlation between levels of sustainably of this crop and literacy level of the population as an independent variable. This study further suggests that there exist a significant and negative correlation between sustainability of this crop and distance from the town as an independent variable.

Jamshid Eynali, Hosin Farahani, Samira Sohrabi Vafa,
Volume 2, Issue 3 (6-2013)

Lack of an appropriate utilization regarding factor of production namely land and water resources is among the most important agricultural
challenges .It is argued that land fragmentation consider as a major obstacle in this regard . In fact, land consolidation is said to be a reasonable and applicable solution. The major objective of this paper is to investigate the impact of land consolidation upon the improvement of efficiency regarding the application of factor of production in Khararood, Khodabandeh. The research method is based on descriptive-analytical method as well as documentation and interview with both observation and questionnaires nature. As such, out of 50 plans conducted during past two decades by co operation of 285 agricultural utilizers, 104 were extracted. Data analysis is based on k square, Pearson correlation, non parametric Vilkakson’s statistics, Friedman test and analysis of variance. This study suggests that the number of the consolidated unites are being changed due to implementation of the plan comparing to the prior period .This in turn left drastic changes upon the improvement of efficiency associated with the application of factor of production. However, from the typical agricultural utilizers’ view points, variables, income and costs pertaining to agricultural activities ,with the value of 0.498 and 0.024 have the most and the least impacts upon efficiency respectively.

Hossein Farahani, Zahra Asdaghi-Saraskanrood, Mehrshad Tulabi-Nejad,
Volume 2, Issue 5 (12-2013)

Nowadays, empowerment is being considered as one of the most applicable ways regarding development achievement. This is more applied to vulnerable rural peasants. It is argued that development without empowerment considerations in general namely as far as the rural settlers are concerned is an incomplete concept. Targeted subsidy could be very influential regarding empowerment of the rural settlers which is the main contribution of this paper. The research method has applied as well as analytical and descriptive nature. Data gathering was done through both survey and documentation procedure. It is followed by distributing questionnaire and conduction of personal interviews of household heads. As such, 10 villages (35%) out of 28 villages located in Jaider district of Poldokhtar were selected. Furthermore, 80 households were interviews via random stratified sampling technique. This is followed by application of SPSS and Wilcoxon non-parametric statistical test. This study suggests that there exists positive relationship between the received targeted subsidy and economic empowerment level of the rural settlers. That is one could observe relativity high purchasing power, increase in saving, reduction of poverty and increase in household welfare. However, the reductions in arable land, as well as decrease in agricultural investment level, high inflation and mortgages are among the main important negative impacts.

Hossein Farahani, Zakia Rasouli Nia, Zahra Asdqy Sraskanrvd,
Volume 3, Issue 9 (11-2014)

Nowadays, low job offers, unemployment and rural poverty are being considered as a major driving force for rural- urban migration. This in turn may cause some problems both for rural and urban communities as well as some challenges with respect toachievement of sustainable rural communities.  Taking into account these challenges, entrepreneurs through their creative economic efforts could be helpful regarding economic improvement of rural areas. Even though the major motive behind this sort of activities is private benefit but they could provide proper atmosphere for entrepreneurial ship at local, regional and national level. Rural communities taking into account their physical, social and economic situations simultaneously could offer both opportunity and weakness regarding entrepreneurial ship. It is argued that the development of entrepreneurial activities in rural areas must be based on rural capabilities in order to be successful and head toward sustainability. Jaber Ansar district located in central part of Abdanan, taking into account its prominent characteristics including proximity to urban areas, possession of active handicraft, the existence of fertile agricultural lands and natural resource abundance, possess high entrepreneurial potentials at local and regionalnevel. The major objective of this study is to investigate sustainable rural development potential from entrepreneurial ship and employment aspect in the study area.
The type of study of this study is explorative. It is based on descriptive- analytical research method. It is further supported by documentation and field works including questionnaire, interviews and observation. The study area is Jaber Ansar district located in Abdanan. Statistical society is composed of head of households were selected through application of Cochran formula and random sampling technique. The questionnaires were composed of four components and 32 indicators related to entrepreneurial development and rural employment. The data analysis further demands application of descriptive statistics and principal component analysis and SPSS.
According to principle component analysis results in the study area, eight factors including infra-structure, economic, awareness, self-confidence, personal creativity,innovative capabilities, physical infra structures and access to different facilities have prominent impacts upon sustainable development from entrepreneur aspects. These factors are capable of explaining 75.25% of the variation. Infra structural and social factor with eigenvalue of 5.63% is the major factor and is capable of explaining 17.60% of the variation. This is followed by economic factor as the second major one with the eigenvalue of 4.48%. It is capable of explaining 14.01 % of the variation. The least important factor is access to economic. Facilities eigenvalue is % 44 and capable of explaining 4.51% of the variation. It may be concluded that the improvement of appropriate public infra–structures including provision of drinking water, electricity and fuel, proper communications as well as transportation facilities, post banks, well designed and equipped transportation systems for shipping commodities to markets, access to skilled and literate labor force are all being considered as influential factors for provision of needed potentials and pave the way for entrepreneurship. It is argued that economic development in rural areas requires new strategies. This in turn is associated with entrepreneurship and environmental policies. Thus economically speaking entrepreneur plans in the study areas would be fairly effective needed for creation of occupation, special credit facilities sufficient funds for small businesses, awarding low interest rate and non-paying back loans especially in deprived areas are among some of the recommended measures.

Reza Vashghani-Farahani, Alireza Abbasi Semnani, Farideh Asadian,
Volume 11, Issue 41 (Fall 2022 2022)

Increasing dependence on official knowledge of imported technologies and lack of attention to local knowledge and skills have caused a lack of success in improving the situation of rural society and the failure of development programs in villages. Looking at rural development and adopted strategies shows that a systematic and integrated approach must be included in most views and methods. Therefore, in this regard, we are taking a step in the direction of economic development by taking into account the spatial and temporal conditions of the village, using local knowledge to increase agricultural productivity, provide basic needs, protect natural areas, increase the population in the village to achieve the process of economic stability. In this regard, achieving economic sustainability requires a change of perspective and attitude toward indigenous knowledge and giving importance to it because the knowledge that villagers have acquired through practical experience of agriculture, animal husbandry, etc., is qualitatively different from the knowledge obtained from the official tests of researchers and experts. Being local is considered a basis for a scientific, efficient and successful foundation in achieving economic stability. Farmahin Farahan region has emerged from the union of two villages, Farmahin and Shahabadi, where most of the population is farmers and herders. Therefore, this region has a good background in using local knowledge in agriculture, animal husbandry, handicrafts, etc. However, the mentioned process has decreased in recent years with the replacement of new knowledge and related technologies. In this regard, the current research seeks to find out whether indigenous knowledge is effective in the economic sustainability of Farmahin Farahan. This paper, with the approach of economic sustainability, based on the development of local knowledge, has tried to study the visible and hidden layers of local knowledge in the Farmahin rural area and acknowledge that if we distance ourselves from the traditional rural knowledge and approach and use new ways of decision-making and planning methods, Farmahin Farahan region will move towards economic instability.

The current research, in terms of its purpose, is applied and has an analytical nature, and in terms of its method, it is in the quantitative research group. SPSS software and integrated models (FKOPRAS+FSORA) were used for data analysis. The statistical population of the research includes two groups (rural residents and knowledgeable and informed people), which was determined based on a random sampling of 200 people (village residents of Farmahin), and also based on a targeted sampling of 20 people. First, the knowledgeable and informed (village council members and rural mayors) were determined.

Discussion and conclusion
The results showed that among the components of indigenous knowledge, only the components of capabilities and people's knowledge, with an average value of 3.38 and 3.01, with an average value higher than the average number (3), are favorable for evaluation. In other components, including participation with an average value of 1.58, life promotion with an average value of 2.45, monitoring with an average value of 2.62, social with an average value of 2.02, economic with an average value of 2.16, low It is more than the average number (3). As a result, these components are not in a favorable condition. Also, the results showed that the level of economic stability in Farmahin with the average value obtained (lower than the average number of 3), with a significance level of 0.000, has been evaluated as low and unfavorable, in this regard, despite the average lower than average levels in the components of local knowledge and sustainability, this local knowledge has had a significant impact on the economic stability of the rural area of ​​Farmahin, which, if strengthened and motivated to utilize and combine it with modern knowledge, can to have a greater impact on the economic development of the region, So that according to the obtained results, the contribution of the participation component in predicting positive changes of the economic stability variable was higher than other local knowledge components, and also the people's knowledge component has the most direct effects on the economic stability of this region. Also, the results showed that, among the economic indicators, employment and income, with a score of 70.14, have the highest impact on indigenous knowledge in Farmahin. Finally, the results of the research are in agreement with the studies of Alayei and Karimian (2013), that in rural development with emphasis on local knowledge, the role and place of participation of villagers have not been considered, and with the study of Bazarafshan et al. (2015). It is consistent with the fact that there is a meaningful relationship between indigenous knowledge and sustainable economic development. However, it does not agree with the study of Sadeghlou and Azizi Demirchilo (2014), stating that indigenous knowledge has little effect on the components of economic development.


Morteza Khazaipol, Banafshe Farahani, Masoume Izadinia,
Volume 12, Issue 43 (Spring 2023 2023)

According to the World Tourism Organization, all activities a person does while traveling and in a place outside his product environment, provided that his trip does not last more than one year and its purpose is recreation, business, or other activities, are considered tourism. The third generation of tourism, creative tourism, emerged after the first two stages of coastal and historical-cultural tourism. Creative tourism offers a more sustainable option that allows tourists to discover their potential by taking part in courses and experiences unique to the region they visit.
For a more immersive experience in rural tourism, it is recommended that tourists stay in local rural houses rather than hotels. This allows them to become fully immersed in the area's culture and way of life and to interact with the people who have built it over time. By doing so, they can gain a deeper understanding and appreciation of the values and traditions that make this place unique. This study investigates how creative tourism can boost tourism and development in an overlooked region. Despite having many attractions, this area has not been thoroughly explored. This research aims to promote this unexplored region as a desirable tourist spot for both domestic and foreign visitors. It emphasizes the need to implement creative tourism initiatives to highlight the potential of this region.

In terms of the purpose of this research, it is practical. In terms of data collection, this research is descriptive-survey type. The theoretical basis of the research was collected from books, dissertations, publications, and academic articles in Persian and English. For this study, the target group is people over 20 years old and living in the researched area. The study was conducted during the summer of 2021 and only included those who lived in the village. A questionnaire was completed by individuals over 20 years old and present in the community during the data collection period. The sampling method used was the available method. In this way, in the morning and afternoon of non-holiday days, during three consecutive weeks of July 2021, by visiting homes and explaining the research, questionnaires were presented to people over 20 years old and collected after filling. Two hundred and five questionnaires were distributed and collected. In compiling the questionnaire, we tried to include all the variables needed for the research. The number of inquiries was kept to a minimum, and the responses were uncomplicated to ensure that the villagers could provide prompt answers.

Results and conclusion
In order to conclude from the topics investigated in this research, what can be mentioned in this part is the impact and importance of creative tourism on the development and attraction of tourists in rural areas. The residents accepted all five components of creative tourism with an impact percentage of over 90%, which indicates the significant influence of creative tourism on the development and attraction of tourists. All the respondents agreed with the category of creative tourism in the village and considered the historical, cultural, and artistic background as the reasons for this agreement. They are interested in the development of tourism in this sector and stated that the framework of tourism in this sector is fundamental and insignificant. Expanding tourism and attracting more visitors can benefit the locals and help promote their culture. However, to support the growth of tourism, it is important to have the necessary infrastructure, such as communication networks, water, and electricity. Planning for tourism has facilitated the development of rural settlements, providing access to these essential amenities. This has also led to part-time and seasonal employment opportunities for the villagers, which can lead to a boom in production and economic activities in the village and, ultimately, the development of tourism in the village. Essentially, this approach can promote rural communities' financial and population consistency through thoughtful planning that considers local conditions. It is recommended that government officials prioritize this industry by establishing the appropriate infrastructure to encourage investment and appointing skilled and effective leaders who can foster creativity and attract tourism development. In rural areas, people strongly emphasize balancing work and family commitments. We can support both cultural and economic prosperity by promoting family and group businesses and encouraging entrepreneurship among women. This can also attract more tourists to the village. It is also possible to provide a suitable platform to attract tourists by holding cultural and artistic exhibitions in the village, taking care of the appearance and landscape, advertising, and creating local markets to offer products and handicrafts.


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