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Showing 8 results for rezvani

Mohamadreza Rezvani, Mehrnoush Moradi,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (3-2013)

Strategic tourism planning is being considered as a way of rural development. It further is a response to Globalization and rural reconstruction. Tourism development requiers systematic comperhensive approach. Rural settlements located in margin of desert area of Mighan, despite of their varied tourism potentials, are very deprived and distressed. The major objective of this study is to investigate the feasibility of tourism development and is relevant the system. Sample is composed of tourists, residents, and local managers. Random sampling technique was applied in order to come up with 274, 150, and 30 respectively. This is followed by application of desriptive and inferal statistics including T students. This study suggests that due to a lack of knowledge of tourists as well as tourism marketing, tourism demand regarding, tourism attractiont the study area is very negligble. It further suggests that tourism constituent’s elementsincluding tourism constituents elements including tourism attractions, transportation, infrastructure, and tourism sales and participation are at medium level. However, knowledge level regarding tourism was fairly poor. It is argued that internal tourism potentials as well as external tourism opportunities of the study area are oppropriate. Via appropriate and consolidated tourism planning including marketing, promotion and improvement of tourism infrastructures and superstructures, we could exploit all of the internal strengths as well as external opportunities regarding tourism development.

Mohamadreza Rezvani, Tahereh Sadeghloo, Hasanali Farajisabokbar, Abdorreza Eftekhri,
Volume 2, Issue 3 (6-2013)

Marketing of agricultural products is being considered as one of the most fundamental and important measures for development in rural environments. As such, the identification of responsible factors for marketing of perishable products namely dairy products could facilitate marketing process and as a result diminish the associated problems in local communities. The identification of responsible and influential measures as well as the adjustment of their spatial distribution ,taking into account the temporal constraints and the nature of the products at different stages with regard to both traditional and semi modern producers is a very determinant action . This in turn is associated with time-costs losses issue, cutting the hands of the mediators, decrease in shipping costs in relation to distance decay function, increase in profits and enhancement of economic growth in rural areas. Therefore, the exact determination of responsible factors for facilitating dairy marketing networks as well as their spatial distribution in rural area is a prime objective of rural economic planning at different decision level. This study aims to identify the major responsible factors regarding dairy marketing networks with particular emphasis on geographic factors in Khodabandeh, Zanjan. This study is based on analyticaldescriptive method. It further supports the application of filling questionnaires by experts and analysis of variance. This study suggests that taking into account level of the analysis, functional-behavioral factor would consider as the most prominent factor regarding the dairy marketing network and its corresponding spatial distribution.

Mohammad-Amin Khorasani, Mohammad-Reza Rezvani,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (9-2013)

Adjacent villages are among the settlements in which are simultaneously facing with some opportunities as well as threats. These in turn affect the quality of life and meeting the needs of the settlers. Accessibility to urban facilities and services from one hand and urban ecological threats and the consequences of rural migration on the other hand, lead to complex circumstances. Livable settlements briefly define as suitable and pleasant places to live and work. The study is comprised of Varamin adjacent villages next to four urban nucleuses. The research method is based on analytical method as well as field works and documentary data. The objective of this study is to identify the level of livability. As such one way analysis of variance was applied. This study suggests that there exists a significant difference in the villages in terms of their livability.

Ali Akbar Anabestani, Syed Hadi Tayebnia, Hamid Shayan, Mohammad Reza Rezvani,
Volume 3, Issue 10 (3-2015)

Lack of variations existed in economic settings and a job opportunity is being considered as the most significant characteristics of the rural country’s economic structures. It is argued that occurrence of variations in rural economic activities as an approach, could be considered as an appropriate measure in which most of the development theoricians believe in regarding the mitigation of the negative impacts associated with this mal structure as well as the achievement of sustainable rural development. The major objective of this study deals with identification of main barriers regarding the occurrence of variations in rural economic activities of the bordering villages located in Marivan.
The research method based on the objectives of the study has applied nature. It has descriptive and analytical essence. The statistical society is associated with Marivan which is located in 10 km of Iraq international border. 18 villages were selected as a sample. The sample size based on application of Cochran formula amounted to be 334 households. This study further supports the application of SPSS software for analysis purposes.
This study suggests that barriers toward regional variations could be classified into social, physical, and managerial – institutional ones. However, there is not a drastic difference between all the selected villages from barriers stand points. Generally speaking the barriers are numerous. Based on step wise regression method, managerial institutional, physical, economic and social variables are capable of explaining 88% of the variation. It further suggests that the managerial- institutional structures compare with others are more responsible for lack of variations in rural economic activities.

Mojtaba Ghadiri Masoum, Mohamadreza Rezvani, Mahmoud Jomepour, Hamidreza Baghiani,
Volume 4, Issue 12 (9-2015)

Poverty is one of the greatest challenges confronting humanity. It is said that poverty is almost related to natural resources, while it is also because of some other factors like natural and human capitals. Villagers are considered among the poorest and most vulnerable within human societies, especially in the countries of the third world. If the purpose of development is obviously that of poverty alleviation and eradication through employment generation for the rural and urban poor, supplying the minimum of basic requirements acceptable to everyone, increase of productivity, causing more balance between geographic areas and socio-economic classes, decentralization and people involvement in the process of decision-making, having emphasis on collective and national self-confidence, finding balance and the recovery of living conditions, then we can consider the rural communities as one of the most significant factors causing the above objectives come true. So, rural development plays a vital role in achieving the overall objectives of development at the national level. Approaches and paradigms are always provided by scientists and theorists to assist us achieving the above objectives. In 1980s, sustainable livelihoods (LS) and sustainable livelihoods approach (SLA) was proposed to be used a new approach in poverty eradication. The main emphasis of this approach was based on a comprehensive and integrated thought for poverty eradication and rural development. In a short time, this approach could attract the attention of many researches. Since, livelihood capitals is an important aspect of sustainable livelihoods approach and because of the important role of these assets in the livelihood of families, especially rural ones whose condition is influenced by tourism activities, in this research we decided to investigate the impact of tourism activities on livelihood capitals in mountain tourism villages of Bala-Taloqan in Taloqan County so we can find out the answer to the question that which villages are better in the case of this kind of capitals.
As a city of Alborz Province, Taloqan County is located at a distance of 90 km from the center of the province and within the northwest of it. In 2012, the city had 2 parts of central and Bala-Taloqan. It was also consisted of 8212 households and a population of 23765. Bala-Taloqan as the study case of this research consists of two rural districts: Kenar-rood and Joestan (central district) with 48 residential villages. In this paper, we have selected 10 mountain villages which have been affected by tourism. The purpose of this study is to investigate the issue of prioritization of capitals resulting from tourism activities in mountain tourism villages of the district of top Talogan, among inhabited households using analytical- descriptive method with an emphasis on library work, field studies and completing the questionnaires. Meanwhile, hierarchical Filler Triangle was used as a model to weighting each indicator along with Oreste method for ranking and prioritization of the mountain tourism villages in terms of investigating the condition of tourism assets and capitals.
Discussion and Conclusion
Considering livelihood capitals, Galird has the best and the village of Manglan has the worst condition. Galirad village, according to its proper position relative to the connecting roads and its distinctive tourist attractions, i.e. the old house of Ayatollah Taleqani, enjoys a certain reputation that has caused more tourists go there. Moreover, Guidance plan has been already implemented in the village that is important in the improvement of connecting roads quality and making easy-access roads. After Galird, Karkbud village is located in the second place. Its famous waterfall is the most important attraction of the village which has given it a national reputation. Although, it has located at an altitude of 2200 meters and it is difficult to access it, the attractive waterfall has compensated for this limitation and attracted tourists. Additionally, the village is very rich in terms of natural capital, but tourism has not developed enough and has failed to make the promotion of other capitals. The results of interviews conducted with residents indicate that they are dissatisfied with tourists there and think of them as a contributing factor to environmental degradation and the rise of social abnormalities. Joestan has also dedicated to the third place of this ranking. Vicinity to Shahrood River and the presence of tomb shrine of Haron the son of Muses, are the most important attractions of this village. Although it is the center of Top Talogan district, it has failed to accomplish its central role. So, many people have left the village over time as even the tomb shrine as a strong religious attraction with lodging facilities has not been able to properly accomplish its role of attracting tourists. For this reason, it is only social capitals, and partially, financial capitals, which have perfect situations here. Other villages have similar status and in spite of having human and natural attractions they have not been successful enough in collecting capitals. Of course, it must be mentioned that in this district tourism is mostly found in the form of Daily tourism and second home tourism by a more percentage of Daily tourists than the second-home ones. Because in the mountain villages studied, due to the lack of access to adequate lands with sufficient slopes in order to construct housing units, there have always been lots of limitations for constructing second houses for the non-native. Additionally, in some villages such as Karkbood, native people refuse to sell lands to the non-native and this could affect the status of financial capital of the village.

Mojtaba Ghadiri Masoum, Mehdi Cheraghi, Mohammad Reza Rezvani,
Volume 4, Issue 14 (2-2016)

The interaction and mutual cooperation of rural and urban areas in developing countries is different from the developed ones. The type of relations between villages and town can affect different aspects of rural lifestyle, one of them is its effect on food security. Researches show that the range of effectiveness of such relations include property, the use of new technology, supporting relatives and acquaintances, availability of local markets, pricing policy and market access, development of off-farm income, and consequently, availability of foodstuffs, and increase of food variety and consumption that can all affect food security. Due to the increasing flow of urbanization in Zanjan County, in this research we are studying the economic rural-urban relations on food security. There are two main questions mentioned here: How is the security status of food among rural households? How can we define the economic rural-urban relations on food security?

This is an applied study which has been done using descriptive- analytical method of research. Rural households from villages of Zanjan County contain the statistical society of the present study. In 1390, there was 97225 villagers, 26429 rural households, 13 rural districts, and 248 inhabited villages in Zanjan County. Among these, a number of 14 villages have been selected as samples using modified Cochran formula. Since it was required to select 54 out of 248 villages to study in case analysis, all the 248 villages were checked to recognize how far they are from the urban area. Then, they have classified into 5 groups. Finally, using simple random sampling, due to the frequency of each population class, 54 of them have selected randomly. Those 54 villages, contain of 11662 rural households and a population of 289547 people. Because of using the household unit as the analytical unit of the research, the required number of then for accomplishing the questionnaires has been calculated 290 households within Cochran formula. The required data has been collected by the use of library and field (for questionnaires) methods. Data have been analyzed using descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation) and inferential statistics (Mann-Whitney U and T groups). To calculate the amount of food security two methods of food insecurity scale and standard calories have been used.
Discussion and conclusion
Findings from the study implies low food security within the studied rural households. Classifying food security within the rural households based on food insecurity scale indicates that only 31.1 percent of them are taking advantage of food security, the rest 68.9 % are struggling against food insecurity. The followings are reported according to the descriptive findings obtained due to the different times of rural household's visits to the town: 11.54 % visit the town once a week, 17.77% twice a week, 16.44% three times a week, 26.66% four times a week, and 27.59% five times a week or more. In other indicators, no significant effect has reported within the economic relations of villages and towns. Maybe it is because of the weak rural-urban relations within the studied areas. Therefore, the followings are suggested according to the new findings of the study:
- By strengthening agricultural infrastructures in the villages of high environmental potentials it will be possible to accelerate the process of agricultural development of the studied area, create appropriate conditions for money-making, and improve food security.
- Considering the impact of direct selling of agricultural products on food security, the government can make a vital role by its broad support of guaranteed purchase of agricultural products to increase food security and incomes of rural households.
- In the studied villages, the improvement of rural routes and shops can increase the access of rural households to food.
- Development of tourist-oriented activities in high potential villages can provide a good condition of rural-urban relation formation.

Mohammad Taghi Tghrayy, Mehran Rezvani, Mohammad Hassan Mubaraki, Jahangir Yadollahi Farsi, Zainab Mirzaee,
Volume 5, Issue 17 (Fall 2016 2016)

Adel Sulaimany, Mohammad Reza Rezvani,
Volume 11, Issue 39 (Spring 2022 2022)

Resilience is the ability of a system to maintain its structures and functions in the event of environmental hazards and sustainably conserve the ecosystem resources and services that are essential to human livelihood. This definition of resilience implies that the system is relatively capable of learning and adapting. A system such as a social system, ecosystem, or complex human-environmental system can provide sufficient self-organization to maintain structures and processes within a coping process or adaptability. A review of structuralist and economic views in consistence with the rural geographical perspective as a major field of researching on natural hazards on reveal that vulnerability to climate change and economic inequality are positively correlated. In this context, frequent occurrence of environmental hazards in rural geographical spaces, has required special attention to the research, lessons learned and lived experiences about resilience to reduce and moderate economic and livelihood vulnerability in rural settlements. In this regard, investigation and analysis of global studies in the field of rural economy resilience are necessary, due to the large number and dispersion of the country's villages, the vulnerability of rural settlements in the face of various risks and hazards and the consequences. Therefore, the extensive analysis of valid scientific documents and a lot of world-produced knowledge in this field can help most of the studies and economic empowerment programs of local communities in Iran.

This research is applied study that has used scientometric approach to review scientific documents. The present study is a type of scientometrics. In this research, the method of social network analysis with an exploratory approach has been used to explain and analyze the co-authorship and co-authorship of related researches in the whole network. Therefore, the main purpose of this study is to systematic analysis of knowledge network and mapping the rural economy resilience by examining the network of both co-authorship and co- occurrence in this field to determine the sources and trends of knowledge and its shortcomings. The data were collected from the Scopus information database and was analyzed with algorithms based on social network analysis in VOSviewer software. To this end, we used census method, collected all scientific documents (including articles and books) related to the field of "rural economy resilience" in English inserted in the title, abstract and keywords from Scopus database in several stages from 1980 to the end of March 2022.
 VOSviewer software is a network analysis-based application that can be used to draw scientific networks and scientometric-based studies. The software has many applications in research based on research literature and research background

Discussion and conclusion
The findings showed that among more than 1105 scientific documents and 3493 authors, the United States, United Kingdom and Australia, China and Italy had the most publications and authors such as Salvia, Quaranta, Shaw and Castillo had the highest citations. Li Jing's cluster of ideas from China had the highest network density. Co-occurrence of words analysis revealed four research clusters in rural economy resilience studies are: governance, climate change, sustainable development, and poverty. The results showed that the discourse of rural resilience is in line with the global discourse of resilience, so any plan to promote the resilience of the rural economy must be coherent and comprehensive and take into account all studies, authors and leading research. The findings of this study can have valuable guidance for rural geography researchers and open new horizons for them. The study and analysis of the network and ecosystem of rural economy resilience research as a cognitive transformation in geography and rural development indicates the paradigmatic trends and shifts of knowledge in this field and shows the research advances in the field of rural economy resilience.

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