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Mohamadreza Rezvani, Tahereh Sadeghloo, Hasanali Farajisabokbar, Abdorreza Eftekhri,
Volume 2, Issue 3 (6-2013)

Marketing of agricultural products is being considered as one of the most fundamental and important measures for development in rural environments. As such, the identification of responsible factors for marketing of perishable products namely dairy products could facilitate marketing process and as a result diminish the associated problems in local communities. The identification of responsible and influential measures as well as the adjustment of their spatial distribution ,taking into account the temporal constraints and the nature of the products at different stages with regard to both traditional and semi modern producers is a very determinant action . This in turn is associated with time-costs losses issue, cutting the hands of the mediators, decrease in shipping costs in relation to distance decay function, increase in profits and enhancement of economic growth in rural areas. Therefore, the exact determination of responsible factors for facilitating dairy marketing networks as well as their spatial distribution in rural area is a prime objective of rural economic planning at different decision level. This study aims to identify the major responsible factors regarding dairy marketing networks with particular emphasis on geographic factors in Khodabandeh, Zanjan. This study is based on analyticaldescriptive method. It further supports the application of filling questionnaires by experts and analysis of variance. This study suggests that taking into account level of the analysis, functional-behavioral factor would consider as the most prominent factor regarding the dairy marketing network and its corresponding spatial distribution.

Tahereh Sadeghloo, Hamdollah Sojasi Ghidari, Vahid Riahi,
Volume 5, Issue 15 (5-2016)

Rural industrialization has been greatly discussed by researchers in recent studies of rural planning and development. It is due to its positive effects of economic, social and infrastructural factors. Moreover, researches are looking for ways to analyzed approaches to reduce harmful environmental impacts of industrial projects, as destructive life factors of geographical territory, in rural areas. For example, according to Misra and Chyvta (1990); rural industrialization and the prevalence of non-agricultural activities can seriously affect the increase of social welfare and providing essential goods and services for rural households. Experiences by several countries prove the fact that every structural change that happens because of industrialization, not only has an important economic role in rural areas, but also led to self-repulsive economy, as well. In addition to studying positive economic, social and physical aspects, it is needed to do some preparatory studies on negative eco-environmental effects of rural industrialization for proper siting of such industries to reduce its harmful eco-environmental and human effects and improve spatial planning.
In this study, we have used a new approach to investigate rural industrialization and the
establishment of large mining – extractive industries in rural areas. Todays, thanks to villages forming a wide range of local-spatial area of the country, they have rich mineral resources in their geographical territory which their extraction may cause economic-infrastructure effects as well as other negative eco-environmental effects such as the changing use of agricultural land, soil and water pollution, vegetation loss, and landscape change over time. Two main questions of the research are 1) In terms of sustainability, how is the economic, social and environmental status of surrounding villages of Zanjan cement plant? 2) How is the current situation of ecoenvironmental effects of minning- extractive industry of Zanjan cement factory on surrounding rural areas, according to ICOLD,and Prometea techniques.
This study is an analytical explanation using library and field study. Field data have been collected by questionnaires after the identification of variables. Then, the required data have been collected in the intended study area. Samples have been managed in two different social levels: 36 people from local experts (Council and village head assistants) using census method for ICOLD matrices, and 295 individuals from the head of the households selected among local people of villages to assess eco-environmental effects of using Prometea multivariate technique in villages by the use of Cochran formula of Alpha= 0.05. The already designed questionnaires have been modified in ICOLD matrices covering several factors of physio-chemical, biological, socio-economic, and cultural infrastructure environments that include 41sub criteria, totally. Collected data have been finally analyzed by ICOLD environmental assessment method and Promote multivariate techniques.
Discussion and conclusion
One of the new challenges facing rural planning when it is getting applied, is the presence of two viewpoints: environmentalism, and rural industrialization. Villages are accumulation points of environmental resources that, according to the theory of Sustainable Development, it is essential to protect them. In addition, we aim at diversifying economic sector by supporting rural industrial projects. Integration of the two approaches needs the evaluation of environmental effects of industrial activities to help moderate the intensity of environmental effects of industrial projects in rural areas. In this research, we are intended to study industrial mining extractive project of Zanjan cement factory, located and operated in a rural district, to analyze its eco-environmental effects on rural areas. Results from ICOLD demonstrates that its eco-environmental effects vary by distance, i.e., the nearer the villages are, the more they will be threatened by these effects, or vice versa.
Results from promote technic confirm the same. Since, villages in disturbed areas within the distance of less than 5 kilometers from the factory or less than 1 kilometer from the communication route to raw stone mining site, show the highest level of eco-environmental instability. These villages include; Majid Abad (rated at 81%), Zarand (rated as 73%) and Mazidabad (rated at 67%), respectively. These villages are close to the factory and to the passage of vehicles carrying raw stone. Much of the physical area of the factory is located in agricultural land of two villages of Majid Abad and Mazidabad. Moreover, wind direction of the area mostly causes much of the pollution from factory dust distributes in other agricultural areas of MajidAbad. Another village which its eco-environment has been recently affected is Zarand, located in a foothill area near to the raw stone mining site. Dust from loading raw stones, noise pollution caused by the breakage of the rock, animals and wildlife breaking out of the area, and destruction of crops and plants are among the major environmental damage in this area. Thus, we suggest to reduce environmental pollution from factories in rural areas by reviewing some ways of factory activities such as transportation of raw materials, methods used for the extraction of raw stones, development of appropriate transport infrastructures, installation of air pollution controlling systems, increase in the plantation of more green spaces within the margins of the factory, good management of wastewater and their disposal system.

Hossein Mikhak, Fereshteh Hafezi, Tahereh Sadeghloo,
Volume 9, Issue 34 (winter 2021 2021)

Animal husbandry and livestock raising as the most important agricultural sub-sector reduces poorest people's vulnerability all over the world by providing them a "food safety network". In this regard, ranchers are facing key challenges such as low yields of cattle, lack and fragmentation of pasture, water shortage and need to irrigate pastures and meadows, competition for land due to growing demanding for farming lands. The rural cattle farming units have the least competition for global food supply, and production in these types of units is being done on small and limited farms in terms of resources. The other characteristics of rural cattle farming units are dependence on pastures, grazing, mixed production and individual ownership. In modern and industrial farms, by continuous monitoring and control the production, welfare and health of animals and environmental conditions are improved and they are able to detect heat stress, infection, or air quality problems and take immediate action in response to them. Given the future global demand for food supply, undoubtedly, traditional systems will not be able to meet these needs; and one of the logical solutions to solve this problem is to accelerate the conversion of traditional husbandry systems to semi-industrial and industrial systems. Undoubtedly, this conversion can increase the amount of food in the country and the province in the future. Therefore, for development of rural cattle farming units, it is necessary to identify the development factors of these units so that by awareness of these factors, decision makers in the husbandry and agriculture sectors would provide appropriate and efficient strategies to achieve the important and fundamental goal of increasing livestock production through principled planning.
Research Method
This research is practical, done in descriptive-analytical methodology and field survey method is used for data collection. The statistical population of this study consists all of beneficiaries of rural cattle farming units in Khorramabad in 2018 (N = 4762). From 4762 ranchers, 185 were selected using the Cochran formula as sample size in this studied community. Then, ranchers were selected by multi-stage sampling method and the required data were collected by a researcher-made questionnaire. The visual and conceptual narrative validity of the research instrument was confirmed by surveying faculty members of the Department of Rural Economics and Development of Lorestan University. To assess the reliability, pre-test and calculation of Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficient were used. In descriptive statistics section, statistics such as frequency, mean, standard deviation and minimum and maximum were used to describe the characteristics of ranchers. In the statistical inference section, the correlation coefficient, independent t-test and Mann-Whitney test were used to compare the average views of traditional ranchers and managers of semi-industrial farms in the development of rural cattle farming units. Also, the classification of factors affecting the development of rural cattle farming units was done through exploratory factor analysis. The above cases were done using SPSS software.
Discussion and conclusion
According to the obtained results, the tendency of rural cattle farming units to development, among more than half of the ranchers, is in low and relatively low level (72.2%). There is also a positive and significant relationship at 1% level between variables of number of cows, income and land area in rural areas with tendency to development of rural cattle farms. According to the results of exploratory factor analysis, the factors that affect development of farm dairy units in Khorramabad were categorized into six factors: 1) price-credits, 2) services-supportive, 3) infrastructure, 4) veterinary and breeding services, 5) educational-promotional and 6) supportive. These factors were able to explain 76.93% of the total variance. According to the results of the research, these suggestions are provided: government support through the payment of low-interest facilities, needs assessment, holding special meetings for rural ranchers, improving ranchers' attitudes toward livestock insurance and increasing their satisfaction with insurance services.

Haniyeh Haghpanah, Tahereh Sadeghloo ,
Volume 10, Issue 38 (winter 2022 2022)

One of the ways to empowering rural women is to provide them with the opportunity to participate in economic activities, especially the sale of agricultural products and handicrafts, which requires the provision of favorable conditions, including the creation of suitable markets for these products. Women's empowerment is a way to increase women's individual and social capacity through their political, social, educational or economic power, and a way to promote the status of women is one of the most neglected conditions in society. One of the ways to improve the level of empowerment of rural women is to provide the conditions for their presence in economic activities and the sale of agricultural products and handicrafts. It is necessary to create suitable markets for these products. In recent years, structural changes in societies and changes in the lives of individuals and communities have led housewives to show great interest in working outside the home. Increasing income through job creation has positive effects on their material life, promoting self-esteem, improving basic and essential needs and creating independence among them.
So that having job opportunities increases their role in economic, family and social decisions. In this regard, local markets play an important role in local economic and social developments and fundamental changes in the physical situation, production, employment and economic activity of villages. Local markets are places where, in addition to selling goods, villages will be exchanged with cities. Many small-scale producers (especially rural women) bring very few products to these markets during the month, and by offering these products at a price, they generate income for the household, which is very important for the rural household economy. The present study seeks to examine the conditions of these local markets and their role in empowering rural seller women in these markets.

The present research is of applied type with descriptive and analytical methodology. Library and field methods based on the researcher-made questionnaire were used to collect information. The sample size of this study includes 80 rural women from 21 villages of Ghaen Township who were present in the local markets as a seller during the field studies.
After determining the samples, data were collected in the field through a researcher-made questionnaire. To evaluate the validity of the research variables, two methods were used using the study background as well as the specialized panel of university professors and experts. Cronbach's alpha test was also used to evaluate the reliability of the data, which the results indicate a high level of data reliability for the study. To analyze data from descriptive and inferential statistics (one-sample t-test, multivariate regression and one-way analysis of variance) in SPSS software and to rank villages in terms of market role variables in women's empowerment, from the multi-criteria decision model of Cocoso (Weighting used is entropy) and GIS software was used to display the obtained rank.
Ghaen Township is one of the areas where the villagers sell their products during the week in the form of weekly markets that are temporarily or permanently formed in Ghaen city and the villages of Afriz, Tighab, Chahak and Mousavieh. These markets, regardless of size (small and large), have a significant impact on the economic situation of the family, especially rural families. Some rural female vendors in these markets, which have more than 600 mobile units, have a good opportunity to supply their products, which are mainly agricultural products and vegetables and dried vegetables. In the present study, the role of the weekly markets of this city on the empowerment of women active in these markets has been investigated.

Discussions and Results
The present study examines and analyzes the role of local markets in empowering rural women in economic, social, personal and psychological dimensions (at the level of indicators such as income and savings, finance, employment, product supply, participation and cooperation, improving welfare and awareness, trust Self and voluntary decision making).
The highest average in assessing the market impact on women's empowerment belongs to the employment index with an average of 3.41 and the lowest average belongs to the optional decision index with an average of 2.90. The independent variable in this study is market conditions, which is measured by three indicators: infrastructure-space conditions, supply and demand, competition and social market conditions. Among the market conditions indices, the highest average belongs to the market social conditions index with an average of 3.44 and the lowest average belongs to the infrastructure-spatial index with an average of 2.96. The results show that in the studied villages, the situation of supply and demand and competition and the social conditions of the market and infrastructure-space are in a good situation, which has caused the market to play a positive role in changing and improving empowerment indicators.
The case study women, have received the most impact from market conditions from the individual dimension. Local markets also had the greatest impact on the empowerment of women living in the villages of Qomanjan, Tightar and Rome.

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