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Showing 4 results for shiri

Abdolhamid Papzan, Nematollah Shiri,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (12-2012)

Today, with an increasingly global population, agricultural production systems should meet the growing needs of food by using the new technologies. Increases in the level of production have inevitably resulted in some environmental issues. Addressing these problems require the application of organic farming as a sustainable way of agriculture system which possesses many promised advantages. However, the development of this agricultural system faces many obstacles regarding farmers. This study aimes to qualitatively analyze the barriers and problems with respect to development of organic farming. Interviews was conducted with emphasis on Focus Group Discussion (24 Organic Growers) in Darrehshahr county (Ilam Province). Data analysis were done via both application of qualitative research method, clustering and categorizing gathered data. This study suggests that obstacles such as infrastructure, economic, lack of knowledge and awareness, technical and managerial supports, motivational and attitudinal issues were the main barriers and problems regarding the development of organic farming. These results can help agricultural planners and policy makers to improve and accelerate the development of organic farming as well as producing healthy crops.

Aliakbar Anbestani, Mehdi Javanshirii,
Volume 3, Issue 7 (6-2014)

Locational analysis of landuse is being considered as relatively final step regarding landuse Planning. It is being argued that the locational analysis is being influenced by many varied factors. However, optimum location is associated with great accessibility. This study tries to identify major factors responsible for proposed rural settlements guiding plan in Iran. Different involved criteria and measures with regard to optimum locational analysis of rural landuses demand application of multi decision making approach. This study applied AHP. As such, different indices regarding the optimum location of rural landuses proposed by rural guiding plan were identified. This is followed by construction of comparative binomial matrix in order to weigh these variables. These in turn were distributed among ٣٠ experts extracted from university faculty members, high specialized official Islamic housing institution, and consulting engineers involved in preparation of guiding rural plan. Relationship between objectives, criteria, sub-criteria and indicators led to formation of hierarchical structure. It is followed by determination of magnitude, weight and scoring of criteria, sub-criteria and indicators which were done through expert choice. This study suggests that out of three important factors that are quantitative, qualitative and society’s needs, proposed by rural guiding plan, rural community’s need with weighing score of ٠.٤١٣ is the most influential one. This criterion in turn possesses couple sub-criteria. This study suggests that comfort and justice with weighing score of ٠.١٦٦ and ٠.١٢٢ respectively represent the most prominent ones in this regard.

Aliakbar Anabestani, Mehdi Javanshiri,
Volume 4, Issue 14 (2-2016)

Regarding the fact that economic activities, in particular, and resources and facilities, in general, are poorly concentrated in terms of spatial distribution, every area requires a particular program corresponding to its specific conditions. In this way, before doing everything we need to identify the past and present situation of different regions based on appropriate scientific methods. The inequality between urban and rural areas is mostly originated from the insufficient knowledge of policies applied in these areas as well as policies taken to evaluate the impact of programs on different economic variables including employment. In this article we are trying to recognize deprived and non-deprived areas to help us study current status of employment in rural areas and making a relative balance between all parts of the country. In fact we are going to find the answers to the questions that: What are some comparative advantages of economic activity in rural areas? What is Gini coefficient of economic activities in rural areas than in the country? According to the comparative advantages of employment in the major occupational groups, how can we put different provinces in order?
The aim of this article is to examine comparative advantages of rural areas in different provinces for every major economic area and evaluating the amount of regional balance in every economic section. This is an applied study accomplished by the use of descriptive- analytical method. Required data has been taken from the census of 1385 and 1390 in Statistical Center of Iran. Along with data processing and classification, employment status of major occupational groups in rural areas has been accounted using Lorenz curve and the Gini coefficient through Excel software. Moreover, geographical maps of comparative advantage of a variety of major occupational groups were drawn in ARC GIS software. Finally, rural population of different provinces was ranked based on different groups of economic activities, through the models of Standard factor, Topsis, factor analysis and clustering. The followings major occupational groups have been selected as Indicators for determining comparative advantage and regional balance to calculate the amount of employment in the provinces and rural areas.
Discussion and conclusion
We have selected 85 and 90 series as samples for the spatial analysis of the employment status in rural areas. Then, we have tried some working indicators on this group and analyzed its results. Results include some spatial patterns of working indicators in rural areas of Iran. In other words, it shows that almost in all major occupational parts of the country, there is no regional balance in the distribution of working population in rural areas: This type of inequality is more observable in the two sections of "Hospitality and catering" and "Real estate, renting and business activities "."Agriculture" is the only section containing comparative balance within different provinces.
Comparing Gini coefficient of rural population to the total number of employers of different provinces in major occupational groups, it is understood that this indicator exceeds its total number in rural areas and it's still increasing. Only in "agriculture" sector of rural areas Gini coefficient is less than its total which implies giving less attention to rural areas of the country and poor investment in rural areas comparing to the rate of investment in the entire provinces over the recent years.
Studying comparative advantages of different provinces in major occupational groups in rural population reveals the fact that there is a relatively observable advantage in 8 parts of Tehran province. After Tehran, there are the two provinces of Mazandaran and Kermanshah in 5 and 4 parts, respectively, and then Yazd, Booshehr, and Kohgilouye and Boyer-Ahmed in 3 parts of highly comparative advantages.
Among the entire provinces, Tehran and Booshehr contains the least amount of comparative advantage of employment only in "agriculture" sector.
Some provinces including Kerman in all its occupational groups, Sistan- Baloochestan in 8 parts, Kordestan in 5 parts, and Lorestan in 4 major occupational parts are among the deprived provinces in terms of job creation in major occupational groups.
 Based on the results of the study, despite of lots of experimental and theoretical studies on geographical distribution of unemployment and regional employment which have been recently doing by researchers, there is still some regional inequalities. It can be deduced that Gini coefficient in rural areas has been rising from 1385 to 1390. In fact, regional differences of job creation are increasing in rural areas. Studying comparative advantages of major occupational groups in rural district of Tehran, Booshehr, Yazd, Esfahan, Khorasan-Razavi, Fars, Mazandaran, and Gilan shows observable comparative advantage of employment in these areas. Although, there is an inappropriate condition of employment in some provinces including Sistan-Baloochestan, Hormozgan, and Kohgilouye Boyer-Ahmed.

Hossein Karimzadeh , Aghil Khaleghi, Ahad Bashiri ,
Volume 11, Issue 41 (Fall 2022 2022)

Rural development goals cannot be limited to agricultural and economic growth, and economic and social development needs to be balanced for fair income distribution and rapid creation of benefits from high levels of living. As a result, local planners should know the strength and weaknesses of the local economy. In addition, local economic development planners should know the status of the development of activities in the region and whether their distribution has a competitive advantage.
In this study, we aim to determine the employment status of major sectors and activity groups in Iranian rural areas from 2011 to 2016 and examine the entry and exit of the workforce. So the research questions are:
Which sectors have had the most negative and positive impact on the change in share and place of employment among the different economic sectors?
What was the status of different economic sectors at the level of the country's provinces during 2011-2016?
Has the activity in the agricultural sector faced positive growth from 2011 to 2016?

This study used the change-share method to analyze the employment status of the main sectors and groups of economic activity in Iranian rural areas of the provinces from 2011 through 2016. Also, the spatial coefficient index was used for the labour force's entry and exit conditions. Is. The data used in this study is based on the statistics of the Iran Statistics Center. 

Discussion and conclusion
According to Keynes, the government should intervene in the economy to achieve full employment. There is a direct relationship between the level of employment and the amount of production, which is related to the effective demand. The distribution of employees shows a growth of 226,590 people between 2011 and 2016. In the share of employment, the agricultural sector has decreased by about 0.1%, the industry sector's share was 2.6% with negative growth, and the service sector share increased by about 2.7%, which shows that the service sector has a high growth compared to other sectors. Regarding the Keynesian economic balance in employment, policymakers should change monetary policies, such as reducing the bank interest rate, and the assets, such as real estate, by imposing taxes on depreciated properties. 
The research results show that the rural areas of 13 provinces in the Agriculture, Industry, and Services sectors had basic activities in 2015 in more than ten rural areas. Also, the relative growth of economic sectors in the whole reference economy or the effect of industrial composition (IS) shows that the share of employment in the agricultural sector decreased from 50.4% to 50.3%. In addition, the provinces of Khorasan Razavi, West Azerbaijan and Fars had the highest losses, and the province Alborz, Qom and Semnan had the least losses of employment in the agricultural sector. On the other hand, the least losses in the industry sector were in the provinces of East Azerbaijan, Khorasan Razavi and Fars, and the most employment losses were in Qom, Semnan and Ilam. The increase in service sector employment in Mazandaran, Fars and Tehran provinces was the highest, while Qom, South Khorasan and Semnan Provinces had the lowest increase.
South Khorasan province had the best performance in terms of service sector increase. For the agriculture sector, Hormozgan, Kerman and Khuzestan provinces and Hormozgan and Alborz provinces had good performances in the industry sector. This implies that with the increase in the productivity gap between the production and service sectors, the working population moves from the industry and agriculture sectors to the service sector. The main reason for the expansion of services is the growth of information technology because of its role in solving the unemployment problem and developing the country's economy.
According to the results, the agricultural and industrial sectors in the country's rural areas have no relative advantage in employment. The agricultural sector, considered a non-core activity in the rural areas of Khuzestan province in 2011, became a core activity in 2016. In Fars, it changed from a core activity to a non-core activity. The industry sector in Ilam, Bushehr and Lorestan provinces has changed from non-core to core activity and in Khuzestan province, from core to non-core activity. The service sector changed from a non-core activity in Sistan and Baluchistan, and Qazvin provinces to a core activity. However, in Hamedan province, it changed from a core activity to a non-core activity.


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